Revit 2018 Structure Fundamentals - SDC Publications

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Revit 2018 Structure Fundamentals ®

SDC P U B L I C AT I O N S

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Chapter

Structural Framing The skeleton of a building is its structural framing. Together, elements such as columns, beams, bracing, and trusses give buildings the stability they need. While the basic process of adding these elements to the project is simple, you also need to complete more complex tasks, such as manipulating connections (by setting bearing offsets, cantilevers, cut backs, and justifications), applying beam coping, and editing beam joins. Learning Objectives in this Chapter • Sketch individual beams for girders connecting columns and structural walls. • Create Beam Systems of multiple similar sized beams spaced at equal intervals to speed up adding joists. • Add Bracing to support the integrity of other framing members. • Make changes to framing members so that the connections fit the exact situation. • Add trusses to support long spans of open space.

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

7.1 Modeling Structural Framing The Autodesk® Revit® software enables you to frame a building with wood, concrete, and steel framing and bracing, such as the steel example shown in Figure 7–1. You can add individual beams, as well as beam systems and bracing elements.

Figure 7–1



Framing types include: Concrete, Light Gauge Steel, Precast Concrete, Steel, and Wood.



In views set to a Coarse detail level, the software assigns a lineweight to the structural members based on their structural usage. For example, a Girder displays in a heavier lineweight than a Joist, while a Purlin displays with a dashed line. as shown in Figure 7–2. Girder Joist Purlin

Figure 7–2

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Structural Framing

How To: Add Beams 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click (Beam). 2. In the Type Selector, select a beam type. 3. In the Options Bar, specify the options, as shown in Figure 7–3 and described below.

Figure 7–3



Placement Plane: Defaults to the current level if you are in a plan view but can be modified to other levels. • Structural Usage: Select a type (as shown in Figure 7–3), or accept the default of . • 3D Snapping: Select this if you want to draw a beam from one point to another at different heights. • Chain: Select this if you want to draw a series of beams in a row. To stay in the command and start another chain, press once. 4. For automatic tagging, in the Modify | Place Beam tab>Tag panel, click (Tag on Placement). 5. In the Modify | Place Beam tab>Draw panel, use the Draw tools to draw the beams.

How To: Add Multiple Beams on Grid Lines 1. Start the Beam command and specify the type and other options, as outlined above. 2. In the Modify | Place Beam tab>Multiple panel, click Grids).

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(On

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

3. Select the grids where you want to locate the beams. A beam is placed between each grid intersection, as shown in Figure 7–4. Hold to select more than one grid, or use a pick and drag window to select multiple grids at one time. Columns must be in place to support the beams for this to work.

Figure 7–4

4. In the Modify | Place Beam>On Grid Line tab>Multiple panel, click •

Beam Systems

(Finish).

Sometimes this can be the quickest way to add beams. If you need to use various sizes of beams, when you are finished, select those beams and make any changes in the Type Selector.

Beam Systems are layouts of parallel beams placed between other beams, as shown in Figure 7–5. Typically used in joist layouts, beam systems can be set up to use either a fixed distance or number of beams. •

Beam systems can be created automatically with sufficient bounding elements (other beams). You can also sketch the boundary for a beam system.

Figure 7–5

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Structural Framing

How To: Add Automatic Beam Systems 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click (Beam System) or type BS. 2. The Modify | Place Structural Beam System tab>Beam System panel, click

(Automatic Beam System).

3. When (Tag on Placement) is selected, in the Options Bar, set the Tag Style as shown in Figure 7–6. • Framing: Tags each individual member. • System: Places one tag for the entire framing system.

Figure 7–6

4. In the Options Bar (shown in Figure 7–7), set the Beam Type, Justification, and Layout Rule.

Figure 7–7





The Layout Rules include: Clear Spacing, Fixed Distance, Fixed Number, and Maximum Spacing. Set the required distance or number. Make changes in Properties or in the Options Bar as required to establish the required beam system.

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5. Move the cursor over an existing beam until the guide lines display in the correct area and direction, as shown vertically and horizontally in Figure 7–8. This can also identify angled lines.

Figure 7–8

6. Select the existing beam to place the system. 7. Repeat this step in other bays as required. •

The Beam System is one uniform group. You can change beam’s type, spacing, and elevation in Properties or in the Options Bar.



