Outlook of Basic Education Quality Improvement

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International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015, 1 - 10 Available online at http://pps.unj.ac.id/journal/ijlecr DOI:doi.org/10.21009/IJLECR.012.01

THE VALUES OF EDUCATION IN THE NOVELS “SERIALS OF ANAK-ANAK MAMAK” BY TERE LIYE A STUDY OF STRUCTURAL SEMIOTICS Endah Ariani Madusari1, Emzir2 PPPPTK Bahasa Jakarta, Indonesia 2 Language Teaching Study Program of Graduate Program of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia 1 [email protected], [email protected] 1

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to discover the values of education in the novels "Series of Anakanak Mamak" by Tere Liye. The novels are more appropriately analyzed by using structural semiotic studies because the sentences used in the author of four novels consist of language styles and idioms. "Series of Anak-anak Mamak" also contain quite a lot of educational values. This study used a qualitative approach with content analysis method. The focus of the research is: the value of education in terms of structural and semiotic theories contained in the novels "Series of Anak-anak Mamak". The finding of this study is a description of the values of education in the novels entitled "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian" and "Amelia" by using a semiotic approach. The whole chapters in the four novels contain the values of education when viewed from the structural theory. Total percentage of the values of education contained in the four novels are: (1) honesty amounted to 18.33%, (2) fidelity amounted to 12.50%, (3) tolerance amounted to 8.33%, (4) confidence amounted to 47.50%, and (5) affection amounted to 13.33%. Semiotic studies in this novel are based on the styles of language and idioms, included connotative meanings. The whole chapters in the novel contain the values of education from the semiotic standpoint. Total percentage of the values of education from the semiotic standpoint of the four novels are: styles of language amounted to 57.25% and idioms amounted to 42.75%. Keywords: education values; structural; semiotic.

Teaching literature is not only to provide entertainment for a moment, but it will also provide many other benefits for students. Teaching literature is expected to help students (1) develop insights into the nature of education and the tradition of human life; (2) increase sensitivity to personal problems and human society; and even (3) add to the knowledge of students on various concepts of technology and science. Appreciative enjoyment of the novel, romance, drama, and poetry will prove the usefulness of the literary works for students. Study of the novel is also a literary appreciation activities that are beneficial to the students. Students can take advantage of novel research activities performed in teaching literature. Benefits from the novel study are, among others: the example of positive character of the characters in the novel, the themes in the novel can be used as guidelines in performing everyday life, examples of sentences existing in the novel can serve as an example of language learning and make students become rich with the right choice of words. Another thing to think about literature teaching at the moment is the use and availability of books/ literary readings in school. Teachers can utilize the availability of books/literary readings in school to read and elicit students’ creativities. In addition, teachers and schools should also seek to complement other readings, such IJLECR. Volume 1 Number 2 December 2015. ISSN: 2406-8586

International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015

as newspapers, magazines, a collection of poems, fairy tales, short stories, and novels. In light of the above, hence the birth of Tere Liye’s works are able to motivate researcher to assess the educational values existing in the novels "Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) based on the study of structural semiotics. Results of this study are expected to broaden the Indonesian teachers in the field of development of Indonesian literature today. It is also expected that the results of this study can be used as an alternative source of inspiration for teachers in general and in particular Indonesian teachers in providing the teaching and learning materials to students. Nature of the Novel Djojosuroto and Pelenkahu (2009: 169) explained that the word novel is derived from the Italian novel, namely "novellus" which is derived from the word meaning noveus new. It is considered new if compared with other genres such as poetry, drama, and others. Novel in Indonesia has been known since approximately half a century ago. It can be said that novel as a literary work comes after people get familiar with poetry and drama. It means the work of a novel was known to the public later after poetry and drama. Kosasih (2012: 60) defines the novel as follows: "The novel is an imaginative work that tells the whole hand on the problems of the life of a person’s or persons’ characters." Based on the above concept, it means that a novel is not a true story but it is an imaginative work in which the author tells about the problems of the life of the characters. The Values of Education The impact of the educational values of the hidden curriculum is constantly underlines that the students learn from the values which may explicitly not taught to them. For example, the values included in the novel are various expressions of tolerance, respect for others, a social conscience and personal responsibility. This was stated by Laurie Brady in his book “Teacher Values Relationship”. Educational values taught is to create a classroom environment that is warm and supportive so that students feel free to express their thoughts and feelings as well as their experience. Students are expected to be tolerant of different opinions. Educational values are the traits that have been determined or quality that can be taught, namely: honesty, loyalty, tolerance, confidence, and compassion. (Brady, 2011: 5). From the concepts of educational values above, it can be concluded that the educational values are taught in order to create a warm classroom environment. Students are expected to tolerate a different opinion of his friends. Educational Values are qualities that can be taught, namely: honesty, loyalty, tolerance, confidence, and compassion. Structural Approach Nyoman Kutha Ratna explained that definitively structuralism means understanding the elements, the structure itself using interrelationship mechanism. On the one hand, one element interrelates with other elements. On the other hand, the relationship between the elements in separation and in totality. 2

