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Lapisan ozon

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Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari

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Ozon (O3) merupakan sebatian yang terdiri daripada tiga atom oksigen setiap molekul. Pada suhu dan tekanan

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biasa ia berbentuk gas biru. Ozon membentuk cecair biru tua pada suhu bawah -112 C, dan cecair biru tua gelap

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pada suhu di bawah -193 C. Ozon dijumpai oleh Christian Friedrich Schonbein pada tahun 1840. Ozon diketahui berupaya menyerap radiasi UV-B. Ozon terbentuk secara semulajadi di lapisan ozon. Lapisan ozon terhakis oleh

Mengapa vagina mengeluarkan bau yang khas

klorofluorokarbon (CFC). Secara semulajadi, ozon terhasil melalui tindak balas cahaya ultra-lembayung dengan atmosfera bumi dan membentuk satu lapisan ozon pada ketinggian 50 kilometer.

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Isi kandungan 1 Lapisan ozon

August 2013

2 Kegunaan lapisan ozon 3 ‘Lubang’ Ozon

June 2013

4 Kitaran ozon

April 2013

5 Kerosakan lapisan ozon 6 Pautan luar

March 2013

Lapisan ozon

February 2013

Lapisan ozon ini wujud di antara lapisan Stratosfera dan Mesosfera dan melindungi bumi daripada sinaran ultralembayung. Bagaimanapun sekiranya ozon terhasil di permukaan bumi seperti melalui asap kenderaan, ozon boleh membahayakan kesihatan. Sekiranya lapisan ozon tiada, banyak kehidupan di bumi akan pupus termasuk manusia. Oleh itu ramai orang merasa bimbang apabila terdapat laporan wujudnya lubang pada lapisan ozon di kutub utara dan kutub selatan.

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Kegunaan lapisan ozon Ozon didapati dengan banyaknya pada aras stratosfera, dalam kawasan yang juga dikenali sebagai lapisan ozon.

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Di sini ozon menapis cahaya lampau ungu dari sinaran matahari yang merbahaya kepada kehidupan di bumi. Cara standard mengukur jumlah ozon di atmosfera ialah dengan menggunakan unit Dobson. Ozon digunakan dalam perkilangan diukur dengan ppm (parts per million – bahagian per sejuta) (sebagai contoh dedahan OSHA),

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dan peratus berat. ‘Lubang’ Ozon

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Lubang ozon di Antartika disebabkan oleh penipisan lapisan ozon antara altitud tertentu seluruh Antartika pada musim bunga. Penipisan tersebut dikesan setiap tahun sejak sedekad yang lalu. Pembentukan ‘lubang’ tersebut berlaku setiap bulan September dan pulih ke keadaan normal pada lewat musim bunga atau awal musim panas. Dalam bulan Oktober 1987, 1989, 1990 dan 1991, lubang ozon yang dalam telah diperhati bagi seluruh Antartika dengan kenaikan 60% pengurangan ozon berbanding dengan paras lubang pra-ozon. Dalam Oktober 1991, paras terendah atmosfera ozon yang pernah direkodkan telah berlaku di seluruh Antartika. Terdapat dua sebab utama bagi ‘lubang’ – peningkatan CFC dikesan di atmosfera, dan keunikan persekitaran kajicuaca pada musim sejuk seluruh Antartika. Antara altitud tertentu di Antartika, suhu stratosfera yang sejuk membenarkan kristal ais terbentuk. Dalam awan tersebut, molekul klorin dibebaskan dari CFC semasa kegelapan kutub sejuk. Molekul klorin ini bertindak balas

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May 2018 M T 1 7 8 14 15 21 22 28 29 « Aug

W 2 9 16 23 30

T 3 10 17 24 31

F 4 11 18 25

S 5 12 19 26

dengan O3 (Ozon) dengan itu menguraikan Ozon dan menipiskan lapisan Ozon. Apabila sinaran matahari bermula pada bulan September di seluruh Antartika, bilangan molekul-molekul klorin ini akan berkurangan akibat tindakan ultra-lembayung (uv) kerana pembentukan atom klorin pemusnah-ozon.

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Kitaran ozon Jumlah ozon dalam atmosfera berubah mengikut lokasi geografi dan musim. Ozon disukat dalam unit Dobson (Du) yang mana, sebagai contoh, 300 Du setara dengan 3 mm tebal lapisan ozon yang tulen jika dimampat ke tekanan paras laut.

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Sebahagian besar ozon stratosfera dihasilkan di kawasan tropika dan diangkut ke latitud yang tinggi dengan skala-besar putaran atmosfera semasa musim sejuk hingga musim bunga. Umumnya kawasan tropika memiliki ozon yang rendah.

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Molekul ozon juga tidak stabil dan apabila terkena sinaran lampau ungu, ozon akan terurai kepada molekul O2 dan satu atom oksigen, proses berkekalan yang dikenali sebagai kitaran ozon-oksigen. Kitaran ini mampu dihentikan oleh atam klorin, florine, atau bromin dalam atmosfera; bahan ini di dapati dalam sebatian stabil terutamanya kloroflorokarbon yang mampu sampai ke stratosfera dan terurai oleh sinaran lampau ungu. Kitaran NOx bagi pembentukan ozon juga boleh diganggu oleh air di paras atmospherik, menukar NOx kepada bentuk

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yang lebih stabil.

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Kerosakan lapisan ozon

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Kerosakan lapisan ozon dipercayai disebabkan gas buatan manusia, iaitu hidrokarbon di halogenate yang sangat stabil dan boleh sampai pada lapisan ozon. Hidrokarbon di halogenate akan menguraikan molekul ozon dan menghasilkan klorin. Ancaman yang diketahui terhadap keseimbangan ozon adalah pengenalan kloroflorokarbon (CFC) buatan manusia yang meningkatkan kadar penyingkiran ozon menyebabkan kemerosotan beransur-ansur dalam paras ozon global. CFC digunakan oleh masyarakat moden dengan pelbagai cara, sama ada dalam peti sejuk, bahan dorong dalam penyembur, pembuatan busa dan bahan pelarut terutamanya bagi kilang-kilang elektronik. Hayat bagi CFC bermaksud bahawa satu molekul yang dibebaskan hari ini boleh wujud 50 hingga 100 tahun dalam atmosfera sebelum dihapuskan. Bagi tempoh kira-kira 5 tahun, CFC bergerak naik dengan perlahan ke dalam stratosfera (10 – 50 km). Di atas lapisan ozon utama, pertengahan julat ketinggian 20 – 25 km, kurang uv diserap oleh ozon. Molekul CFC terurai setelah bertindakbalas dengan sinaran uv, dan membebaskan atom klorin. Atom klorin ini juga berupaya untuk memusnahkan ozon dan menghasilkan lubang ozon. Pautan luar Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Lapisan ozon http://www.kjc.gov.my/malay/pendidikan/alam_sekitar/ozon2.html

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26/02/2013 | Leave a comment