If a grid line is moved, the beams automatically space themselves. If the bay increases beyond the minimum spacing, a beam is added. If the bay shrinks below the allowable spacing, a beam is removed.



If you need to change the system to individual beams, in the Modify | Structural Beam Systems tab>Beam System panel, click (Remove Beam System). The individual beams remain but are no longer grouped together.

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Structural Framing

How To: Sketch a Beam System 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click (Beam System). 2. In the Modify | Place Structural Beam System tab>Beam System panel, click (Sketch Beam System). 3. In the Modify | Create Beam System Boundary tab>Draw panel, click (Pick Supports) or use one of the other drawing tools. 4. In the Draw panel, click (Beam Direction) and select one of the sketch lines that runs as you want the system to run, as shown on the top horizontal beam in Figure 7–9.

Figure 7–9

5. Clean up all of the corners so that there are no overlaps or gaps. 6. In the Modify | Create Beam System Boundary tab>Mode panel, click (Finish Edit Mode). 7. Make changes in Properties or in the Options Bar as required to establish the required beam system. •

To include an opening in a beam system, draw another opening inside the original sketched boundary.

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Adding Bracing

Braces automatically attach to other structural elements, such as beams, columns, and walls. They recognize typical snap points such as the end point of a column and the middle of a beam, as shown in Figure 7–10.

Figure 7–10



Bracing can be added in plan view or, more typically, in a framing elevation view.

How To: Add Bracing 1. Create and open a framing elevation. 2. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click (Brace). 3. In the Type Selector, select a brace type. 4. Pick two points for the end points of the brace. •

Work from the centerline of all of framing members so that the analytical line extends into the adjacent framing, even though the graphical member stops at the edge of the column or beam, as shown in Figure 7–11.

Figure 7–11

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Structural Framing

Cross Bracing Settings

In plan view, cross bracing needs to be displayed graphically, usually by hidden lines. The software has a separate setting that controls cross bracing as viewed in plan. These settings enable you to display bracing above, below, or both. The bracing can be displayed as parallel lines or as a line at an angle, as shown in Figure 7–12.

Parallel

Line with angle

Figure 7–12



In the Manage tab>Settings panel, expand

(Structural

Settings) and click (Structural Settings). In the Structural Settings dialog box, in the Symbolic Representation Settings tab, select the Brace Symbol options, as shown in Figure 7–13.

Figure 7–13

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Hint: Copying Elements to Multiple Levels Instead of drawing the same elements on each level, you can copy them to the clipboard and then paste them aligned to the other levels. 1. Select the required elements. 2. In the Modify tab>Clipboard panel, click (Copy to Clipboard). 3. In the Modify tab>Clipboard panel, expand

(Paste) and

click (Aligned to Selected Levels). 4. In the Select Levels dialog box, as shown in Figure 7–14, select the levels to which you want to copy the beams.

Figure 7–14

5. Click OK. •

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This command is for copying model elements only. If you want to include tags or other annotation, use Paste>Aligned to Selected Views.

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Structural Framing

Practice 7a

Model Structural Framing Practice Objectives • Place beams and beam systems. • Copy framing to additional levels. • Create a framing elevation. • Add bracing

Estimated time for completion: 20 minutes

In this practice you will add framing for one floor of a building (as shown in Figure 7–15), and then copy and paste the framing to the levels above. You will then add bracing to one part of the structure.

Figure 7–15



This graphic is modified for clarity.

Task 1 - Place perimeter beams. 1. Open the project Syracuse-Suites-Beams.rvt. 2. Open the Structural Plans: TOS-1ST FLOOR view. 3. In Properties, in the Underlay area, set the Range: Base Level to T.O. FOOTING so that you can see the outline of the building. 4. In the View Control Bar set the Detail Level to

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(Medium).

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5. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click

(Beam).

6. In the Type Selector, select W-Wide-Flange: W14x30. 7. Add framing between each column (and in some cases between beams), as shown in Figure 7–16. You can use a variety of techniques to place the beams.