International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015

Every literary work, both literary works of the same type or different, have different elements. In addition, as a result of these inherent characteristics, differences in the elements also occur as a result of differences in the reception process of a reader. In this context, literary works have autonomous and distinctive characteristics. They cannot be generalized. Each assessment or appreciation will give different results. Nevertheless it should be noted that the main elements existing in the three types of work, namely: prose, poetry, and drama. Prose elements including theme, event or occurrence, background or setting, characterizations or disposition, grooves or plot, viewpoints, and style. (Nyoman Kutha Ratna, S.U, 2012: 91 and 93). The explanation can be concluded that structuralism is understood about the elements with interrelationship mechanism. Semiotic Approach Hoed explains semiotics is the science that examines the signs of human life. That is, all that is present in our lives seen as a sign, which is something that we must give meaning (Benny H. Hoed, 2011: 3). Based on the above definition, semiotic approach means science which deals with all the signs that we encounter in our lives. Ferdinand de Saussure in Hoed stated that semiotics is the sign as a meeting between forms (which is known in one's cognition) and the meaning (or content, which is understood by the human user's sign). De Saussure used the term signifiant (signifier) for a sign in terms of shape, and signifie (signified) for the aspect of meaning. Thus, De Sasussure and his followers (among others Roland Barthers) saw the sign as something structuring (meaning the process in the form of a link between the signifier and signified) and structured (the results of the process) in human cognition. In theory de Saussure, the sound is not significant concrete language, but it is an image of the sounds of language (image acoustique). Thus, what is in our life as a "form" that has "meaning" certain. Still in terms of de Saussure, the relationship between form and meaning is not personal, but social, which is based on the "agreement" (convention) of society. (Benny H. Hoed, 2011: 3). The semiotics means a sign that has a relationship between form and meaning based on social consensus. Signifier and signified are important concepts conveyed by Saussure. Relevant research examines the novel of structural semiotic studies is the research conducted by Abdurahman. This study was conducted in 2011, as a dissertation on Language Education Program, State University of Jakarta. The title of the dissertation is "Cultural Values in Kaba Story Minang Kabau: Structural Studies and Semiotics". Other relevant research is research that is passed by Ninuk Lustyantie. This study was conducted in 2012, as a dissertation on Language Education Program, State University of Jakarta. The title of the dissertation is "Moral Values in the set Fables France Les Contes work of Charles Perralult (Structural and Semiotic Studies)". The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of: 1) a novel structure consisting of: an element of characterization, setting, plot, style, and elements of the theme; 2) The educational values in terms of structural theory; 3) The values of education from the semiotic viewpoint existing in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”), namely: "Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia" by Tere Liye.

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METHOD The research was conducted in Jakarta, the researcher conducted a study to obtain reference and supporting data/secondary conducted in several libraries, namely: 1) Language Education Library, State University of Jakarta; 2) Central Library for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel Language (PPPPTK Language); 3) Library of Language Development Center; 4) Library of University of Indonesia; and 5) Library of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta. To obtain primary data, the researcher studied the novels written by Tere Liye, namely: Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia. The study was conducted in Jakarta. The research was conducted on the month in January 2014 up to January, 2015 in Jakarta. This study used a qualitative approach with content analysis method of the novel “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye, the novels are: Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia. The data in this study are a description of the readings repeatedly intrinsic elements of the novel “Serial Anakanak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye. Data unit of intrinsic elements include: theme, plot, point of view, characterization, setting, and style. Data unit of extrinsic elements are expressions of the author in the form of educational nature in the novel. The primary data of this study is the story contained in the novel "Serial Anakanak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye, namely: Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia. Secondary data in this study is a description of theories relevant literature, the results of relevant studies and research of previous researchers. Secondary data were intended to obtain a precise analysis results in accordance with the substance of the research on education. Data collection techniques carried out by the data obtained in the form of notes or citations are included in the spreadsheet and then poured in the form of a description as material analysis dissertation research. The events that are used as a basic story elements of abstraction in the form of a sentence. Events like this show that the process of taking and analyzing of data can take place simultaneously, this is characteristic of qualitative research.

