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Corruption, a serious social disease needing intensive treatment By Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah

IT is clear that corruption exists in every system of government and in every country. Kautilya, when producing the Arthashastra, identified 40 methods of misusing money committed by public officials for personal gain. Kautilya noted: “Just as it is impossible not to taste honey or the poison that finds itself at the tip of the tongue, so it is impossible for a government servant not to eat up, at least, a bit of the king’s revenue. Just as a fish underwater cannot possibly be found out either as drinking or not drinking the water, so government work cannot be found out (while) taking money (for themselves).” Transparency International, in its mission statement, states: “(corruption) undermines good governance, fundamentally distorts public policy, leads to the misallocation of resources, and particularly, hurts the poor. Controlling it is only possible with the cooperation of a wide range of stakeholders in the integrity system, including, most importantly, the state, civil society and the private sector”. Corruption is often the key issue in the downfall of a leader to be replaced by another. Every leader who has been given the trust to lead pledges to fight corruption. New laws are drafted, existing laws are amended, various agencies are formed, promises are made and hope is given. But if the law’s status is only as a written document and not enforced, it is unlikely to be an effective weapon for victory on the battlefield against corruption. The various agencies established will not form a war brigade, which could fly the flag of victory, if the fight against corruption is done selectively. Among Asian countries, the Philippines has the most anti-corruption instruments, with seven laws and 19 enforcement agencies. President Ferdinand Marcos introduced five new Anti-Corruption Agencies (ACAs) during his 21-year reign (1965-1986), but they were only decorative cosmetics for protecting an ugly face. The Filipino land and sky were overcast by a shroud of corruption. Corrupt practices peaked during Marcos’ era, breeding rampant cronyism, where relatives and close friends were appointed to head the various agencies, with each accumulating more personal wealth. Speaking at the opening of the International Association of Anti-Corruption Enforcement Agencies Conference on Oct 4, 2012, the prime minister stressed the will and the effort of the government of Malaysia to eradicate corruption. The fight against corruption was designated as one of the seven components of the National Key Result Areas (NKRA) under the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) and Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). Various follow-up measures have been initiated, including the establishment of 14 special corruption courts. The 2013 Perception of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission’s (MACC) Effectiveness study showed the level of confidence in the effectiveness of the agency had risen from 64 per cent to 65.8 per cent, while the level of community support to the MACC also rose from 86.4 per cent in 2012, to 87.3 per cent last year. Efforts to streamline the law and increase the capacity and capability of the enforcement agency have continued to be carried out. Laws and enforcement agencies are instruments which need to be completed with comprehensive and holistic programmes. Understanding the background of those who commit acts of corruption will give an advantage to enforcers and enable them to give the correct prescription and diagnosis. Simplistically speaking, corruption offenders are divided into two categories. The first category is a group which is desperate, who have turned to corruption due to life’s hardships, the inability to balance their wages with having to pay for their daily basic needs. Data from the New Economic Model report showed that 80 per cent of households in this country earn incomes less than RM5,000 a month, 40 per cent earn less than RM2,000 a month, 78.6 per cent of Employees Provident Fund subscribers earn less than RM3,000 a month. The investment capability among the Bumiputera majority is manifested in data which shows that 75 per cent of Amanah Saham Bumiputera unit holders had an average savings of just RM611 per person. The request by the Cuepacs president for banks to supply more RM10 notes to automated teller machines (ATM) is a sign that at any given moment, a number of ATM cardholders did not even have a minimum of RM50 in their bank accounts. The data on wealth distribution is extremely worrying in light of the country’s efforts to reach developed-nation status with a target of RM48,000 per capita income by 2020. Uneven wealth distribution and wide income gaps will create an environment which will nurture a culture of petty corruption. What are the options for public servants and private sector professionals if their salaries are not enough to cover their daily expenses? The majority in this category actually do not want to commit corrupt acts. There are those who take on second jobs, trade at pasar malam, drive taxis part-time, hold tuition classes, sell kuih, sew, become involved in direct-selling, as well as carry out all kinds of side jobs in order to get by. As a result, they lack rest — they are fatigued, causing them to become weak workers and affecting their productivity. This is the true present scenario in the country. The number of those within this category will rise if an effective formula is not introduced, focusing on aspects such as housing, food, transport, health services and medical treatment, where costs are rising daily. The country cannot