Figure 7–16







If you use (At Grids), ensure that you select the correct grids. You might need to delete beams that are not used. If you are sketching the beams, in the Options Bar, select Chain to keep the sketching active between picks. Press once to end the chain but remain in the command. To place the curved beams. use either the



(Pick Lines) or

(Start-End-Radius Arc) tool

Use (Split Element) to break each curved beam into two beams at the midpoint.

8. Save the project.

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Structural Framing

Task 2 - Create Beam Systems. 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click System).

(Beam

2. In the Modify | Place Structural Beam System tab, verify that (Automatic Beam System) is selected. 3. In the Tag panel, click

(Tag on Placement) to toggle it off.

4. In the Options Bar, set the following: • •

Beam Type: W12x26 Layout Rule: Maximum Spacing of 6’-0”

5. Click inside each bay, ensuring that the beams are running in a West-East direction. Exclude the bays shown in Figure 7–17. This graphic has been modified for clarity.

Figure 7–17

6. Use (Sketch Beam System) for any bays that cannot be applied automatically. •

In Properties, in the Identity Data area, set Tag new members in view to None.

7. Once all of the framing is in place end the command. 8. Save the project.

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Task 3 - Copy the framing to the other levels. 1. Use a crossing window to select everything on the first floor. 2. In the Status Bar, click

(Filter).

3. In the Filter dialog box, clear the Structural Columns category as shown in Figure 7–18. If elements other than framing are displayed, clear those categories as well.

Figure 7–18

4. Click OK. 5. In the Modify | Multi-Select tab>Clipboard panel, click (Copy to Clipboard). 6. In the Clipboard panel, expand

(Paste) and click

(Aligned to Selected Levels). 7. In the Select Levels dialog box, select TOS-2ND FLOOR to TOS-13TH FLOOR, as shown in Figure 7–19. (Hint: Hold or to select multiple levels.)

Figure 7–19 7–14

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Structural Framing

8. Click OK. This will take some time to process. 9. Open the Structural Plans: TOS-13TH FLOOR view. 10. Only the Girder beams of each bay are required on the roof level. With a crossing window, select everything and filter out everything but Structural Framing (Girder). 11. Press + C (the Copy to Clipboard shortcut). 12. In the Clipboard panel, expand

(Paste) and click

(Aligned to Selected Levels). 13. In the Select Levels dialog box, select TOS-14 ROOF and click OK. 14. Open a 3D view to see the full model, as shown in Figure 7–20. This graphic is shown at the Coarse detail level for clarity.

Figure 7–20

15. Save the project.

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Task 4 - Create a framing elevation. 1. Open the TOS-1st FLOOR structural plan view. 2. In the View tab>Create panel, expand click

(Elevation) and

(Framing Elevation).

3. Select the beam along Grid 1 between Grid B and Grid C, as shown in Figure 7–21.

Figure 7–21

4. In the Project Browser, expand Elevations (Framing Elevation) and rename Elevation 1 – a as West Bracing. 5. Open the elevation. 6. Move the crop region to display the columns. 7. In the View Control Bar, set the Detail Level to

(Fine).

8. Zoom in to display the 00 GROUND FLOOR and TOS-1ST FLOOR level heads. 9. Save the project.

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Structural Framing

Task 5 - Add bracing. 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click

(Brace).

2. In the Type Selector, select HSS Hollow Structural Section: HSS6X6X.500. 3. Draw from the centerline of the base of the column on the left to the midpoint of the beam located on the 1st Floor, as shown in Figure 7–22. Repeat this step on the other side.

2nd point

4th point

1st point

3rd point

Figure 7–22

4. Click

(Modify) and select the two new braces.

5. Copy and paste aligned the braces from the Ground to the 12th TOS Floor levels. 6. Zoom up to the top level. 7. Select the top two braces, if required. 8. Drag the circular control up to the beam above it, as shown in Figure 7–23.

Before

After

Figure 7–23

9. Zoom out to see the entire framing elevation. 10. Save the project.

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7.2 Modifying Structural Framing The default connections of columns, beams, and braces might need to be modified to suit specific situations, such as when the beams are offset from their associated level, or cantilevered beyond a framing member. Modifications can be made by using graphical controls and shape handles, the Properties, or special tools found on the Modify | Structural Framing tab, as shown in Figure 7–24.