RESULTS Below are the results of research related to the educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye as a study of structural semiotics. Novel Structure of “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye Through structural theory, the intrinsic elements of novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye can be revealed. As for the intrinsic elements in question are: theme, plot, characterization, setting, and style. The theme of the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye consists of four themes from the four titles, namely: "Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia". Each novel consists several chapters, each chapter also 4

International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015

has a different theme. Despite having different themes, the conclusions of the four novels can be drawn that they have similar stories, namely: the struggle of a mamak in the village with all limited facilities to educate four children with full of discipline for their successes. Plots in the novels are as follows. Tere Liye in developing the storyline for the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”), namely: Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia reveals more dominant the use of advanced workflow development. Then, the plots are followed by the development of a mixed plots. Only two of the four chapters of the novels that use backward flows. The backward flow for the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) is used only in the novel Eliana. The point of view of the four stories to the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye used first person pronoun, namely: "I". First person pronoun is used to refer to the main character of each novel of serials of children's Mamak. The main character is in accordance with the title of each novel. The main character of Novel "Eliana" is Eliana. The main character of novel "Pukat" is Pukat. The main character of novel is "Burlian" is Burlian. As well as, the main character of the novel "Amelia" is Amelia. The dominant characterizations of Eliana: brave, resolute, and quickly emotion. The dominant characterizations possessed by Pukat are: smart / intelligent, temperamental, decisive, and responsible. Burlian’s dominant characterizations: smart, ignorant, temperamental, and have a high curiosity. The dominant characterizations owned by Amelia: firm, kind, temperamental, and have a high curiosity. Characters who always appear in the four novels ”Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye are: Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, Amelia, father, Mamak, Mr. Bin, Wak Yati, Nek Kiba, Mang Dullah, Can, and Munjib. Settings of this research are discussed in two parts, namely: the place and time. Settings of place in the novels Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) are mostly in the home, schools, houses on stilts Nek Kiba, forests, and market. In essence, the dominant setting of place in the four novels Serial Anakanak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) is located in the hinterland village Paduraksa, South Sumatra province, whose population is full of simplicity. The dominant settings of time in the novels "Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) are in the morning, at noon, in the afternoon, and in the evening. Tere Liye is able to express the settings while using various language styles and idioms/expressions. Readers become more able to enjoy the contents of the novels. Language styles used by Tere Liye in the four novels "Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) are built with different styles of language. This can cause a dramatic impression to readers. The author of the novels is very good at stringing a sentence. Many sentences use vocabularies that are influenced by the local dialect, foreign languages, regional dialects, idioms, expressions, styles, imitation sounds, rhymes, couplets, word choice, and proverbs. Sentences in this novel are very diverse, so that readers can be more enjoyable to read the entire novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”). Vocabularies that are widely used in the four novels are to show a state or an object, so that readers become more interested in reading the novels. The sentences also use 5