be in a state of denial over present realities. This is a big challenge for the nation. It is not a temporary sore throat that can be cured with Strepsils. It is a serious social disease, needing intensive treatment from society’s doctors and surgeons, and a formula for a cure from pharmacies with the ability to dispense comprehensive and holistic social policies. The second category of corruption offenders are driven by greed. In general, they occupy high-ranking positions, hold important posts, have great desires and live lavish lifestyles. Offenders in this category are slick and sophisticated, adept at washing their hands of any wrongdoing, difficult to convict and some of them are intimately connected to the powerful. The fight to combat corruption has to focus on two aspects. The first aspect is punitive actions that are STERN AND INDISCRIMINATE, and carried out without fear or favour. The second aspect is PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO STRENGTHEN INTEGRITY. STERN and INDISCRIMINATE are two key words that should be considered as principles. The country has many examples that can be a source of direction and reference, sources of inspiration and strength for bold action. The first magistrate appointed in Penang over 200 years ago in the colonial administration era was fired for bribery. During the era of the late Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, the education minister cum health minister in 1964, Abdul Rahman Talib, lost a civil case against S.P. Seenivasagam, who implied that Rahman was involved in corrupt acts. Rahman later resigned from the cabinet. Support towards the ruling party, Perikatan, declined during the 1969 general election. The late Tun Abdul Razak Hussein was very good at reading the rakyat’s sentiment. He kept track of the key issues, which became ammunition for attacks against Perikatan and the government during the election campaign, and immediately acted to correct the flaws. The government’s response to corruption was handled without delay. Razak did not protect any administration member or party members suspected of being involved in graft. On the advice of Datuk Harun Hashim of the National Operations Council (Mageran), through the Emergency Ordinance No. 22, he gave the power to the director-general of the ACA to freeze the assets of those suspected of receiving bribes. The Perak menteri besar Datuk Ahmad Said was revealed to have nearly RM1.2 million in his accounts. RM330,000 was confiscated as it was found to have been attained through bribery. Ahmad resigned in February 1970. In July that year, Terengganu menteri besar Ibrahim Fikri was ordered to take two months’ leave and was then replaced by Mahmood Sulaiman. At the federal level, Khaw Kai Boh was asked to withdraw from the cabinet in September. During the great Roman era, the law permitted a dictatorship to be elected for six months in the situation where the country faced a crisis. After that, the power needed to be returned to the people. Cincinnatus, a retired general, had been chosen to rule as a dictator but remains as an example of a Roman leader who did not seek either power or fame. Cincinnatus was elected to rule Rome during a crisis. After peacetime returned, even though the Romans asked him to continue leading, Cincinnatus rejected the request and returned the power to the people. Machiavelli referred to his act as a noble gesture, the sign of a leader who had both the strength and the fortitude to reject corruption, without the greed to retain power. This admirable trait of Cincinnatus reprised itself in Razak, whose mind could not be influenced by the desire for power. As the director of Mageran, after the tragedy of May 13, 1969, Razak commanded absolute power. After the country’s situation returned to stability, even though he was asked not to disband Mageran, Razak chose to return the power to public institutions, reviving the system of parliamentary democracy. During the late Tun Hussein Onn’s era, the late Datuk Harun Idris in 1976 was convicted of corruption. He was tried by my father, at the time Justice Raja Azlan Shah. My father faced a difficult task. The accused not only had strong political support, but he was also someone His Highness was familiar with. While delivering the verdict, Justice Raja Azlan Shah, among others, said: “It is painful for me to have to sentence a man I know. I wish it were the duty of some other judge to perform that task. “To me, this hearing seems to reaffirm the vitality of the rule of law. But to many of us, this hearing also suggests a frightening decay in the integrity of some of our leaders. “It has given horrible illustrations of Lord Acton’s aphorism ‘power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely’, and has focused concern on the need of some avowed limitations upon political authority. “…the law is no respecter of persons. Nevertheless it will be impossible to ignore the fact that you are in a different category from any person that I have ever tried. It would be impossible to ignore the fact that, in the eyes of millions of our countrymen and women, you are a patriot and a leader. Even those who differ from you in politics look upon you as a man of high ideals. You had every chance to reach the greatest height of human achievement. But half-way along the road, you allowed avarice to corrupt you. It is incomprehensible how a man in your position could not in your own conscience, recognise corruption for what it is. In so doing, you have not only betrayed your party cause, for which you have spoken so eloquently, but also the oath of office which you have taken and subscribed before your sovereign ruler, and above all, the law of which you are its servant”. The verdict contained not only the