Control Shape handles

Figure 7–24



The Detail Level of a view impacts the way in which framing members display, as shown in Figure 7–25. Some editing tools only work in a Medium or Fine detail view.

Coarse detail level

Medium detail level

Figure 7–25 7–18

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Structural Framing



The Location Line can be used as a visual reference, as shown in Figure 7–26. In the Visibility/Graphics dialog box, in the Model Categories tab, expand Structural Framing and select Location Line.



Additionally, you can view structural connections using Analytical Lines, as shown in Figure 7–27. In the View Control Bar, click this on and off.

(Show/Hide Analytical Model) to toggle

Location Line

Figure 7–26

Figure 7–27



When you draw framing members, the start/end orientation is based on the first and second points picked. In some modification instances it is important to know the start point verses the end point. In the analytical model, the start point is green and the end point is red, as shown in Figure 7–28.

Start Point (green) End Point (red)

Figure 7–28



To flip the start and end points, in a 3D view, right-click on the member and select Flip Structural Framing ends.

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Sloping and Offsetting Beams

Beams can be modified to slope or offset from the level where they are placed. This can be done by using the Start/End Level Offset control, as shown on the left in Figure 7–29, or in Properties, as shown on the right in Figure 7–29.

Figure 7–29



Setting the offset at only one end slopes the beam as shown in Figure 7–30.

Figure 7–30



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The Cross-Section Rotation option rotates the beam along its axis at the angle specified in Properties.

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Structural Framing

Hint: Using 3D Snapping When you draw beams, you can toggle on 3D Snapping and then snap to other beams or structural walls of different heights. You can also do this with beam systems when you use the Automatic Beam System method. On the left in Figure 7–31, the 3D and Walls Define Slope options are selected, while on the right, they are not.

Figure 7–31



Setting the Start/End Level Offset the same at each end raises or lowers the entire beam. For example, when Wide Flange Beams are supporting Open Web Steel Joists (as shown in Figure 7–32), you need to offset that increment based on the specific joist’s seat. Entire Beam lowered Joist seat

Figure 7–32

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Adding Beam Cantilevers and Cutbacks

It is common to need a joist extension that cantilevers a bearing member. In the example shown in Figure 7–33, the joist seat needs to extend past the beam it bears on to frame into a cantilevered ridge beam. By modifying the individual joists, you can extend either end to meet the requirements.

Use this method to extend joists for a fascia system, or in any situation in which a roof or slab extends past the main structure.

Figure 7–33

To cantilever or cutback a beam that is joined to other structural elements, use the shape handles to drag it to a new location, or set the Start/End Join Cutback in Properties, as shown in Figure 7–34,

Figure 7–34



The Cutbacks only displays if the Detail Level is set to (Medium) or

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(Fine).

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Structural Framing

To cantilever a beam when the beam is not joined to other elements, you can use the Drag Structural Framing Component End shape handle (as shown in Figure 7–35), or in Properties set the Start or End Extension.

Figure 7–35



When working with Beam Systems you first need to unpin the individual beam you want to work with. Select it and click the (Prevent or allow change of element position) icon. Hint: Structural Connections Structural connections can be added to framing joins to share in-depth information about the join with the contractor and fabricator. One generic connection (as shown in Figure 7–36) comes with Autodesk Revit. Others may be available with 3rd party add-ins.

Figure 7–36



In the Structure tab>Connection panel click (Connection). Then, hold and select the structural elements assigned to the connection. Press to apply the connection.

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Changing the Cutback

Another way to modify the join connection of structural framing is to change the cutback from the connected element. For example, the default cutback of the column shown in Figure 7–37 is the bounding box of the column, not the vertical support. You can change the reference to a more appropriate part of the framing.

You can select more than one element to adjust as long as they are connected to the same reference. Before

After

Figure 7–37



You can changing the reference in 2D and 3D views if the Display Level is set to Medium or Fine.

How To: Adjust the Cutback of Structural Framing 1. Select the structural framing member you want to modify. 2. In the Modify | Structural Framing tab>Join Tools panel, click (Change Reference). 3. Select the reference point for alignment, as shown on the left in Figure 7–38. This can be another beam, a structural column, or a structural wall.