Pluto (mythology) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Pluto velificans, with a Cupid attending his abduction of Proserpina in a four-horse chariot (Roman cinerary altar, Antonine Era, 2nd century) For the dwarf planet, see Pluto. For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). Pluto (Greek: , Ploutōn) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology. The earlier name for the god was Hades, which became more common as the name of the underworld as a place. In ancient Greek religion and myth, Pluto represents a more positive concept of the god who presides over the afterlife. Ploutōn was frequently conflated with Ploutos (, Plutus), a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, and because as a chthonic god Pluto ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest. [1] The name Ploutōn came into widespread usage with the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which Pluto was venerated as a stern ruler but the loving husband of Persephone. The couple received souls in the afterlife, and are invoked together in religious inscriptions. Hades by contrast had few temples and religious practices associated with him, and is portrayed as the dark and violent abductor of Persephone. Pluto and Hades differ in character, but they are not distinct figures and share their two major myths. In Greek cosmogony, the god received the rule of the underworld in a three-way division of sovereignty over the world, with his brothers Zeus ruling Heaven and Poseidon the Sea. His central narrative is the abduction of Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm.[2] Plouton as the name of the ruler of the underworld first appears in Greek literature of the Classical period, in the works of the Athenian playwrights and of the philosopher Plato, who is the major Greek source on its significance. Under the name Pluto, the god appears in other myths in a secondary role, mostly as the possessor of a quest-object, and especially in the descent of Orpheus or other heroes to the underworld.[3] Pluto (genitive Plutonis) is the Latinized form of the Greek Plouton. Pluto’s Roman equivalent is Dis Pater, whose name is most often taken to mean “Rich Father” and is perhaps a direct translation of Plouton. Pluto was also identified with the obscure Roman Orcus, like Hades the name of both a god of the underworld and the underworld as a place. The borrowed Greek name Pluto is sometimes used for the ruler of the dead in Latin literature, leading some mythology handbooks to assert misleadingly that Pluto was the Roman counterpart of Hades.[4] Pluto (Pluton in French and German, Plutone in Italian) becomes the most common name for the classical ruler of the underworld in subsequent Western literature and other art forms. Contents 1 Hesiod’s Theogony 2 Plouton and Ploutos 2.1 Other identifications 3 Mythology 3.1 Offspring 3.2 Pluto and Orpheus 4 Mysteries and cult 4.1 Orphic Hymn to Pluto 4.2 Magic invocations 4.3 Sanctuaries of Pluto 5 Iconography and attributes 5.1 In Eleusinian scenes 5.2 The keys of Pluto 5.3 Vegetation and color 5.4 The helmet of invisibility 5.5 Bident 6 In Greek literature and philosophy 7 Theogonies and cosmology 7.1 Euhemerism and Latinization 7.2 Orphic and philosophical systems 7.2.1 Plouton Helios 7.2.2 Plutonius 7.2.3 Neoplatonic demiurge 8 In Western art and literature 8.1 Christianization 8.2 Medieval mythography 8.3 Medieval and Renaissance literature 8.4 Opera and ballet 8.5 Fine art 8.6 Modern literature 8.6.1 Percy Jackson series 9 Scientific terms 10 Notes 11 External links Hesiod’s Theogony The name Plouton does not appear in Greek literature of the Archaic period.[5] In Hesiod’s Theogony, the six children of Cronus and Rhea are Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, and Hestia. The male children divide the world into three realms. Hades takes Persephone by force from her mother Demeter, with the consent of Zeus. Ploutos, “Wealth,” appears in the Theogony as the child of Demeter and Iasion: “fine Plutus, who goes upon the whole earth and the broad back of the sea, and whoever meets him and comes into his hands, that man he makes rich, and he bestows much wealth upon him.” The union of Demeter and Iasion, described also in the Odyssey,[6] took place in a fallow field that had been ploughed three times, in what seems to be a reference to a ritual copulation or sympathetic magic to ensure the earth’s fertility.[7] “The resemblance of the name Ploutos to Plouton …,” it has been noted, “cannot be accidental. Plouton is lord of the dead, but as Persephone’s husband he has serious claims to the powers of fertility.”[8] Demeter’s son Plutus merges in the narrative tradition with her son-inlaw Pluto, redefining the implacable chariot-driver Hades whose horses trample the flowering earth.[9] Plouton and Ploutos Ploutos with the horn of abundance, in the company of Dionysos (4th century BC) Plouton was one of several euphemistic names for Hades, described in the Iliad as the god most hateful to mortals. [10] Plato says that people prefer the name Plouton, “giver of wealth,” because the name of Hades is fearprovoking.[11] The name was understood as referring to “the boundless riches of the earth, both the crops on its surface—he was originally a god of the land—and the mines hidden within it.”[12] What is sometimes taken as “confusion” of the two gods Plouton and Ploutos (“Wealth”) held or acquired a theological significance in antiquity. As a lord of abundance or riches, Pluto expresses the aspect of the underworld god that was positive, symbolized in art by the “horn of plenty” (cornucopia),[13] by means of which Plouton is distinguished from the gloomier Hades. [14] The Roman poet Ennius (ca. 239–169 BC), the leading figure in the Hellenization of Latin literature, considered Pluto a Greek god to be explained in terms of the Roman equivalents Dis Pater and Orcus.[15] It is unclear whether Pluto had a literary presence in Rome before Ennius. Some scholars think that rituals and beliefs pertaining to Pluto entered Roman culture with the establishment of the Saecular Games in 249 BC, and that Dis pater was only a translation of Plouton.[16] In the mid-1st century BC, Cicero identifies Pluto with Dis, explaining that “The earth in all its power and plenty is sacred to Father Dis, a name which is the same as Dives, ‘The Wealthy One,’ as is the Greek Plouton. This is because everything is born of the earth and returns to it again.”[17] During the Roman Imperial era, the Greek geographer Strabo (1st century AD) makes a distinction between Pluto and Hades. In writing of the mineral wealth of ancient Iberia (Roman Spain), he says that among the Turdetani, it is “Pluto, and not Hades, who inhabits the region down below.”[18] In the discourse On Mourning by the Greek author Lucian (2nd century AD), Pluto’s “wealth” is the dead he rules over in the abyss (chasma); the name Hades is reserved for the underworld itself.[19] Other identifications In Greek religious practice, Pluto is sometimes seen as the “chthonic Zeus” (Zeus Chthonios[20] or Zeus Catachthonios[21]), or at least as having functions or significance equivalent to those of Zeus but pertaining to the earth or underworld.[22] In ancient Roman and Hellenistic religion, Pluto was identified with a number of other deities, including Summanus, the Roman god of nocturnal thunder;[23] Februus, the Roman god from whose purification rites the month of February takes its name;[24] the syncretic god Serapis, regarded as Pluto’s Egyptian equivalent;[25] and the Semitic god Muth (). Muth was described by Philo of Byblos as the equivalent of both Thanatos (Death personified) and Pluto.[26] The ancient Greeks did not regard Pluto as “death” per se.[27] Mythology See also: Abduction of Persephone Pluton (1884-86) by Henri Chapu, part of a pair with a standing Persephone gathering flowers The best-known myth involving Pluto or Hades is the abduction of Persephone, also known as Kore (“the Maiden”). The earliest literary versions of the myth are a brief mention in Hesiod’s Theogony and the extended narrative of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter; in both these works, the ruler of the underworld is named as Hades (“the Hidden One”). Hades is an unsympathetic figure, and Persephone’s unwillingness is emphasized.[28] Increased usage of the name Plouton in religious inscriptions and literary texts reflects the influence of the Eleusinian Mysteries, which treated Pluto and Persephone as a divine couple who received initiates in the afterlife; as such, Pluto was disassociated from the “violent abductor” of Kore.[29] Two early works that give the abductor god’s name as Pluto are the Greek mythography traditionally known as the Library of “Apollodorus” (1st century BC)[30] and the Latin Fables of Hyginus (ca. 64 BC–AD 17).[31] The most influential version of the abduction myth is that of Ovid (d. 17 or 18 AD), who tells the story in both the Metamorphoses (Book 5) and the Fasti (Book 4).[32] Another major retelling, also in Latin, is the long unfinished poem De raptu Proserpinae (“On the Abduction of Proserpina”) by Claudian (d. 404 AD). Ovid uses the name Dis, not Pluto in these two passages,[33] and Claudian uses Pluto only once; translators and editors, however, sometimes supply the more familiar “Pluto” when other epithets appear in the source text.[34] The abduction myth was a popular subject for Greek and Roman art, and recurs throughout Western art and literature, where the name “Pluto” becomes common (see Pluto in Western art and literature below). Narrative details from Ovid and Claudian influence these later versions in which the abductor is named as Pluto, especially the role of Venus and Cupid in manipulating Pluto with love and desire.[35] Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and certainly by the time of Natale Conti’s influential Mythologiae (1567), the traditions pertaining to the various rulers of the classical underworld coalesced into a single mythology that made few if any distinctions among Hades, Pluto, Dis, and Orcus. Offspring Unlike his freely procreating brothers Zeus and Poseidon, Pluto is monogamous, and is rarely said to have children.[36] In Orphic texts,[37] the chthonic nymph Melinoe is the daughter of Persephone by Zeus disguised as Pluto,[38] and the Eumenides (“The Kindly Ones”) are the offspring of Persephone and Zeus Chthonios, often identified as Pluto.