International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015

foreign vocabularies in the four novels. The foreign language vocabularies contained in this novels are English, Arabic and Dutch. Local dialects are widely used in this novels, for example, the utterance "Oi". The characters communicate using the vocabulary of "Oi” in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”). Idioms and phrases are also used by the author in his work in the four novels. The author wrote many of his works also use language styles. The styles of the language used in this novel are: climax, rhetorical hyperbole, repetition, personification, sarcasm, parable, anticlimactic, synesthesia, metaphor, parts prototo, personified, paradoxically, totem proparte, cynicism, redundancy, satire, and antithesis. Onomatopoeic sound imitation is used by Tere Liye in the four novels. Imitative sounds used in a sentence to quicken things. The reader is expected to feel the atmosphere of the stories existing in the novels. The author of the novels uses rhyme to express the hearts of the characters. Novels that consist of a poetic rhymes are "Eliana" and "Pukat". Tere Liye in one of the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”), “Amelia", uses couplets (gurindam). Tere Liye as the author of four novels uses terms and proverbs in the four novels. Use of the terms and proverbs in this novel is expected to be able to support the course of the novels. Educational Values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) Viewed from the Structural Approach Educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye include honesty, loyalty, tolerance, confidence, and compassion. If viewed from the structural theories, the educational values can entirely be seen through the communication of the figures, character figures, storylines, and themes in the four novels, "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian", and "Amelia". The total percentage of the values of education in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye is as follows: honesty (18.33%), fidelity (12.50%), tolerance (8.33%), confidence (47.50%), and affection (13.33%). Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the highest percentage of the values of education in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye is confidence (47.50%). This happens because the contents of the four novels contains many educational values that reflect the confidence of the chracters. Meanwhile the lowest percentage of the educational values existing in the novels is tolerance (8.33%). The total percentage of educational values in the novel "Eliana" is as follows: honesty (20%), fidelity (12.86%), tolerance (8.57%), confidence (47.14%) and compassion (11.43%). Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Eliana", the highest percentage of the values of education is confidence (47.14%). Whereas, the lowest percentage is tolerance (8.57%). The total percentage of the value of education contained in the novel "Pukat" is as follows: honesty (24.49%), fidelity (6.12%), tolerance (6.12%), confidence (44.90%), and affection (18.37%).

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Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Pukat", confidence is in the first rank (44.90%). Whereas, the lowest percentage is loyalty and tolerance (6.12%). The total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Burlian" is as follows: honesty (10.34%), fidelity (10.34%), tolerance (6.90%), confidence (56.90%), and affection (15.52%). Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Burlian", confidence is in the first rank 56.90%. Whereas, the lowest percentage is tolerance (6.90%). The total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Amelia" is as follows: honesty (19.05%), fidelity (19.05%), tolerance (11.11%), confidence (41.27%), and affection (9.52%). Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the total percentage of the values of education in the novel "Amelia", confidence is in the first rank (41.27%). Whereas, the lowest percentage is affectionate (9.52%). The novels “Serial Anakanak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye really contain important values of education. The values of education can make readers willing to do deeds and good behavior in life. Educational Values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) Viewed from the Semiotic Approach In the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye, there are many words that contain educational values from the semiotic viewpoint. Each chapter of the novels contains semiotic meanings. Semiotic meanings in the novels discussed are based on the styles of language idioms and phrases which contain connotations. Educational values existing in the four novels can be seen in the whole chapters in the novels "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian", and "Amelia". They entirely contain educational values when viewed from semiotic viewpoint. The total percentage of the educational values from the semiotic viewpoint in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye is as follows: language styles (57.25%) and idioms (42.75%). Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the total percentage of the educational values from the semiotic viewpoint in the four novels, it is obvious that language styles have greater amount than idioms. The total percentage of the values of education from the semiotic viewpoint in the novel “Eliana” is as follows: language styles (58.55%) and idioms (41.45%). It means that from the semiotic viewpoint, the novel “Eliana” contains more language styles rather than idioms. The total percentage of the values of education from the semiotic viewpoint in the novel “Pukat” is as follows: language styles (62.83%) and idioms (37.17%). It means that from the semiotic viewpoint, the novel “Pukat” contains more language styles rather than idioms. The total percentage of the values of education from the semiotic viewpoint in the novel “Burlian” is as follows: language styles (63.73%) and idioms (36.27%). It means that from the semiotic viewpoint, the novel “Burlian” contains more language styles rather than idioms. The total percentage of the values of education from the semiotic viewpoint in the novel “Amelia” is as follows: language styles (48.84%) and idioms (51.16%). It means that from the semiotic viewpoint, the novel “Amelia” contains more language styles rather than idioms.

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The related results of this study with previous results of other relevant studies are that this study equally discuss the structural-semiotic studies. Focus of this study discussed educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye. Whereas, the previous research discussed cultural values in Kaba Story Minang Kabau by Abdurahman. Furthermore, another relevant research discussed moral values in the Charles Perralult’s Fables “France Les Contes” by Ninuk Lustyantie. Based on the findings above, the semiotic studies can be used to determine the meanings contained in the text of a literary works by utilizing the signs given by the author. Literary works such as novels are full of implied meanings by the author. The author reveals meanings in his sentences that are interesting to read and not saturate, so many language styles and idioms and phrases.