Before

After

Figure 7–38

4. The end of the framing, the member moves to the new reference location, as shown on the right in Figure 7–38. 5. In Properties modify the Start Join Cutback or End Join Cutback distance as required. •

To return the beam end to its default setback position, click (Change Reference) again, and then select the bounding box (dashed lines) of the other element

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Structural Framing

Changing Justifications

Another modification you can make to beams is to change their justification. You can set the horizontal (y) and vertical (z) justification points to one of nine different points, such as Origin Left, shown in Figure 7–39. The Location Line remains in place, with the framing element moved to the new justification. You can also change the offset from the justification point in either the y (left to right), or z (top to bottom) directions. Both of these options can be modified either graphically or through Properties. Location Line

Potential justification points

Figure 7–39

How To: Set the Justification of Framing Elements Graphically 1. Select the beam you want to modify. 2. in the Modify | Structural Framing tab>Justification panel, click (Justification Points), or type JP. 3. Select the Justification points you want to use, as shown in Figure 7–40.

Figure 7–40 © 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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The location line does not change, but the framing element repositions to the selected justification point.



You can also modify the Justification points using the y Justification and z Justification parameters in Properties, as shown in Figure 7–41.

Figure 7–41

How To: Change the Justification Offset Graphically 1. Select the structural framing element. 2. In the Modify | Structural Framing tab>Justification panel: • Modify the horizontal offset and distance by clicking •

(y Offset), or type JY. Modify the vertical offset and distance by clicking

(z Offset), or type JZ. 3. Select the offset start point and then the offset end point. •

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You can also modify the offset values in Properties by using the y Offset Value and z Offset Value.

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Structural Framing



The yz Justification can be set to Uniform (where the same justification offset is applied to both ends) or Independent (where the justification offset can be different for each end). When this is selected you can set both the Start y (or z) Offset Value and the End y (or z) Offset Values in Properties, as shown in Figure 7–42.

Figure 7–42

Hint: Viewing Justifications At the Coarse Detail Level, when you select the beam, the justification line is displayed, as shown in Figure 7–43. Justification Line Beam (with a Left Justification)

Figure 7–43

When working in the Medium (or Fine) Detail Level, along with toggling on the Location Line in Visibility/Graphics it can help to display the analytical model, as shown in Figure 7–44. In the View Control Bar, click

(Show Analytical Model). Justification Line Beam (with a Left Justification)

Figure 7–44

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Attaching a Column to a Beam

The columns that support the cantilever can be attached to the bottom of the framing member, as shown in Figure 7–45. This removes the need to estimate the actual bearing depth of the framing member, and ensures that the column always remains connected to the beam.

Figure 7–45

How To: Attach a Column to the Bottom of a Beam 1. Select a column. 2. In the Modify Structural Columns tab>Modify Column panel, click (Attach Top/Base). 3. In the Options Bar, set the options as required. If you need to add a bearing plate, set the Offset from Attachment value. 4. Select the beam that the column will attach to. •

Applying Beam Coping

You can also use this command to attach the base of a beam to structural footings. When the footing moves in height, the length of the column resizes to match.

When one beam connects with another beam you might need to modify the connection. In the example shown in Figure 7–46, the lower joist-bearing beam runs into the perimeter beam. This is a coping situation.

Figure 7–46

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Structural Framing

How To: Cope Beams 1. Open a 3D view, section, or detail view. 2. Zoom in to a beam to beam (or beam to column) connection. 3. In the Modify tab>Geometry panel, expand

(Cope) and

select (Apply Coping). 4. Select the beam to be coped first followed by the column/beam from which to cut. The cope is then completed. • You can change the Coping Distance setting in Properties.

Editing Beam Joins

When you add beams to a project there is a default layout to the beam joins. However, you might need to override the joins. You can do this by using Change Beam Status, as shown in Figure 7–47.

Figure 7–47

How To: Edit Beam Joins 1. In the Modify tab>Geometry panel, click (Beam/Column Joins). The work area switches to Sketch mode. • Only the beams and/or columns that can be changed are highlighted. • You cannot use this tool on beams that are attached to vertical columns.

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2. In the Options Bar, specify the types of beams that you want to work with as shown in Figure 7–48.

Figure 7–48

3. Click the Change Beam Status control to toggle the join. 4. Click (Beam/Column Joins) again to toggle the command off. • If you are mitering a corner, you can lock the miter as shown in Figure 7–49.