[39] The Augustan poet Vergil says that Pluto is the father of Allecto the Fury, whom he hates. [40] The lack of a clear distinction between Pluto and “chthonic Zeus” confuses the question of whether in some traditions, now obscure, Persephone bore children to her husband. In the late 4th century AD, Claudian’s epic on the abduction motivates Pluto with a desire for children. The poem is unfinished, however, and anything Claudian may have known of these traditions is lost.[41] Justin Martyr (2nd century AD) alludes to children of Pluto, but neither names nor enumerates them.[42] Hesychius (5th century AD) mentions a “son of Pluto.”[43] In his 14th-century mythography, Boccaccio records a tradition in which Pluto was the father of the divine personification Veneratio (“Reverence”), noting that she had no mother because Proserpina (the Latin name of Persephone) was sterile.[44] In The Faerie Queene (1590s), Edmund Spenser invents a daughter for Pluto whom he calls Lucifera.[45] The character’s name was taken from the 16th-century mythography of Natale Conti, who used it as the Latin translation of Greek phosphor, “light-bearer,” a regular epithet of Hecate.[46] Spenser incorporated aspects of the mysteries into The Faerie Queene.[47] Pluto and Orpheus Orpheus in the Underworld before Pluto and his queen (1880), by Henryk Siemiradzki Orpheus was regarded as a founder and prophet of the mysteries called “Orphic,” “Dionysiac,” or “Bacchic.” Mythologized for his ability to entrance even animals and trees with his music, he was also credited in antiquity with the authorship of the lyrics that have survived as the Orphic Hymns, among them a hymn to Pluto. Orpheus’s voice and lyre-playing represented a medium of revelation or higher knowledge for the mystery cults.[48] In his central myth, Orpheus visits the underworld in the hope of retrieving his bride, Eurydice, relying on the power of his music to charm the king and queen of Hades. Greek narratives of Orpheus’s descent and performance typically name the ruler of the underworld as Plouton, as for instance in the Bibliotheca.[49] The myth demonstrates the importance of Pluto “the Rich” as the possessor of a quest-object. Orpheus performing before Pluto and Persephone was a common subject of ancient and later Western literature and art, and one of the most significant mythological themes of the classical tradition.[50] The demonstration of Orpheus’s power depends on the normal obduracy of Pluto; the Augustan poet Horace describes him as incapable of tears.[51] Claudian, however, portrays the steely god as succumbing to Orpheus’s song so that “with iron cloak he wipes his tears” (ferrugineo lacrimas deterget amictu), an image renewed by Milton in Il Penseroso (106–107): “Such notes … / Drew iron tears down Pluto’s cheek.”[52] The Greek writer Lucian (ca. 125–after 180 AD) suggests that Pluto’s love for his wife gave the ruler of the underworld a special sympathy or insight into lovers parted by death.[53] In one of Lucian’s Dialogues of the Dead, Pluto questions Protesilaus, the first Greek hero killed in the Trojan War, who wishes to return to the world of the living. “You are then in love with life?” Pluto asks. “Such lovers we have here in plenty; but they love an object, which none of them can obtain.” Protesilaus explains, like an Orpheus in reverse, that he has left behind a young bride whose memory even the Lethe’s waters of forgetting have not erased from him. Pluto assures him that death will reunite them someday, but Protesilaus argues that Pluto himself should understand love and its impatience, and reminds the king of his grant to Orpheus and to Alcestis, who took her husband’s place in death and then was permitted at the insistence of Heracles to return to him. When Persephone intercedes for the dead warrior, Pluto grants the request at once, though allowing only one day for the reunion.[54] Mysteries and cult Hydria (ca. 340 BC) depicting figures from the Eleusinian Mysteries As Pluto gained importance as an embodiment of agricultural wealth within the Eleusinian Mysteries, from the 5th century BC onward the name Hades was increasingly reserved for the underworld as a place.[55] Neither Hades nor Pluto was one of the traditional Twelve Olympians, and Hades seems to have received limited cult,[56] perhaps only at Elis, where the temple was opened once a year.[57] During the time of Plato, the Athenians periodically honored the god called Plouton with the “strewing of a couch” (tên klinên strôsai).[58] At Eleusis, Plouton had his own priestess.[59] Pluto was worshipped with Persephone as a divine couple at Knidos, Ephesos, Mytilene, and Sparta as well as at Eleusis, where they were known simply as God (Theos) and Goddess (Thea). [60] In the ritual texts of the mystery religions preserved by the so-called Orphic or Bacchic gold tablets, from the late 5th century BC onward[61] the name Hades appears more frequently than Plouton. Hades, however, most often refers to the underground place,[62] and Plouton to the ruler who presides over it in a harmonious partnership[63] with Persephone.[64] By the end of the 4th century BC, the name Plouton appears in Greek metrical inscriptions. [65] Two fragmentary tablets greet Pluto and Persephone jointly,[66] and the divine couple appear as welcoming figures in a metrical epitaph: I know that even below the earth, if there is indeed a reward for the worthy ones, the first and foremost honors, nurse,[67] shall be yours, next to Persephone and Pluto.[68] Hesychius identifies Pluto with Eubouleus.[69] Other ancient sources distinguish between these two underworld deities. In the Mysteries Eubouleus plays the role of a torchbearer, possibly a guide for the initiate’s return.[70] In the view of Lewis Richard Farnell, Eubouleus was originally a title referring to the “good counsel” the ruler of the underworld was able to give and which was sought at Pluto’s dream oracles; by the 2nd century BC, however, he had acquired a separate identity.[71] Orphic Hymn to Pluto The Orphic Hymn to Pluto addresses the god as “strong-spirited” and the “All-Receiver” who commands death and is the master of mortals. His titles are given as Zeus Chthonios and Euboulos (“Good Counsel”).[72] In the hymn’s topography, Pluto’s dwelling is in Tartarus, simultaneously a “meadow” and “thick-shaded and dark,” where the Acheron encircles “the roots of the earth.” Hades is again the name of the place, here described as “windless,” and its gates, through which Pluto carried “pure Demeter’s daughter” as his bride, are located in an Attic cave within the district of Eleusis. The route from Persephone’s meadow to Hades crosses the sea. The hymn concludes: You alone were born to judge deeds obscure and conspicuous. Holiest and illustrious ruler of all, frenzied god, You delight in the worshiper’s respect and reverence. Come with favor and joy to the initiates. I summon you.[73] The hymn is one of several examples of Greco-Roman prayer that express a desire for the presence of a deity, and has been compared to a similar epiclesis in the Acts of Thomas.[74] Magic invocations The names of both Hades and Pluto appear also in the Greek Magical Papyri and curse tablets, with Hades usually referring to the underworld as a place, and Pluto regularly invoked as the partner of Persephone.[75] Five Latin curse tablets from Rome, dating to the mid-1st century BC, promise Persephone and Pluto an offering of “dates, figs, and a black pig” if the curse is fulfilled by the desired deadline. The pig was a characteristic animal sacrifice to chthonic deities, whose victims were typically black or dark in color.[76] A set of curse tablets written in Doric Greek and found in a tomb addresses a Pasianax, “Lord to All,”[77] sometimes taken as a title of Pluto,[78] but more recently thought to be a magical name for the corpse.[79] Pasianax is found elsewhere as an epithet of Zeus, or in the tablets may invoke a daimon like Abrasax.[80] Sanctuaries of Pluto Main article: Ploutonion A sanctuary dedicated to Pluto was called a ploutonion (Latin plutonium). The complex at Eleusis for the mysteries had a ploutonion regarded as the birthplace of the divine child Ploutos, in another instance of conflation or close association of the two gods.[81] Greek inscriptions record an altar of Pluto, which was to be “plastered”, that is, resurfaced for a new round of sacrifices at Eleusis.[82] One of the known ploutonia was in the sacred grove between Tralleis and Nysa, where a temple of Pluto and Persephone was located. Visitors sought healing and dream oracles.[83] The ploutonion at Hierapolis, Phrygia, was connected to the rites of Cybele, but during the Roman Imperial era was subsumed by the cult of Apollo, as confirmed by archaeological investigations during the 1960s. It too was a dream oracle.[84] The sites often seem to have been chosen because the presence of naturally occurring mephitic vapors was thought to indicate an opening to the underworld.[85] In Italy, Avernus was considered an entrance to the underworld that produced toxic vapors, but Strabo seems not to think that it was a ploutonion.[86] Iconography and attributes Plouton with cornucopia (Attic red-figure amphora, ca. 470 BC) In Eleusinian scenes Kevin Clinton attempted to distinguish the iconography of Hades, Plouton, Ploutos, and the Eleusinian Theos in 5th-century vase painting that depicts scenes from or relating to the mysteries. In Clinton’s schema, Plouton is a mature man, sometimes even white-haired; Hades is also usually bearded and mature, but his darkness is emphasized in literary descriptions, represented in art by dark hair. Plouton’s most common attribute is a scepter, but he also often holds a full or overflowing cornucopia; Hades sometimes holds a horn, but it is depicted with no contents and should be understood as a drinking horn. Unlike Plouton, Hades never holds agrarian attributes such as stalks of grain. His chest is usually bare or only partly covered, whereas Plouton is fully robed (exceptions, however, are admitted by the author). Plouton stands, often in the company of both Demeter and Kore, or sometimes one of the goddesses, but Hades almost always sits or reclines, usually with Persephone facing him. [87] “Confusion and disagreement” about the interpretation of these images remain.