conviction and sentence, but also components of advice, reminders and warnings so that it may serve as a lesson. It was hard for Justice Raja Azlan Shah to utter those words so harshly and sternly towards the accused who he knew, but he was more concerned about upholding the law and the public interest than of the body of an acquaintance. STERN AND INDISCRIMINATE ACTION is not an option but a necessity. Allah has given us guidance. Adam is a creation of God, revered and given such high status that the angels were asked to bow before him. But when Adam violated the rules, God’s sentence was swift and stern, and Adam was ordered to leave heaven. Verse 135 of Surah An-Nisaa states: “O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. So follow not [personal] inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort (your testimony) or refuse (to give it), then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.” Thus, is the sternness by which the principle of justice in Islam is upheld. No exceptions or special treatment is given to anyone who carries out wrongful deeds, whether it be themselves, close friends, family members or even their parents. The decree carried in this verse is strengthened further in the Prophet Muhammad’s hadith: “O people, those who came before you were doomed because if a nobleman among them stole, they let him off, but if a lowly person stole, they carried out the punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, were to steal, I would cut off her hand.” The preventive aspect requires the effort of strengthening integrity so that humans can be built with the inner fortitude to reject their whims and desires. Greed is the factor which frequently drives humans to sin. Islam calls on humanity to practice moderation, and to refrain from hubris and excess. God’s reminder is stated in the story of the Prophet Hud, in verse 128 of Surah Asy-Syu’araa: “Do you construct on every elevation a sign, amusing yourselves, and take for yourselves palaces and fortresses that you might abide eternally?” When Allah punished Adam for succumbing to the devil’s temptation, Adam was in the comfort of heaven, with all the goodness guaranteed by God, as described in verses 118 and 119 of Surah Thaahaa: “Indeed, it is (promised) for you not to be hungry therein or be unclothed. And indeed, you will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the sun.” Adam was deceived by the devil. And so, Allah has given a reminder in verse 117 of that Surah: “Iblis (the devil) is the enemy”. Adam was defeated by the enemy with false promises to give power, false promises to retain power as said in verse 120 of the same Surah: “Then Satan whispered to him, saying: ‘O Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity and possession that will not deteriorate?’” How the walls of faith crumbled by the attraction towards power. The desire for absolute power can defeat the rational mind. Strengthening one’s faith is the defence that needs to be built in order to raise the person’s resistance towards material possessions and wealth, and the desire for rank and power. Humanity must always be reminded of Allah’s decree in verse 35 of Surah Al-Anbiyaa: “Every soul will taste death. And We test you with evil and with good as trial; and to Us you will be returned.” David Owen, in his book The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power, analysed corruption through the lens of a medical doctor. Owen described the act of corruption driven by the lust for power as a mental condition. Mahatma Gandhi observed that power made humans deaf and blind. Thus, decisions made were based on desire. Personal satisfaction overpowered public interest. Any dissenting opinion, even if it came from close acquaintances, would be regarded as the voice of an enemy — threatening their position, and all actions would be taken to destroy any resistance. Life on earth is a test. Positions and posts are a test. Trust and responsibility are a test. Standing up for good and fighting evil is a responsibility. Every promise uttered, every action taken or not taken will be examined in the afterlife, where there will be no lawyers to defend our sins or the trust we failed to complete. Fighting corruption is a jihad, which needs to be absorbed in the hearts of man. Prophet Muhammad said: “There is in the body a clump of flesh — if it becomes good the whole body becomes good, and if it becomes bad the whole body becomes bad.” That “FLESH” is the HEART. Fill the HEARTS of man with the strength of ILAHIYAH, the fortitude that is in line with the teachings of the Quran and the prophet’s Sunnah so that Allah would improve our minds and faith to make them strong and not easily swayed by the devil’s temptation. Put your trust in Allah Almighty in fulfilling this noble task. Hold on to the spirit of mutually reminding and criticising each other, consistent with the call contained in Surah Al-Ashr: “By time, indeed mankind is in loss, except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.” May Allah Almighty give guidance and strength to each member of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, who must work hard to fulfil the heavy task of fighting corruption. May every honest intention and the work conducted honestly and rightly receive the reward of God. The above is a translation of the royal address by Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah in conjunction with the 47th anniversary of the establishment of the Anti-Corruption Agency, now known as the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission

Attendees of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission’s 47th anniversary commemoration listening to the speech by Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre.