Unlocked

Locked

Figure 7–49

Hint: Join Status You can modify the Join Status of structural framing to position framing that butts against a wall or other beams. Right-click on the join control (the circle), select Disallow Join (as shown on the left in Figure 7–50), and make the required modifications. Click Allow Join to rejoin the elements.

Figure 7–50



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Join Status is field that can be used in schedules. You can modify the status in the schedule.

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Structural Framing

Practice 7b

Modify Structural Framing Practice Objectives • Modify beam level offsets. • Sketch Beam Systems.

Estimated time for completion: 20 minutes

In this practice you will modify beam level offsets for correct joist bearing and add beam systems using the automatic method where you can and sketch beam systems in areas where they cannot be automatically placed, as shown in Figure 7–51.

Figure 7–51

Task 1 - Modify beam level offsets. 1. Open Syracuse-Suites-Framing.rvt. 2. Open the Structural Plans: TOS-14 ROOF view. 3. Hide the grids.

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4. For this level you need to lower the perimeter beams of each bay in the North-South direction for the joist bearing. Select all of the vertical beams in the plan, excluding the beams along the far right, as shown in Figure 7–52. If you selected bracing element, you need to filter them out.

Figure 7–52

5. In Properties, change the Start Level and End Level Offsets to (negative) -2 1/2”. 6. Click Apply. 7. Open a 3D view and zoom in on one of the top floor intersections. The North-South girders should be displayed below the East-West girders as shown in Figure 7–53.

Figure 7–53

8. Save the project.

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Structural Framing

Task 2 - Sketch beam systems. 1. Switch to Structural Plans: TOS-14 ROOF view. 2. In the Insert tab>Load from Library panel, click Family).

(Load

3. In the Load Family dialog box, browse to the Structural Framing>Steel folder, select K-Series Bar Joist-Rod Web.rfa, and click Open. 4. In the Specify Types dialog box, select 16K7 from the list and click OK. 5. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click (Beam System). In the Options Bar and Properties, set the following parameters: • Beam Type: 16K7 • Layout Rule: Maximum Spacing • Maximum Spacing: 6’-0” 6. Hover the cursor over the lower left girder as shown in Figure 7–54. The Beam System does not stop at the boundary of the other girders as expected because of the lower bearing offset. Do not select the beam.

Figure 7–54

7. In the Modify | Place Structural Beam System tab>Beam System panel, click

(Sketch Beam System).

8. In Properties, In the Identity Data section, change Tag new members in view to None.

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9. In the Modify | Place Beam System Boundary tab>Draw panel, click

(Pick Supports).

10. Draw a boundary with the beam direction running West to East as shown in Figure 7–55. Use overlapping lines.

(Trim) to clean up

Figure 7–55

11. In the Mode panel, click

(Finish Edit Mode).

12. Repeat this procedure for the rest of the bays, as shown in Figure 7–56.

Figure 7–56

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Structural Framing





Use (Automatic Beam System) where you can. If you have trouble placing the joists because of the bearing offset, use (Sketch Beam System). If the error shown in Figure 7–57 opens, the space for the joist might be too small to be created by the Beam System command. Click Delete Type. You can add a beam separately as required.

Errors such as this occur, so you should not neglect potential problems. They are an important part of using the BIM model process.

Figure 7–57

13. Save the project.

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7.3 Adding Trusses A truss can be added to a project using the same basic method as placing a beam. Trusses are typically comprised of one or more triangular sections, as shown in Figure 7–58. These sections are constructed with structural members whose ends are connected at joints, which are referred to as nodes. As various forces act on these nodes, the triangular shape provides structural stability to prevent bending. Top Chord

Web members

Bottom Chord

Figure 7–58

Truss elements include: • • •

Bottom Chord, the lower horizontal member. Top Chord, the upper horizontal member. Web, the series of structural framing elements that stabilize the truss. The Top and Bottom Chords fulfill the same function as a beam’s top and bottom flanges. The Web takes the place of the beam’s continuous plate.

How To: Add Trusses 1. In the Structure tab>Structure panel click (Structural Trusses). 2. In the Type Selector, select the type of truss you want to use •

Click (Load Family) and navigate to the Structural Trusses folder to add families to the project.