[88] The keys of Pluto Fragmentary relief depicting Persephone, Demeter, and Pluto with key (top right) Attributes of Pluto mentioned in the Orphic Hymn to Pluto are his scepter, keys, throne, and horses. In the hymn, the keys are connected to his capacity for giving wealth to humanity, specifically the agricultural wealth of “the year’s fruits.” Pausanias explains the significance of Pluto’s key in describing a wondrously carved cedar chest at the Temple of Hera in Elis. Numerous deities are depicted, with one panel grouping Dionysus, Persephone, the nymphs and Pluto. Pluto holds a key because “they say that what is called Hades has been locked up by Pluto, and that nobody will return back again therefrom.”[89] Natale Conti cites Pausanias in noting that keys are an attribute of Pluto as the scepter is of Jove (Greek Zeus) and the trident of Neptune (Poseidon).[90] A golden key (chrusea klês) was laid on the tongue of initiates by priests at Eleusis[91] and was a symbol of the revelation they were obligated to keep secret.[92] A key is among the attributes of other infernal deities such as Hecate, Anubis, and Persephone, and those who act as guardians or timekeepers, such as Janus and Aion.[93] Aeacus (Aiakos), one of the three mortal kings who became judges in the afterlife, is also a kleidouchos (), “holder of the keys,” and a priestly doorkeeper in the court of Pluto and Persephone.[94] Vegetation and color According to the Stoic philosopher Cornutus (1st century AD), Pluto wore a wreath of phasganion, more often called xiphion,[95] traditionally identified as a type of gladiolus.[96] Dioscorides recorded medical uses for the plant. For extracting stings and thorns, xiphion was mixed with wine and frankincense to make a cataplasm. The plant was also used as an aphrodisiac[97] and contraceptive.[98] It grew in humid places. In an obscure passage, Cornutus seems to connect Pluto’s wearing of phasganion to an etymology for Avernus, which he derives from the word for “air,” perhaps through some association with the color glaukos, “bluish grey,” “greenish” or “sea-colored,” which might describe the plant’s leaves. Because the color could describe the sky, Cornutus regularly gives it divine connotations.[99] Pluto’s twin sister was named Glauca[disambiguation needed] (see below). Ambiguity of color is characteristic of Pluto. Although both he and his realm are regularly described as dark, black, or gloomy, the god himself is sometimes seen as pale or having a pallor. Martianus Capella (5th century) describes him as both “growing pale in shadow, a fugitive from light” and actively “shedding darkness in the gloom of Tartarean night,” crowned with a wreath made of ebony as suitable for the kingdom he governs.[100] The horses of Pluto are usually black, but Ovid describes them as “sky-colored” (caeruleus, from caelum, “sky”), which might be blue, greenish-blue, or dark blue.[101] The Renaissance mythographer Natale Conti says wreaths of narcissus, maidenhair fern (adianthus), and cypress were given to Pluto.[102] In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Gaia (Earth) produced the narcissus at Zeus’s request as a snare for Persephone; when she grasps it, a chasm opens up and the “Host to Many” (Hades) seizes her.[103] Narcissus wreaths were used in early times to crown Demeter and Persephone, as well as the Furies (Eumenides).[104] The flower was associated with narcotic drugginess (narkê, “torpor”),[105] erotic fascination, [106] and imminent death;[107] to dream of crowning oneself with narcissus was a bad sign.[108] In the myth of Narcissus, the flower is created when a beautiful, self-absorbed youth rejects sexuality and is condemned to perpetual self-love along the Styx.[109] Conti’s inclusion of adianthus (Adiantum in modern nomenclature) is less straightforward. The name, meaning “unmoistened” (Greek adianton), was taken in antiquity to refer to the fern’s ability to repel water. The plant, which grew in wet places, was also called capillus veneris, “hair of Venus,” divinely dry when she emerged from the sea. [110] Historian of medicine John M. Riddle has suggested that the adianthus was one of the ferns Dioscorides called asplenon and prescribed as a contraceptive (atokios).[111] The associations of Proserpine (Persephone) and the maidenhair are alluded to by Samuel Beckett in a 1946 poem, in which the self is a Platonic cave with capillaires, in French both “maidenhair fern” and “blood vessels”.[112] An ageing specimen of Mediterranean cypress The cypress (Greek cyparissus, Latin cupressus) has traditional associations with mourning.[113] In ancient Attica, households in mourning were garlanded with cypress,[114] and it was used to fumigate the air during cremations. [115] In the myth of Cyparissus, a youth was transformed into a cypress, consumed by grief over the accidental death of a pet stag.[116] A “white cypress” is part of the topography of the underworld that recurs in the Orphic gold tablets as a kind of beacon near the entrance, perhaps to be compared with the Tree of Life in various world mythologies. The description of the cypress as “white” (Greek leukē), since the botanical tree is dark, is symbolic, evoking the white garments worn by initiates or the clothing of a corpse, or the pallor of the dead. In Orphic funeral rites, it was forbidden to make coffins of cypress.[117] The tradition of the mystery religions favors Pluto as a loving and faithful partner to Persephone, in contrast to the violence of Hades in early myths, but one ancient myth that preserves a lover for him parallels the abduction and also has a vegetative aspect.[118] A Roman source says that Pluto fell in love with Leuca (Greek Leukē, “White”), the most beautiful of the nymphs, and abducted her to live with him in his realm. After the long span of her life came to its end, he memorialized their love by creating a white tree in the Elysian Fields. The tree was the white poplar (Greek leukē), the leaves of which are white on one side and dark on the other, representing the duality of upper and underworld.[119] A wreath of white poplar leaves was fashioned by Heracles to mark his ascent from the underworld, an aition for why it was worn by initiates[120] and by champion athletes participating in funeral games. [121] Like other plants associated with Pluto, white poplar was regarded as a contraceptive in antiquity.[122] The relation of this tree to the white cypress of the mysteries is debated.[123] The helmet of invisibility The Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus uses the name Plouton instead of Hades in relating the tripartite division of sovereignty, the abduction of Persephone, and the visit of Orpheus to the underworld. This version of the theogony for the most part follows Hesiod (see above), but adds that the three brothers were each given a gift by the Cyclopes to use in their battle against the Titans: Zeus thunder and lightning; Poseidon a trident; and Pluto a helmet (kyneê).[124] The helmet Pluto receives is presumably the magical Cap of Invisibility (aidos kyneê), but the Bibliotheca is the only ancient source that explicitly says it belonged to Pluto.[125] The verbal play of aidos, “invisible,” and Hades is thought to account for this attribution of the helmet to the ruler of the underworld, since no ancient narratives record his use or possession of it. Later authors such as Rabelais (16th century) do attribute the helmet to Pluto.[126] Erasmus calls it the “helmet of Orcus”[127] and gives it as a figure of speech referring to those who conceal their true nature by a cunning device. Francis Bacon notes the proverbial usage: “the helmet of Pluto, which maketh the politic man go invisible, is secrecy in the counsel, and celerity in the execution.”[128] Bident Pluto (1588–89), chiaroscuro woodcut from a series on gods and goddesses by Hendrik Goltzius No ancient image of the ruler of the underworld can be said with certainty to show him with a bident,[129] though the ornamented tip of his scepter may have been misunderstood at times as a bident.[130] In the Roman world, the bident (from bi-, “two” + dent-, “teeth”) was an agricultural implement. It may also represent one of the three types of lightning wielded by Jupiter, the Roman counterpart of Zeus, and the Etruscan Tinia. The later notion that the ruler of the underworld wielded a trident or bident can perhaps be traced to a line in Seneca’s Hercules Furens (“Hercules Enraged”). Father Dis, the Roman counterpart of Pluto, uses a three-pronged spear to drive off Hercules as he attempts to invade the underworld. Seneca calls Dis the “Infernal Jove”[131] or the “dire Jove”[132] (the Jove who gives dire or ill omens, dirae), just as in the Greek tradition, Plouton is sometimes identified as a “chthonic Zeus.” That the trident and bident might be somewhat interchangeable is suggested by a Byzantine scholiast, who mentions Poseidon being armed with a bident.[133] In the Middle Ages, classical underworld figures began to be depicted with a pitchfork.[134] Early Christian writers had identified the classical underworld with Hell, and its denizens as demons or devils.[135] In the Renaissance, the bident became a conventional attribute of Pluto in art. Pluto, with Cerberus at his side, is shown holding the bident in the mythological ceiling mural painted by Raphael’s workshop for the Villa Farnesina. In a scene depicting a council of the gods, the three brothers Jove, Pluto, and Neptune are grouped closely, with a Cupid standing before them. Neptune holds the trident.[136] Perhaps influenced by this work, Agostino Carracci originally depicted Pluto with a bident in a preparatory drawing for his painting Pluto (1592), in which the god holds instead his characteristic key (see below).[137] In Caravaggio’s Giove, Nettuno e Plutone (ca. 1597), a ceiling mural based on alchemical allegory, it is Neptune who holds the bident.[138] In Greek literature and philosophy The name Plouton is first used in Greek literature by Athenian playwrights.[57] In Aristophanes’ comedy The Frogs (Batrachoi, 405 BC), in which “the Eleusinian colouring is in fact so pervasive,”[139] the ruler of the underworld is one of the characters, under the name of Plouton. The play depicts a mock descent to the underworld by the god Dionysus to bring back one of the dead tragic playwrights in the hope of restoring Athenian theater to its former glory. Pluto is a silent presence onstage for about 600 lines presiding over a contest among the tragedians, then announces that the winner has the privilege of returning to the upper world.