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This entry was posted in Feature and tagged Corruption, MACC, Sultan Perak on October 4, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/04/corruptiona-serious-social-disease-needing-intensive-treatment/] .

Sultan Nazrin: Facing the challenges of corruption By Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah

CORRUPTION is the act of a breach of trust. The first sin of man was the breaching of trust, as told in verse 115 of Surah Thaahaa, which means: “And We had already taken a promise from Adam before, but he forgot; and We found not in him determination.” The decree was contained in verse 35 of Surah Al-Baqarah, which means: “And We said, ‘O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers’.” The oldest discovered document touching on the subject of corruption is the Arthasastra by Kautilya in India, in 300 AD. In China, in 220 AD, the Qing dynasty understood the concept of corruption, and meted out severe punishments upon those involved in corrupt acts. Corruption is defined as the act of misusing power in order to enrich or benefit individuals, family members and close associates when one has been entrusted with the responsibility of administering and managing public resources. Abu Hurairah narrates: “I once heard the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) say: ‘A time will come upon the people that they will not care for that which is being taken or earned, if it is from Halal or Haram sources.’” Profesor Emeritus Dr Petrus van Duyne (Tilburg University), a noted researcher of economic crimes, money laundering and corruption, describes the concept of corruption in a scientific manner: “Corruption is an improbity or decay in the decision-making process, in which a decision-maker consents to deviate or demands deviation from the criterion, which should rule his or her decision-making, in exchange for a reward or for the promise or expectation of a reward, while these motives influencing his or her decision-making cannot be part of the justification of the decision.” Corruption exists within the public and private sectors, and, today, also exists in international institutions, religious institutions, volunteer bodies and sports organisations. United Nations secretary-general Ban Ki-moon said in September 2007: “Corruption undermines democracy and the rule of law. It leads to violations of human rights. It erodes public trust in government. It can kill.” Corruption has been identified as a leading cause of economic growth stagnation, loss of foreign investment interest, rising administrative and management costs, preventing citizens from accessing public services, and contributing to political instability. Many countries have been blessed by God with sources of wealth but due to corruption, some of them are unable to progress, buried in the mud of poverty. The country’s wealth is abused — revenues disappear, spurring decline, while poverty continues to spread. When there is no will to fight corruption, it will grow and spread, accepted as the norm and, in turn, becomes a part of the culture, until it destroys the nation. Corruption causes the loss of national treasures, unsustainable development, environmental degradation, the unequal distribution of wealth and increasing poverty. Between 2001 and 2010, nearly US$6 trillion (RM18.7 trillion) were misused in poor countries, affecting the lives of ordinary citizens. It is estimated that each year, US$1 trillion worth of money laundering occurs in poor and less developed countries. It is also estimated that each year, between US$38 billion and US$64 billion in tax revenue in developing countries is uncollected due to corruption. Leakages of some US$1 trillion cause around 3.6 million deaths per year, as revenue, which should have been spent on health services, food and infrastructure, is dissipated. Statistics in 2012 reveal that half of the 61 million children who drop out of primary school are in sub-Saharan Africa. If corruption could be successfully eradicated in sub-Saharan Africa, each year, 10 million children would have access to schools, 500,000 teachers could be appointed, and more than 11 million people living with HIV/AIDS could be supplied with antiretroviral drugs. Corruption doesn’t just exist in declining or poor nations. Corruption also occurs in developed nations, rich nations and in international institutions. In fact, it happens on a larger scale, and has a global impact that affects the lives of people all over the world. Those in developed nations are not as clean as a white sheet nor as clear as the water in the Zamzam well. The private sector has not been able to escape corruption scandals. In 2012, several notable international banks were fined US$21 billion for various offences involving fraud, tax evasion, manipulating interest rates and high-risk investments. Siemens, in 2008, processed its company accounts in order to legitimise