3. In the Modify | Place Truss tab>Draw panel, click

(Line) or

(Pick Lines) and add the trusses to the project.

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Structural Framing

Attaching Trusses to Roofs

Trusses can be attached to roofs or floor slabs. They can also follow the slope of the roof and automatically extend to fit, as shown in Figure 7–59.

Figure 7–59

How To: Attach Trusses to Roofs 1. In the Modify | Structural Trusses tab>Modify Truss panel, click (Attach Top/Bottom). 2. In the Options Bar, set Attach Trusses to Top or Bottom. 3. Select the roof or floor element. The truss attaches to the element and follows the angle or slope, as shown in Figure 7–60.

Figure 7–60



The top chord must be one continuous line in the family. If it is broken into segments, attaching it might not work properly.



Verify that the bottom chord is specified as the bearing chord in the element properties of the truss. This ensures that the roof loads are carried throughout the truss appropriately.



If the roof/floor slab does not cover the length of the truss, an error message opens and you might have to detach the truss.

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

Setting Framing Types in Trusses

When truss families are created they can include structural framing members for the chords and webs. However, they often just use default members. Therefore, you need to specify the precise framing types you want to use in the project. In the Type Properties dialog box, select the Structural Framing Type from a list of families loaded into the project, as shown in Figure 7–61. Set the Structural Framing Type for the Top Chords, Vertical Webs, Diagonal Webs, and Bottom Chords.

Figure 7–61

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Structural Framing



To select an entire truss, ensure that the dashed lines are displayed, as shown on the left in Figure 7–62. To select one element of the truss, press until the element that you want to select is highlighted, as shown on the right in Figure 7–62.

Figure 7–62



Individual Truss members are pinned to the truss framework. If you want to modify one of these you need to click (Prevent or allow change of element position) to unpin only that member.



You can rotate Trusses. and specify if the chords rotate with the truss. In Properties, type in a Rotation Angle and select or clear Rotate Chords with Truss, as shown in Figure 7–63.

Chords not rotated

Chords rotated

Figure 7–63

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

Practice 7c

Add Trusses Practice Objectives • Set up a truss type. • Add trusses to a project. • Attach trusses to a roof.

Estimated time for completion: 10 minutes

In this practice you will setup a truss using specific structural framing types for the chords and webs. You will then draw a truss and array it across an open span. Finally, you will attach the trusses to an existing roof element, as shown in Figure 7–64.

Figure 7–64

Task 1 - Set up a Truss Type 1. Open Syracuse-Suites-Trusses.rvt.

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Structural Framing

2. Start the (Beam) command and investigate the available structural framing elements, shown in Figure 7–65. There are two sizes of LL-Double-Angles, but you need an additional, smaller size.

Figure 7–65

3. In the Insert tab>Load from Library panel, click Family).

(Load

4. In the Load Family dialog box, navigate to the Structural Framing>Steel folder and select LL-Double Angle.rfa. Click Open. 5. In the Specify Types dialog box, select 2L3X2-1/2X1/2LLBB and click OK. 6. When the Family Already Exists dialog box displays, select Overwrite the existing version and its parameter values. 7. In the Structure tab>Structure panel, click

(Truss).

8. In the Type Selector, select Howe Flat Truss: Standard and click

(Edit Type).

9. In the Type Properties dialog box, click Duplicate.

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

10. In the Name dialog box, type Skylight, and click OK. 11. In the Type Properties dialog box, set the following properties as shown in Figure 7–66: • Top Cords and Bottom Chords: Set the Structural Framing Type to 2L6X4X5/8LLBB. • Vertical Webs and Diagonal Webs: Set the Structural Framing Type to 2L3X2-1/2X1/2LLBB.

Figure 7–66

12. Click OK. 13. Save the project.

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Structural Framing

Task 2 - Add Trusses. 1. Open the Structural Plans: TOS-14 ROOF view. Some of the structural framing has been removed in this plan to make way for a large skylight, as shown in Figure 7–67.

Figure 7–67

2. Start the

(Truss) command.

3. In the Type Selector, verify that the Howe Flat Truss: Skylight is selected. 4. In Properties, set the Bearing Chord to Bottom and the Truss Height to 4’-0". 5. Draw the first truss, as shown in Figure 7–68.