[140] The play also draws on beliefs and imagery from Orphic and Dionysiac cult, and rituals pertaining to Ploutos (Plutus, “Wealth”).[141] In a fragment from another play by Aristophanes, a character “is comically singing of the excellent aspects of being dead,” asking in reference to the tripartition of sovereignty over the world, “And where do you think Pluto gets his name (i.e. “Rich”), / if not because he took the best portion? /… / How much better are things below than what Zeus possesses!”[142] Persephone and Pluto[143] or Hades[144] on a pinax from Locri To Plato, the god of the underworld was “an agent in th[e] beneficent cycle of death and rebirth” meriting worship under the name of Plouton, a giver of spiritual wealth.[145] In the dialogue Cratylus, Plato has Socrates explain the etymology of Plouton, saying that Pluto gives wealth (ploutos), and his name means “giver of wealth, which comes out of the earth beneath.” Because the name Hades is taken to mean “the invisible,” people fear what they cannot see; although they are in error about the nature of this deity’s power, Socrates says, “the office and name of the God really correspond”: He is the perfect and accomplished Sophist, and the great benefactor of the inhabitants of the other world; and even to us who are upon earth he sends from below exceeding blessings. For he has much more than he wants down there; wherefore he is called Pluto (or the rich). Note also, that he will have nothing to do with men while they are in the body, but only when the soul is liberated from the desires and evils of the body. Now there is a great deal of philosophy and reflection in that; for in their liberated state he can bind them with the desire of virtue, but while they are flustered and maddened by the body, not even father Cronos himself would suffice to keep them with him in his own far-famed chains.[146] Since “the union of body and soul is not better than the loosing,”[147] death is not an evil. Walter Burkert thus sees Pluto as a “god of dissolution.”[148] Among the titles of Pluto was Isodaitēs, “divider into equal portions,” a title that connects him to the fate goddesses the Moirai.[149] Isodaitēs was also a cult title for Dionysus and Helios.[150] In ordering his ideal city, Plato proposed a calendar in which Pluto was honored as a benefactor in the twelfth month, implicitly ranking him as one of the twelve principal deities.[151] In the Attic calendar, the twelfth month, more or less equivalent to June, was Skirophorion; the name may be connected to the rape of Persephone.[152] Theogonies and cosmology Euhemerism and Latinization In the theogony of Euhemerus (4th century BC), the gods were treated as mortal rulers whose deeds were immortalized by tradition. Ennius translated Euhemerus into Latin about a hundred years later, and a passage from his version was in turn preserved by the early Christian writer Lactantius.[153] Here the union of Saturn (the Roman equivalent of Kronos) and Ops, an Italic goddess of abundance, produces Jupiter (Greek Zeus), Juno (Hera), Neptune, Pluto, and Glauca[disambiguation needed]: Pluto (1592) by Agostino Carracci, probably influenced by the description in Vincenzo Cartari’s mythography,[154] with the god holding his scepter and key, Cerberus at his side Then Saturn took Ops to wife. Titan, the elder brother, demanded the kingship for himself. Vesta their mother, with their sisters Ceres [Demeter] and Ops, persuaded Saturn not to give way to his brother in the matter. Titan was less good-looking than Saturn; for that reason, and also because he could see his mother and sisters working to have it so, he conceded the kingship to Saturn, and came to terms with him: if Saturn had a male child born to him, it would not be reared. This was done to secure reversion of the kingship to Titan’s children. They then killed the first son that was born to Saturn. Next came twin children, Jupiter and Juno. Juno was given to Saturn to see while Jupiter was secretly removed and given to Vesta to be brought up without Saturn’s knowledge. In the same way without Saturn knowing, Ops bore Neptune and hid him away. In her third labor Ops bore another set of twins, Pluto and Glauce. (Pluto in Latin is Diespiter;[155] some call him Orcus.) Saturn was shown his daughter Glauce but his son Pluto was hidden and removed. Glauce then died young. That is the pedigree, as written, of Jupiter and his brothers; that is how it has been passed down to us in holy scripture. In this theogony, which Ennius introduced into Latin literature, Saturn, “Titan,”[156] Vesta, Ceres, and Ops are siblings; Glauca is the twin of Pluto and dies mysteriously young. There are several mythological figures named Glauca[disambiguation needed]; the sister of Pluto may be the Glauca who in Cicero’s account of the three aspects of Diana conceived the third with the equally mysterious Upis.[157] This is the genealogy for Pluto that Boccaccio used in his Genealogia Deorum Gentilium and in his lectures explicating the Divine Comedy of Dante.[158] In Book 3 of the Sibylline Oracles, dating mostly to the 2nd century AD, Rhea gives birth to Pluto as she passes by Dodona, “where the watery paths of the River Europus flowed, and the water ran into the sea, merged with the Peneius. This is also called the Stygian river.”[159] Orphic and philosophical systems Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, ceiling mural (ca. 1597) by Caravaggio (see description under Fine art below) The Orphic theogonies are notoriously varied,[160] and Orphic cosmology influenced the varying Gnostic theogonies of late antiquity.[161] Clementine literature (4th century AD) preserves a theogony with explicit Orphic influence that also draws on Hesiod, yielding a distinctive role for Pluto. When the primordial elements came together by orderly cyclonic force, they produced a generative sphere, the “egg” from which the primeval Orphic entity Phanes is born and the world is formed. The release of Phanes and his ascent to the heavenly top of the world-egg causes the matter left in the sphere to settle in relation to weight, creating the tripartite world of the traditional theogonies:[162] Its lower part, the heaviest element, sinks downwards, and is called Pluto because of its gravity, weight, and great quantity (plêthos) of matter. After the separation of this heavy element in the middle part of the egg the waters flow together, which they call Poseidon. The purest and noblest element, the fire, is called Zeus, because its nature is glowing (, zeousa). It flies right up into the air, and draws up the spirit, now called Metis, that was left in the underlying moisture. And when this spirit has reached the summit of the ether, it is devoured by Zeus, who in his turn begets the intelligence (, sunesis), also called Pallas. And by this artistic intelligence the etherial artificer creates the whole world. This world is surrounded by the air, which extends from Zeus, the very hot ether, to the earth; this air is called Hera.[163] This cosmogony interprets Hesiod allegorically, and so the heaviest element is identified not as the Earth, but as the netherworld of Pluto.[164] (In modern geochemistry, plutonium is the heaviest primordial element.) Supposed etymologies are used to make sense of the relation of physical process to divine name; Plouton is here connected to plêthos (abundance).[165] In the Stoic system, Pluto represented the lower region of the air, where according to Seneca (1st century AD) the soul underwent a kind of purgatory before ascending to the ether.[166] Seneca’s contemporary Cornutus made use of the traditional etymology of Pluto’s name for Stoic theology. The Stoics believed that the form of a word contained the original truth of its meaning, which over time could become corrupted or obscured.[167] Plouton derived from ploutein, “to be wealthy,” Cornutus said, because “all things are corruptible and therefore are ‘ultimately consigned to him as his property.'”[168] Within the Pythagorean and Neoplatonic traditions, Pluto was allegorized as the region where souls are purified, located between the moon (as represented by Persephone) and the sun.[169] Neoplatonists sometimes interpreted the Eleusinian Mysteries as a fabula of celestial phenomena: Authors tell the fable that Ceres was Proserpina’s mother, and that Proserpina while playing one day was raped by Pluto. Her mother searched for her with lighted torches; and it was decreed by Jupiter that the mother should have her daughter for fifteen days in the month, but Pluto for the rest, the other fifteen. This is nothing but that the name Ceres is used to mean the earth, called Ceres on analogy with crees (‘you may create’), for all things are created from her. By Proserpina is meant the moon, and her name is on analogy with prope serpens (‘creeping near’), for she is moved nearer to the earth than the other planets. She is called earth’s daughter, because her substance has more of earth in it than of the other elements. By Pluto is meant the shadow that sometimes obstructs the moon. [170] Plouton Helios Detail from Bernini’s Pluto and Proserpina (1522) A dedicatory inscription from Smyrna describes a 1st–2nd century sanctuary to “God Himself” as the most exalted of a group of six deities, including clothed statues of Plouton Helios and Koure Selene, “Pluto the Sun” and “Kore the Moon.”[171] The status of Pluto and Kore as a divine couple is marked by what the text describes as a “linen embroidered bridal curtain.”[172] The two are placed as bride and groom within an enclosed temple, separately from the other deities cultivated at the sanctuary. Plouton Helios is mentioned in other literary sources in connection with Koure Selene and Helios Apollon; the sun on its nighttime course was sometimes envisioned as traveling through the underworld on its return to the east. Apuleius describes a rite in which the sun appears at midnight to the initiate at the gates of Proserpina; it has been suggested that this midnight sun could be Plouton Helios.[173] The Smyrna inscription also records the presence of Helios Apollon at the sanctuary. As two forms of Helios, Apollo and Pluto pose a dichotomy:

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Struktur Lapisan Bumi dan Material Pembentuknya Posted on May 13, 2011 by Saumi Amrani Standard 23 Votes Bumi telah terbentuk sekitar 4,6 milyar tahun yang lalu. Bumi merupakan planet dengan urutan ketiga dari delapan planet yang dekat dengan matahari. Jarak bumi dengan matahari sekitar 150 juta km, berbentuk bulat dengan radius ± 6.370 km. Bumi merupakan satu-satunya planet yang dapat dihuni oleh berbagai jenis mahluk hidup. Permukaan bumi terdiri dari daratan dan lautan. Secara struktur, lapisan bumi dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu sebagai berikut : Kerak bumi (crush) merupakan kulit bumi bagian luar (permukaan bumi). Tebal lapisan kerak bumi mencapai 70 km dan merupakan lapisan batuan yang terdiri dari batu-batuan basa dan masam. Lapisan ini menjadi tempat tinggal bagi seluruh mahluk hidup. Suhu di bagian bawah kerak bumi mencapai 1.100 oC. Lapisan kerak bumi dan bagian di bawahnya hingga kedalaman 100 km dinamakan litosfer. Selimut atau selubung (mantle) merupakan lapisan yang terletak di bawah lapisan kerak bumi. Tabal selimut bumi mencapai 2.900 km, mencakup sekitar 80% total isi bumi, dan merupakan lapisan batuan padat. Suhu di bagian bawah selimut bumi mencapai 3.000 oC. Berdasarkan konstruksi kimia atau materialnya, mantel bumi dibedakan sebagai berikut. Mantel luar, jauh lebih tipis dari mantel dalam. Mantel luar berada sekitar 10-300 km di bawah permukaan bumi. Temperaturnya sekitar 1.400-3.0000C dan berat jenisnya 3,4-4,3 g/cm3. Mantel dalam, berada diantara 300-2.890 km di bawah permukaan bumi. Temperaturnya sekitar 3.0000C. Batuannya tidak selalu cair karena tekanan yang tinggi. Berat jenisnya 4,3-5,4 g/cm3. Berdasarkan arus atau gerakan lapisannya, mantel bumi dibedaka menjadi litosfer dan astenosfer. Astenosfer adalah bagian cair yang liat dari mantel luar. Litosfer adalah bagian kental dari kerak dan mantel luar. Litosfer mengapung di atas astenosfer, seperti halnya es di atas air. Inti bumi (core), yang terdiri dari material cair, dengan penyusun utama logam besi (90%), nikel (8%), dan lain-lain yang terdapat pada kedalaman 2900 – 5200 km. Lapisan ini dibedakan menjadi lapisan inti luar dan lapisan inti dalam. Inti luar Berada di kedalaman sekitar 2.890-5.150 km di bawah permukaan bumi. Ketebalan inti sekitar 2.200 km. Inti tersusun dari unsur utama besi, sedikit nikel, serta sekitar 10% sulfur dan oksigen. Inti luar begitu panas sehingga material logamnya mencair. Temperatur nagian inti luar sekitar 4.000-5.0000C. Berat jenisnya antara 10-12 gr/cm3. Inti dalam Berada 5.150-6.370 km di bawah permukaan bumi. Inti dalam yang menjadi pusat bumi bersifat padat dan ketebalannya sekitar 1.250 km. Inti dalam tersusun dari unsur utama besi, nikel, dan unsur ringan seperti sulfur, karbon, oksigen, silikon, dan potasium. Temperatur bagian inti dalam sekitar 5.000-6.0000C. Tekanan yang sangat kuat menyebabkan inti bumi bersifat padat meskipun temperaturnya sangat panas. Berat jenis inti dalam sekitar 15 gr/cm3. Perputaran bumi menyebabkan inti luar berputar mengelilingi inti dalam dan bumi menjadi magnetis. Berdasarkan susunan kimianya, bumi dapat dibagi menjadi empat bagian, yakni bagian padat (lithosfer) yang terdiri dari tanah dan batuan; bagian cair (hidrosfer) yang terdiri dari berbagai bentuk ekosistem perairan seperti laut, danau dan sungai; bagian udara (atmosfer) yang menyelimuti seluruh permukaan bumi serta bagian yang ditempati oleh berbagai jenis organisme (biosfer). Keempat komponen tersebut berinteraksi secara aktif satu sama lain, misalnya dalam siklus biogeokimia dari berbagai unsur kimia yang ada di bumi, proses transfer panas dan perpindahan materi padat. A. ATMOSFER Atmosfer adalah lapisan udara yang menyelimuti bumi secara menyeluruh dengan ketebalan lebih dari 650 km. Gerakan udara dalam atmosfer terjadi terutama karena adanya pengaruh pemanasan sinar matahari serta perputaran bumi. Perputaran bumi ini akan mengakibatkan bergeraknya masa udara, sehingga terjadilah perbedaan tekanan udara di berbagai tempat di dalam atmosfer yang dapat menimbulkan arus angin. B. HIDROSFER Air adalah senyawa gabungan dua atom hidrogen dengan satu atom oksigen menjadi H2O. Sekitar 71% permukaan bumi merupakan wilayah perairan. Lapisan air yang menyelimuti permukaan bumi disebut hidrosfer. C. LITHOSFER Lithosfer berasal dari bahasa yunani yaitu lithos artinya batuan, dan sphera artinya lapisan. Lithosfer merupakan lapisan kerak bumi yang paling luar dan terdiri atas batuan dengan ketebalan rata-rata 1200 km. Lithosfer adalah lapisan kulit bumi paling luar yang berupa batuan padat. Lithosfer tersusun dalam dua lapisan, yaitu kerak dan selubung, yang tebalnya 50 – 100 km. Lithosfer merupakan lempeng yang bergerak sehingga dapat menimbulkan pergeseran benua. Lithosfer memegang peranan penting dalam kehidupan tumbuhan. Tanah terbentuk apabila batu-batuan di permukaan litosfer mengalami degradasi, erosi maupun proses fisika lainnya menjadi batuan kecil sampai pasir. Selanjutnya bagian ini bercampur dengan hasil pemasukan komponen organis mahluk hidup yang kemudian membentuk tanah yang dapat digunakan sebagai tempat hidup organisme. Tanah merupakan sumber berbagai jenis mineral bagi mahluk hidup. Dalam wujud aslinya, mineral-mineral ini berupa batu-batuan yang treletak berlapis di permukaan bumi. Melalui proses erosi mineral-mineral yang menjadi usmber makanan mahluk hidup ini seringkali terbawa oleh aliran sungai ke laut dan terdeposit di dasar laut. Lithosfer terdiri dari dua bagian utama, yaitu : 1. Lapisan sial yaitu lapisan kulit bumi yang tersusun atas logam silisium dan alumunium, senyawanya dalam bentuk SiO2 dan Al2O3. Pada lapisan sial (silisium dan alumunium) ini antara lain terdapat batuan sedimen, granit andesit jenis-jenis batuan metamor, dan batuan lain yang terdapat di daratan benua. Lapisan sial dinamakan juga lapisan kerak, bersifat padat dan batu bertebaran rata-rata 35 km. Kerak bumi ini terbagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu : a. Kerak benua, kerak bumi paling tebal yang berada di bawah benua dengan ketebalan 30-40 km dan ketebalan maksimum 70 km. Umurnya lebih tua dari kerak samudra dengan batuan berumur 3,8 miliar tahun. Tersusun atas batuan induk dan terbagi atas dua lapisan, dengan bagian atas dari batuan granit dan bagian bawah dari batuan basal dan diorit. Berat jenis sekitar 2,7 gram/cm3. b. Kerak samudera, berada di bawah samudra dengan ketebalan sekitar 6-11 km. Umurnya sangat muda dibanding kerak benua dengan umur tidak lebih dari 200 juta tahun. Material pembentuk sebagian besar batuan basal, yang berwarna gelap, halus, berpasir, dan lebih berat. Kerak samudra terbentuk dari lava sangat cair yang mendingin cepat. Berat jenisnya sekitar 3 gram/cm3. 2. Lapisan sima (silisium magnesium) yaitu lapisan kulit bumi yang tersusun oleh logam logam silisium dan magnesium dalam bentuk senyawa Si O2 dan Mg O lapisan ini mempunyai berat jenis yang lebih besar dari pada lapisan sial karena mengandung besi dan magnesium yaitu mineral ferro magnesium dan batuan basalt. Lapisan merupakan bahan yang bersipat elastis dan mepunyai ketebalan rata rata 65 km . Lithosfer merupakan bagian bumi yang langsung berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan dan memiliki manfaat yang sangat besar bagi kehidupan di bumi. Lithosfer bagian atas merupakan tempat hidup bagi manusia, hewan dan tanaman. Manusia melakukan aktifitas di atas lithosfer. Selanjutnya lithosfer bagian bawah mengandung bahan bahan mineral yang sangat bermanfaat bagi manusia. Bahan bahan mineral atau tambang yang berasal dari lithosfer bagian bawah diantaranya minyak bumi dan gas, emas, batu bara, besi, nikel dan timah. D. Biosfer Biosfer merupakan sistem kehidupan paling besar karena terdiri dari gabungan ekosistem yang ada di planet bumi. Sistem ini mencakup semua mahluk hidup yang berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya sebagai kesatuan utuh. BATUAN PEMBENTUK KERAK BUMI 1. BATUAN BEKU Batuan yang terbentuk dari proses pembekuan/pengkristalan magma dalam perjalanannya menuju permukaan bumi, termasuk hasil aktivitas gunungapi. Batuan Beku Dalam = batuan plutonik, batuan yg membeku jauh di bawah permukaan bumi, contoh: granit Batuan Beku Korok/Gang = batuan intrusif / hipabisal, batuan yg membeku sebelum sampai ke permukaan bumi, contoh: granit porfir Batuan Beku Luar/Leleran = batuan ekstrusif / efusif, batuan yg membeku di permukaan bumi, contoh: batuan vulkanis 2. BATUAN SEDIMEN/ENDAPAN Batuan sedimen adalah batuan yang terbentuk karena adanya proses pengendapan (sedimentasi). Butir-bitir batuan sedimen berasal dari berbagai macam batuan melalui proses pelapukan, baik pelapukan oleh angin maupun air. Butiran-butiran hasil pelapukan atau pengikisan tersebut mengnedap secara berlapis yang makin lama makin tebal dan padat. Padatnya lapisan itu disebabkan adanya tekanan atau beban yang terlalu berat. Tekanan yang terlalu lama membentuk agregat batuan yang padat. Karena pemadatan dan sedimentasi itulah endapan-endapan berangsur-angsur berubah menjadi batuan sedimen. Penamaan batuan sedimen biasanya berdasarkan besar butir penyusun batuan tersebut Penamaan tersebut adalah: breksi, konglomerat, batupasir, batu lempung Breksi adalah batuan sedimen dengan ukuran butir lebih besar dari 2 mm dengan bentuk butitan yang bersudut Konglomerat adalah batuan sedimen dengan ukuran butir lebih besar dari 2 mm dengan bentuk butiran yang membudar Batu pasir adalah batuan sedimen dengan ukuran butir antara 2 mm sampai 1/16 mm Batu lanau adalah batuan sedimen dengan ukuran butir antara 1/16 mm sampai 1/256 mm Batu lempung adalah batuan sedimen dengan ukuran butir lebih kecil dari 1/256 mm Batuan sedimen dibedakan menjadi tiga kelompok, yaitu menurut tenaga yang mengendapkan, tempat pengendapan, dan cara pengendapan. a). Menurut Tenaga yang Mengendapkannya 1) Batuan Sedimen Akuatis, yaitu batuan sedimen yang berasal dari pengendapan butiran- butiran batuan oleh air sungai, danau, atau air hujan. 