corruption, preparing a US$50 million annual budget for paying bribes. Siemens was fined US$800 millon under the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In 2010, six oil and gas companies operating in the US were fined US$236 million under the same Act. For 25 years, Wal-Mart was under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act scrutiny before eventually admitting to consistently paying bribes in Mexico between 2003 and 2008. Rolls-Royce made a public admission of using bribes to penetrate the Chinese market. International institutions, too, are not free of scandals. The good name of the United Nations was tarnished after the oil-for-food programme scandal, which involved certain parties, individuals and companies in several countries, including the US, Australia, Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia and Switzerland. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme, introduced in 2000, was aimed at helping the lives of one billion people earning less than a dollar a day; corruption resulted in the cost of the programme to supply clean water and sanitation climbing by some US$48 billion. In a communist system, economic resources and activities are under the direct control of the state. Information is strictly controlled, the media is under the control of the government and civil society does not have the freedom to speak openly. Such a system of government allows the roots of corruption to grow. Beginning with the Deng Xiaoping era in 1978, although it retained a political doctrine based on communism, China radically transformed its economy, emerging as the second-largest economic power in the world today. Economic reforms have opened space for greater corruption, through a variety of new privatisation opportunities. New wealth created new problems. The Washington-based Global Financial Integrity estimated that US$2.83 trillion flowed out illegally from China between 2005 and 2011. More than 150 “economic fugitives” from China, the majority of whom were officials with a record of corruption, were now reported to be in the US. Reuters reported that Interpol had arrest warrants for 69 Chinese citizens for corruption, embezzlement, fraud and bribery. Xinhua News Agency, in July 2014, reported that since 2008, 730 Chinese nationals in various countries around the world have been extradited; suspected of committing economic crimes. President Xi Jinping has admitted openly that China was currently struggling with corruption, announcing a firm stance that his administration was determined to fight corruption. In a maiden speech after taking over leadership of the state, Xi stressed: “Inside the party, there are many problems that need to be addressed, especially the problems among party members and officials of corruption and taking bribes, being out of touch with the people, undue emphasis on formalities and bureaucracy; …to forge iron, one must be strong.” Chinese citizens are reminded that the Chinese military lost to the Japanese in 1894 even though China’s forces owned expensive ships from Europe. Historians attributed the defeat to corruption among high-ranking Chinese leaders at the time. Xi had warned that the party and the country would be destroyed if corruption was not stopped. Li Keqiang, in his first press conference after being appointed prime minister on March 15, 2013, asserted: “Stirring vested interest may be more difficult than stirring the soul… clean government should start with oneself. Only if one is upright himself should he ask others to be upright. After entering public service, we should give up all thought of making money.” Government officials living in luxury and holding massive receptions, including weddings, were investigated and asked to declare the sources of funding. The policy of declaring personal and family assets was introduced among party members and members of the administration. Raids were conducted on entertainment and prostitution centres, and action taken against police and local authorities for not stopping such activities. Since 2013, more than 200,000 officials have been sentenced for various offences. The democratic system of government upholds the doctrine of “the government of the people, by the people, for the people”. Regardless of its weaknesses, the democratic system is considered superior, having the mechanisms and channels to expose the corrupt practices of elite leadership. It is said to be the best module to enable transparency, accountability and checks and balances. The democratic doctrine allows the people to change the government if it fails to provide the best services to the people. India is known as the biggest democracy in the world, giving generous space to its people to voice their views. Even so, a democracy that allows for free speech has not been able to curb corruption effectively. Corrupt practices continue to grow like a parasite clinging on to every branch of the country’s administration, and