Figure 7–68 © 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

6. Click

(Modify) and select the new truss.

7. In the Modify | Structural Trusses tab>Modify panel, click (Array). 8. In the Options Bar, ensure that (Linear) is selected and Group and Associate is cleared. Set the Number to 15 and the Move To: to Last. 9. To specify the length of the array, click on Grid C and then on Grid E. 10. Open the 3D Views: Roof and Skylight view to see the trusses, as shown in Figure 7–69.

Figure 7–69

11. Save the project. Task 3 - Attach the Trusses to a Roof. 1. Open the Visibility Graphic Overrides dialog box and toggle on Roofs. An existing roof (referencing the location of the skylight) displays. 2. In the Quick Access Toolbar, click (Close Hidden Windows) so that only the 3D view displays. 3. Open the Elevations (Building Elevations): East and South views. 4. Type WT to tile the three views and ZA so that they are all zoomed out fully. 7–44

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Structural Framing

5. Zoom in on the skylight roof in the two elevation views, similar to that shown in Figure 7–70.

Figure 7–70

6. In the Elevation: East view, use a crossing window to select all of the trusses and other overlapping elements and then filter out everything but the trusses. 7. In the Modify |Structural Trusses tab>Modify Truss panel, click

(Attach Top/Bottom).

8. Select the roof. Allow time for it all to process until the trusses expand to touch the roof, as shown in Figure 7–71.

Figure 7–71

9. Expand the 3D View: Roof and Skylight view to fit the window. 10. Save the project.

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

Chapter Review Questions 1. When placing a beam, which of the following is NOT an option? a. Structural Usage b. Placement Plane c. 3D Snapping d. At Columns 2. Which of the following describes a Beam System? a. Parallel beams grouped together after they are placed. b. Parallel beams placed at the same time. c. All beams in a bay grouped together after they are placed. d. All beams in a bay placed at the same time. 3. In a plan view, which of the following changes the display to show the stick symbol for beams, as shown in Figure 7–72?

Figure 7–72

a. Detail Level: Coarse b. Detail Level: Medium c. Visual Style: Wireframe d. Visual Style: Hidden

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Structural Framing

4. How do you create sloped beams such as those shown in Figure 7–73?

Figure 7–73

a. Specify the Slope before you start drawing the beam. b. Specify the Start/End Level Offset before you start drawing the beam. c. Change the Slope after you have drawn the beam. d. Change the Start/End Level Offset after you have drawn the beam. 5. Where do you assign the structural member types and sizes for the components of a truss, such as that shown in Figure 7–74? (Select all that apply.)

Figure 7–74

a. In Family Types b. In Properties c. In Type Properties d. In the Options Bar

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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Autodesk Revit 2018: Structure Fundamentals

Command Summary Button

Command

Location

Copy to Clipboard

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Clipboard panel

Paste

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Clipboard panel

Clipboard • Shortcut: +C • Shortcut: + (Paste) Aligned to Selected Levels

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Clipboard panel

(Paste) Aligned to Selected View

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Clipboard panel

Structural Framing Elements Beam

• Ribbon: Structure tab>Structure panel

Beam System

• Ribbon: Structure tab>Structure panel

Brace

• Ribbon: Structure tab>Structure panel • Shortcut: BR

Structural Trusses

• Ribbon: Structure tab>Structure panel

Structural Framing Modification Apply Coping

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Geometry panel, expand Cope

Attach Top/Base

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Columns> Modify Column panel

Attach Top/Bottom

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Trusses> Modify Truss panel

Beam/Column Joins

• Ribbon: Modify tab>Geometry panel

Change Reference

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Framing> Join Tools panel

Connection

• Ribbon: Structure tab>Connection panel

Detach Top/Base

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Columns> Modify Column panel

Detach Top/Bottom

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Trusses> Modify Truss panel

Justification Points

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Framing> Justification panel • Shortcut: JP

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© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

Structural Framing Offset

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Framing> Justification panel

y Offset

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Framing> Justification panel • Shortcut: JY

z Offset

• Ribbon: Modify | Structural Framing> Justification panel • Shortcut: JZ

© 2017, ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge®

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