2) Batuan Sedimen Aerolis (Aeris), yaitu batuan sedimen yang berasal dari pengendapan butir-butir batuan oleh angin. 3) Batuan Sedimen Glasial, yaitu batuan sedimen yang berasal dari pengendapan butiran-butiran batuan oleh gletser. b. Menurut Tempat Pengendapan 1) Batuan Sedimen Terestris, yaitu batuan sedimen yang di endapkan di darat. 2) Batuan Sedimen Marine, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan di laut. 3) Batuan Sedimen Limnis, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan di danau. 4) Batuan Sedimen Fluvial, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan di sungai 5) Batuan Sedimen Sedimen, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan di daerah-daerah yang terdapat es atau gletser. c. Menurut Cara Pengendapannya Batuan Sedimen Mekanis, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan secara mekanis tanpa mengubah susunaan kimianya. Sebuah pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa batuan kerikil ataun pasir merupakan potongan sederhana dari batuan dan mineral. Batuan Sedimen Kimiawi, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan secara kimiawi. Pada proses pembentukan batuan ini terjadi perubahan susunan kimianya. Contohnya batu kapur. Batuan Sedimen Organik, yaitu batuan sedimen yang diendapkan melalui kegiatan organik. Contohnya terumbu karang. Batuan Sedimen Piroklastik, yaitu batuan sedimen hasil erupsi gunung api berupa abu/debu. Contohnya tufa 3. BATUAN METAMORF/MALIHAN Batuan yang terbentuk dari proses perubahan batuan asal (batuan beku maupun sedimen), baik perubahan bentuk/struktur maupun susunan mineralnya akibat pengaruh tekanan dan/atau temperatur yang sangat tinggi, sehingga menjadi batuan yang baru. Batuan Metamorf Kontak/Sentuh/Termal , yaitu batuan malihan akibat bersinggungan dengan magma, contoh: marmer, kuarsit, batu tanduk. Batuan Metamorf Tekan/Dinamo/Kataklastik = batuan malihan akibat tekanan yang sangat tinggi, contoh: batusabak, sekis, filit Batuan Metamorf Regional/Dinamo-Termal = batuan malihan akibat pengaruh tekanan dan temperatur yang sangat tinggi, contoh: genes, amfibolit, grafit SIKLUS BATUAN Sebelumnya kita sudah tahu bahwa di bumi ada tiga jenis batuan yaitu batuan beku, batuan sedimen, dan batuan metamorf. Ketiga batuan tersebut dapat berubah menjadi batuan metamorf tetapi ketiganya juga bisa berubah menjadi batuan lainnya. Semua batuan akan mengalami pelapukan dan erosi menjadi partikel-partikel atau pecahan-pecahan yang lebih kecil yang akhirnya juga bisa membentuk batuan sedimen. Batuan juga bisa melebur atau meleleh menjadi magma dan kemudian kembali menjadi batuan beku. Kesemuanya ini disebut siklus batuan atau Rock Cycle. Semua batuan yang ada di permukaan bumi akan mengalami pelapukan. Penyebab pelapukan tersebut ada 3 macam: Pelapukan secara fisika: perubahan suhu dari panas ke dingin akan membuat batuan mengalami perubahan. Hujan pun juga dapat membuat rekahan-rekahan yang ada di batuan menjadi berkembang sehingga prosesproses fisika tersebut dapat membuat batuan pecah menjadi bagian yang lebih kecil lagi. Pelapukan secara kimia: beberapa jenis larutan kimia dapat bereaksi dengan batuan seperti contohnya larutan HCl akan bereaksi dengan batu gamping. Bahkan air pun dapat bereaksi melarutan beberapa jenis batuan. Salah satu contoh yang nyata adalah “hujan asam” yang sangat mempengaruhi terjadinya pelapukan secara kimia. Pelapukan secara biologi: Selain pelapukan yang terjadi akibat proses fisikan dan kimia, salah satu pelapukan yang dapat terjadi adalah pelapukan secara biologi. Salah satu contohnya adalah pelapukan yang disebabkan oleh gangguan dari akar tanaman yang cukup besar. Akar-akar tanaman yang besar ini mampu membuat rekahan-rekahan di batuan dan akhirnya dapat memecah batuan menjadi bagian yang lebih kecil lagi. Setelah batuan mengalami pelapukan, batuan-batuan tersebut akan pecah menjadi bagian yang lebih kecil lagi sehingga mudah untuk berpindah tempat. Berpindahnya tempat dari partikel-partikel kecil ini disebut erosi. Proses erosi ini dapat terjadi melalui beberapa cara: Akibat grafitasi: akibat adanya grafitasi bumi maka pecahan batuan yang ada bisa langsung jatuh ke permukaan tanah atau menggelinding melalui tebing sampai akhirnya terkumpul di permukaan tanah. Akibat air: air yang melewati pecahan-pecahan kecil batuan yang ada dapat mengangkut pecahan tersebut dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain. Salah satu contoh yang dapat diamati dengan jelas adalah peranan sungai dalam mengangkut pecahan-pecahan batuan yang kecil ini. Akibat angin: selain air, angin pun dapat mengangkut pecahan-pecahan batuan yang kecil ukurannya seperti halnya yang saat ini terjadi di daerah gurun. Akibat glasier: sungai es atau yang sering disebut glasier seperti yang ada di Alaska sekarang juga mampu memindahkan pecahan-pecahan batuan yang ada. Pecahan-pecahan batuan yang terbawa akibat erosi tidak dapat terbawa selamanya. Seperti halnya sungai akan bertemu laut, angin akan berkurang tiupannya, dan juga glasier akan meleleh. Akibat semua ini, maka pecahan batuan yang terbawa akan terendapkan. Proses ini yang sering disebut proses pengendapan. Selama proses pengendapan, pecahan batuan akan diendapkan secara berlapis dimana pecahan yang berat akan diendapkan terlebih dahulu baru kemudian diikuti pecahan yang lebih ringan dan seterusnya. Proses pengendapan ini akan membentuk perlapisan pada batuan yang sering kita lihat di batuan sedimen saat ini. Pada saat perlapisan di batuan sedimen ini terbentuk, tekanan yang ada di perlapisan yang paling bawah akan bertambah akibat pertambahan beban di atasnya. Akibat pertambahan tekanan ini, air yang ada dalam lapisanlapisan batuan akan tertekan sehingga keluar dari lapisan batuan yang ada. Proses ini sering disebut kompaksi. Pada saat yang bersamaan pula, partikel-partikel yang ada dalam lapisan mulai bersatu. Adanya semen seperti lempung, silika, atau kalsit diantara partikel-partikel yang ada membuat partikel tersebut menyatu membentuk batuan yang lebih keras. Proses ini sering disebut sementasi. Setelah proses kompaksi dan sementasi terjadi pada pecahan batuan yang ada, perlapisan sedimen yang ada sebelumnya berganti menjadi batuan sedimen yang berlapis-lapis. Batuan sedimen seperti batu pasir, batu lempung, dan batu gamping dapat dibedakan dari batuan lainnya melalui adanya perlapisan, butiran-butiran sedimen yang menjadi satu akibat adanya semen, dan juga adanya fosil yang ikut terendapkan saat pecahan batuan dan fosil mengalami proses erosi, kompaksi dan akhirnya tersementasikan bersama-sama. Pada kerak bumi yang cukup dalam, tekanan dan suhu yang ada sangatlah tinggi. Kondisi tekanan dan suhu yang sangat tinggi seperti ini dapat mengubah mineral yang dalam batuan. Proses ini sering disebut proses metamorfisme. Semua batuan yang ada dapat mengalami proses metamorfisme. Tingkat proses metamorfisme yang terjadi tergantung dari: Apakah batuan yang ada terkena efek tekanan dan atau suhu yang tinggi. Apakah batuan tersebut mengalami perubahan bentuk. Berapa lama batuan yang ada terkena tekanan dan suhu yang tinggi. Dengan bertambahnya dalam suatu batuan dalam bumi, kemungkinan batuan yang ada melebur kembali menjadi magma sangatlah besar. Ini karena tekanan dan suhu yang sangat tinggi pada kedalaman yang sangat dalam. Akibat densitas dari magma yang terbentuk lebih kecil dari batuan sekitarnya, maka magma tersebut akan mencoba kembali ke permukaan menembus kerak bumi yang ada. Magma juga terbentuk di bawah kerak bumi yaitu di mantle bumi. Magma ini juga akan berusaha menerobos kerak bumi untuk kemudian berkumpul dengan magma yang sudah terbentuk sebelumnya dan selanjutnya berusaha menerobos kerak bumi untuk membentuk batuan beku baik itu plutonik ataupun vulkanik. Kadang-kadang magma mampu menerobos sampai ke permukaan bumi melalui rekahan atau patahan yang ada di bumi. Pada saat magma mampu menembus permukaan bumi, maka kadang terbentuk ledakan atau sering disebut volcanic eruption. Proses ini sering disebut proses ekstrusif. Batuan yang terbentuk dari magma yang keluar ke permukaan disebut batuan beku ekstrusif. Basalt dan pumice (batu apung) adalah salah satu contoh batuan ekstrusif. Jenis batuan yang terbentuk akibat proses ini tergantung dari komposisi magma yang ada. Umumnya batuan beku ekstrusif memperlihatkan cirri-ciri berikut: Butirannya sangatlah kecil. Ini disebabkan magma yang keluar ke permukaan bumi mengalami proses pendinginan yang sangat cepat sehingga mineral-mineral yang ada sebagai penyusun batuan tidak mempunyai banyak waktu untuk dapat berkembang. Umumnya memperlihatkan adanya rongga-rongga yang terbentuk akibat gas yang terkandung dalam batuan atau yang sering disebut “gas bubble”. Batuan yang meleleh akibat tekanan dan suhu yang sangat tinggi sering membentuk magma chamber dalam kerak bumi. Magma ini bercampur dengan magma yang terbentuk dari mantle. Karena letak magma chamber yang relatif dalam dan tidak mengalami proses ekstrusif, maka magma yang ada mengalami proses pendinginan yang relatif lambat dan membentuk kristal-kristal mineral yang akhirnya membentuk batuan beku intrusif. Batuan beku intrusif dapat tersingkap di permukaan membentuk pluton. Salah satu jenis pluton terbesar yang tersingkap dengan jelas adalah batholit seperti yang ada di Sierra Nevada – USA yang merupakan batholit granit yang sangat besar. Gabbro juga salah satu contoh batuan intrusif. Jenis batuan yang terbentuk akibat proses ini tergantung dari komposisi magma yang ada. Umumnya batuan beku intrusif memperlihatkan cirri-ciri berikut: Butirannya cukup besar. Ini disebabkan magma yang keluar ke permukaan bumi mengalami proses pendinginan yang sangat lambat sehingga mineral-mineral yang ada sebagai penyusun batuan mempunyai banyak waktu untuk dapat berkembang. Biasanya mineral-mineral pembentuk batuan beku intrusif memperlihatkan angular interlocking. Proses-proses inilah semua yang terjadi dimasa lampau, sekarang, dan yang akan datang. Terjadinya prosesproses ini menjaga keseimbangan batuan yang ada di bumi