are feared to be spreading. The case of Tehelka.com serves as an interesting reference. On March 13, 2001, Tehelka.com held a press conference, revealing a corruption scandal in the government’s acquisition of weapons. Video footage revealed the involvement of top political leaders, bureaucrats and the military. Two Tehelka.com journalists, posing as agents of West End International, negotiated a contract for the supply of safety equipment. A hidden camera recorded the illegal transaction. The footage also revealed that Bangaru Laxman, president of the Bharatiya Janata Party, received a bribe of 100,000 Indian rupees (US$2,170). Tehelka.com exposed a culture of corruption within the Indian Defence Ministry. Video footage showed senior military officers drinking whiskey with prostitutes. It also revealed that 16 military officers received kickbacks between September and December 2000. After a public outcry, Defence Minister George Fernandes resigned, Bangaru Laxman stepped down as Bharatiya Janata Party president, while four senior Defence Ministry officers were suspended. Tehelka.com was praised by the people for daring to expose the high level of corruption, but the government spread word that Tehelka.com had become an instrument of the opposition parties in addition to acting as agents for Pakistan and the European intelligence agencies, with the aim of disgracing the government. The Directorate of the Indian Intelligence Agency, Tax Authorities, Customs and the Police Department conducted various probes against Tehelka.com. Ironically, the investigation focused more on journalism ethics rather than the corrupt practices they exposed. In the end, Tehelka.com’s chief editor Tarun Tejpal was charged in September 2001 for the moral offence of offering prostitutes to military officials. Shanker Sharma, the largest investor in Tehelka.com, was imprisoned without charge. The number of Tehelka.com staff shrunk from 120 people in 2001 to four in 2003, while the company’s assets were reduced to just three computers and a few dusty chairs. In short, Tehelka.com was forced out of business for acting as whistle-blowers, while those exposed for corruption escaped punishment. George Fernandes was even reappointed as defence minister seven months after his resignation. India is deemed to have a continuing culture of corruption and abuse. Data in 2003 showed that only 15 per cent of the country’s poverty eradication funds reached the poor. A report by the Centre of International Policy, based in Washington, dated November 2010, noted that since achieving independence, India was estimated to have lost US$452 billion, at the rate of US$20 billion a year, through the illegal transfer of funds abroad. According to an interview with Julian Assange, published by Times Now News Channel on April 26, 2011, Swiss banks held more savings from Indian clients than any other citizens in the world. In Japan, the Lockheed scandal of 1976 saw prime minister Kakuei Tanaka’s involvement in the purchase of 21 Airbus aircraft by the All Nippon Airways. Tanaka went through a seven-year trial. In October 1983, he was convicted by the Tokyo District Court, sentenced to four years in prison and a fine of ¥500 million (RM15 million). Tanaka appealed. In July 1987, the Tokyo High Court upheld the decision. Tanaka once again appealed. Despite the conviction, Tanaka continued to receive the people’s support and was voted in as a member of parliament (Diet) in the Niigata area, with a large majority in the December 1983 elections. Tanaka’s entire trial proceedings took over 17 years. When he died on Dec 16, 1993, the appeal process was still pending, which meant that Tanaka managed to escape any punishment. A survey conducted in January 1995 by the Yomiuri Shimbun found that Tanaka’s popularity had not been affected by the Lockheed scandal. In fact, Tanaka was ranked highest over prime ministers Shigeru Yoshida, Eisaku Sato and Hayato Ikeda. Among supporters, he was respected as a leader who cared about the fate of the people, and is considered Japan’s most popular political leader in the post-World War 2 era. Japan has a score of 74 points and is ranked 18th in the Corruption Perception Index 2013. But corruption scandals have put Japan in a paradox, between the clear water on the lake surface, with the black mud on the lake’s bottom. Japan was close to zero status in petty corruption cases involving subordinates, but there was massive structural corruption involving top management. Japanese politicians often need huge capital for survival, to support their political activities and to gain political support. The 1976 Lockheed scandal was among the factors that led the US to enact the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Other major scandals in Japan include the Recruit case (1989), which caused the collapse of prime minister Noboru Takeshita’s administration; the Zenecon contractor cases (1993-1994), resulting in the