DISCUSIONS Below are the discussion related to the educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye as a study of structural semiotics. The author of the novels is very good at stringing a sentence. Many sentences use vocabularies that are influenced by the local dialect, foreign languages, regional dialects, idioms, expressions, styles, imitation sounds, rhymes, couplets, word choice, and proverbs. Educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye include honesty, loyalty, tolerance, confidence, and compassion. If viewed from the structural theories, the educational values can entirely be seen through the communication of the figures, character figures, storylines, and themes in the four novels, "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian", and "Amelia". In the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye, there are many words that contain educational values from the semiotic viewpoint. Each chapter of the novels contains semiotic meanings.

CONCLUSION The themes of the novel serials consist of four themes from the four titlesof novels, namely: "Eliana, Pukat, Burlian, and Amelia." From the four novels, it can be inferred that the contents of the novels have similar stories, namely: the struggle of a mamak in the village with the limited educational facilities with full of discipline for the successes of the four children. Educational values in the novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye include honesty, loyalty, tolerance, confidence, and compassion. If viewed from the structural theories, the educational values can entirely be seen through the communication of the figures, character figures, storylines, and themes in the four novels, "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian", and "Amelia". The total percentage of the values of education in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye is as follows: honesty

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(18.33%), fidelity (12.50%), tolerance (8.33%), confidence (47.50%), and affection (13.33%). Semiotic meanings in the novels discussed are based on the styles of language, idioms and phrases which contain connotations. Educational values existing in the four novels can be seen in the whole chapters in the novels "Eliana", "Pukat", "Burlian", and "Amelia". They entirely contain educational values when viewed from semiotic viewpoint. The total percentage of the educational values from the semiotic viewpoint in the four novels “Serial Anak-anak Mamak" (“Serials of Mamak’s Children”) by Tere Liye is as follows: language styles (57.25%) and idioms (42.75%).

REFERENCES Abdurahman, (2011). Disertasi “Nilai-nilai Budaya dalam cerita Kaba Minang Kabau Kajian Struktural Semiotik”. PPs UNJ Pendidikan Bahasa: Jakarta. Atmazaki. (1990). Ilmu Sastra Teori dan Terapan. Padang: Angkasa Raya. Azzet, Ahmad Muhaimin. (2011). Pendidikan yang Membebaskan. Jogjakarta: ArRuzz Media. Brady, Laurie. (2011). Teacher Values Relatiobship: Factors in Values Education, Australia Journal of Teacher Education: Sydney. Dewantara, Ki Hadjar. (1977). Karya Ki Hadjar Dewantara Bagian Pertama Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Majelis Luhur Persatuan Taman Siswa. Djojosuroto, Kinayati dan Pelenkahu, Noldy. (2009). Teori Apresiasi Pembelajaran Prosa. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Book Publisher. Gordon, Jane Bachman and Kuehner, Karen. (1999). Fiction the Elements of the Short Story. New York: Mc Graw Hill Glencoe. Hamston, Julie. dkk. (2010). Giving Voice to the Impacts of Values Education: The Final Report of the Values in ActionSchools Project. Australia: Education Services Australia. Hawthorn, Jeremy. (1985). Studying the Novel an Introduction. USA: Routledge. H. Hoed, Benny. (2011). Semiotok dalam Dinamika Sosial Budaya. Depok: Komunitas Bambu. Kosasih, E. (2012). Dasar-Dasar Keterampilan Bersastra. Bandung: Yama Widya. Lustyantie, Ninuk. (2012). Disertasi “Nilai-nilai Moral dalam Kumpulan Dongeng Prancis Les Contes Karya Charles Perralult. PPs UNJ Pendidikan Bahasa: Jakarta.

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Noth, Winfried. (1995). Hand Book of Semiotics. USA: Indiana University Press. Ratna, Nyoman Kutha, S.U. (2012). Teori, Metode, dan Teknik Penelitian Sastra dari Strukturalisme hingga Postrukturalisme. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

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Outlook of Basic Education Quality Improvement

International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, Vol. 1 (2), 2015, 1 - 10 Available online at http://pps.unj.ac.id/journal/ijlecr DOI:d...

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