25/02/2013 | Leave a comment



25/02/2013 | Leave a comment

Secara umum, macet dapat diartikan sebagai terhentinya atau tidak berjalannya suatu proses sebagaimana keadaan yang semestinya. Dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia v1.1, macet didefinisikan sebagai tidak dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Dalam hal ber-lalu lintas, maka macet berarti terhentinya pergerakan kendaraan karena suatu keadaan yang tidak biasa. Bagi saya, macet adalah dampak paling sederhana dari sikap egois-tis manusia. Menurut Anda? sumber gambar: google

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Pencegahan Terjadinya Bencana Tanah Longsor Mon, 11/08/2010 – 11:08 | admin PENCEGAHAN TERJADINYA BENCANA TANAH LONGSOR Jangan mencetak sawah dan membuat kolam pada lereng bagian atas di dekat pemukiman (gb. Kiri) Buatlah terasering (sengkedan) [ada lereng yang terjal bila membangun permukiman (gb. kanan) Segera menutup retakan tanah dan dipadatkan agar air tidak masuk ke dalam tanah melalui retakan. (gb. kiri) Jangan melakukan penggalian di bawah lereng terjal. (gb. kanan) Jangan menebang pohon di lereng (gb. kiri) Jangan membangun rumah di bawah tebing. (gb. kanan) Jangan mendirikan permukiman di tepi lereng yang terjal (gb.kiri) Pembangunan rumah yang benar di lereng bukit. (gb.kanan) Jangan mendirikan bangunan di bawah tebing yang terjal. (gb.kiri) Pembangunan rumah yang salah di lereng bukit. (gb.kanan) Jangan memotong tebing jalan menjadi tegak. (gb.kiri) Jangan mendirikan rumah di tepi sungai yang rawan erosi. (gb.kanan) TAHAPAN MITIGASI BENCANA TANAH LONGSOR Pemetaan Menyajikan informasi visual tentang tingkat kerawanan bencana alam geologi di suatu wilayah, sebagai masukan kepada masyarakat dan atau pemerintah kabupaten/kota dan provinsi sebagai data dasar untuk melakukan pembangunan wilayah agar terhindar dari bencana.. Pemeriksaan Melakukan penyelidikan pada saat dan setelah terjadi bencana, sehingga dapat diketahui penyebab dan cara penaggulangannya. Pemantauan Pemantauan dilakukan di daerah rawan bencana, pada daerah strategis secara ekonomi dan jasa, agar diketahui secara dini tingkat bahaya, oleh pengguna dan masyarakat yang bertempat tinggal di daerah tersebut. Sosialisasi Memberikan pemahaman kepada Pemerintah Provinsi /Kabupaten /Kota atau Masyarakat umum, tentang bencana alam tanah longsor dan akibat yang ditimbulkannnya. Sosialisasi dilakukan dengan berbagai cara antara lain, mengirimkan poster, booklet, dan leaflet atau dapat juga secara langsung kepada masyarakat dan aparat pemerintah Pemeriksaan bencana longsor Bertujuan mempelajari penyebab, proses terjadinya, kondisi bencana dan tata cara penanggulangan bencana di suatu daerah yang terlanda bencana tanah longsor.

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Pengertian Ilmu Kimia Pengertian Ilmu Kimia –Ilmu kimia adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang peristiwa atau fenomena yang terjadi dialam, lebih spesifiknya lagi mempelajari tentang materi dan perubahan yang menyertainya. Ilmu kimia seringkali dikatakan sebagai central sain karena pada disiplin ilmu apapun selalu berkaitan dengan kimia. Seorang ahli yang melakukan eksperimen tentang kimia dikatakan sebagai ilmuwan, dimana ilmuwan tersebut melakukan peneletian tentang perubahan materi dan perubahan yang menyertainya. Kimia dalam kehidupan kita Kimia dalam kehidupan sehari – hari ada dimana-mana, semua yang anda rasakan, anda cium, anda cicipi adalah kimia. Ketika kamu menangis terjadi reaksi kimia, ketika kamu laper terjadi reaksi kimia, sehingga mempelajari kimia sangat penting untuk mengetahui sebenarnya apa yang terjadi didunia ini. Kebanyakan orang salah paham dengan kimia, hal ini perlu diluruskan ( Baca: Jangan salah paham dengan kimia). Mereka menggap bahwa kimia hanya ada di labor, kimia hanya ada pada makanan berhaya. Padahal para ahli meyakini bahwa segala sesuatu di Alam ini adalah kimia. Cabang Ilmu kimia Ilmu kimia memiliki banyak cabang-cabang ilmu diantaranya adalah ilmu kimia analitik, ilmu kimia organik, ilmu kimia anorganik, ilmu biokimia, dan kimia nuklir. Kimia analitik adalah analisis cuplikan bahan untuk memperoleh pemahaman tentang susunan kimia dan strukturnya. Kimia analitik melibatkan metode eksperimen standar dalam kimia. Metode-metode ini dapat digunakan dalam semua subdisiplin lain dari kimia, kecuali untuk kimia teori murni. Kimia organik mengkaji struktur, sifat, komposisi, mekanisme, dan reaksi senyawa organik. Suatu senyawa organik didefinisikan sebagai segala senyawa yang berdasarkan rantai karbon. Kimia anorganik mengkaji sifat-sifat dan reaksi senyawa anorganik. Perbedaan antara bidang organik dan anorganik tidaklah mutlak dan banyak terdapat tumpang tindih, khususnya dalam bidang kimia organologam. Biokimia mempelajari senyawa kimia, reaksi kimia, dan interaksi kimia yang terjadi dalam organisme hidup. Biokimia dan kimia organik berhubungan sangat erat, seperti dalam kimia medisinal atau neurokimia. Biokimia juga berhubungan dengan biologi molekular, fisiologi, dan genetika. Kimia nuklir mengkaji bagaimana partikel subatom bergabung dan membentuk inti. Transmutasi modern adalah bagian terbesar dari kimia nuklir dan tabel nuklida merupakan hasil sekaligus perangkat untuk bidang ini. Masih banyak bidang lainya seperti astrokimia, biologi molekular, ilmu bahan, fitokimia, fotokimia, farmatologi serta termokimia.Mari belajar kimia sehingga kita paham bagaimana kimia itu terjadi, karena aku kimia..

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