conviction of a number of prefectural governors, while one committed suicide; and, the Bank of Japan/Ministry of Finance scandals (1997-1998), which resulted in the arrest, resignation and suicide of high-ranking officials. The political culture of post-WW2 Japan recorded election campaign expenses reaching US$10 billion; most of which were sponsored by a group known as the Yakuza, or mafia groups, which hover in the political and economic systems of Japan, donating to politicians in exchange for protection. Structural corruption is so endemic in the system, controlled by oligarchs, who practice the politics of patronage and compensation, and built a threesided corrupt structure (the Rotten triangle): a collusion between politicians, members of the bureaucracy and business leaders. The US is no exception to corruption scandals. Spiro Agnew became the first vice-president to resign in disgrace on Oct 10, 1973 after the Department of Justice found sufficient evidence of his political corruption and acceptance of kickbacks. As a compromise, Agnew chose not to challenge the charges against him, made under the Federal Income Tax Evasion Act, in exchange for the political corruption charges being dropped. He was fined US$10,000, sentenced to three years’ probation and prohibited from submitting an appeal. The Watergate scandal of June 17, 1972, revealed that president Richard Nixon knew and was involved in espionage operations. In addition to offering money to bury the case, Nixon used the CIA to obstruct the FBI from conducting an investigation, destroying evidence and dismissing staff who did not want to collaborate with him; a significant abuse of power. When Nixon’s involvement could no longer be hidden, he resigned on Aug 8, 1974. His successor, president Gerald Ford, gave Nixon a pardon for any crimes he did or might have committed as president; meaning that Nixon remained free of any charges or penalties. What is the moral behind the scandals that occurred in these three democracies? It reflects the value system in a society caught in the paradox between law, morality and emotion. Regardless of position and status, the granting of immunity releases a person who has committed an offence from being sentenced accordingly. It involves the question of morality, the emotional ties between followers and leaders, the esprit de corps among those in the same league, sparking loyalty and preventing the course of justice. They defend each other, shield each other, and protect their friends from retribution. Nicollo Machiavelli and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, citing examples from countries in the past, concluded that corruption happened when the people no longer cared, and, instead, gave their blind loyalty to leaders. They were too dependent on the leaders until they lost their independent minds and souls. As a result, society was trapped in the vicious cycle of corruption and became a corrupted community, and, therefore, could not control the leaders from practising corruption. Religious institutions must hold on to ethics and high moral values. However, the world has been exposed to various scandals involving the Vatican. Among them, Monsignor Nunzio Scarano was detained and questioned over suspected involvement in a plan to smuggle €20 million (RM82.4 million) from Switzerland to Italy. The Vatican Bank director, Paolo Cipriani, and his deputy, Massimo Tulli, were instructed to resign following a financial scandal involving €23 million. Islam is a comprehensive, complete and holistic religion. The life of this world sustains the life in the hereafter, as mentioned in verse 39 of Surah Al-Mu’min, which means: “O my people; the life of this world is only a temporary enjoyment, and the Hereafter is certainly the home for permanent residence” A hadith by Prophet Muhammad, which was related by Bazzar, Thabrani-Al-Targhib also states: “A slave’s feet won’t be able to move on the Day of Resurrection, until he is asked of these four things: Of his age, how did he spend his life? Of his youth, what did he use it for? Of his knowledge, did he practice it? Of his wealth, how did he acquire it and how was it spent?” Islam sets a high benchmark for preventing corruption by stressing the importance of integrity. It is a religion that forbids the misuse of power among those who have been entrusted with positions of power. Abu Humaid Ibn Sa’d As-Saidi, narrated what happened between Prophet Muhammad and Ibn Al-Lutabiyyah, whom he had appointed to collect alms. While Al-Lutabiyyah was conducting his duty, he was given a gift. When submitting the alms, the prophet asked him if he had been given anything else. Al-Lutabiyyah then informed the prophet that he had been given a token by those paying the alms. The prophet then asked whether he would have been given a gift if he had not been assigned to collect the alms. The prophet felt that the gifts would cast doubt and could lead to corruption, and advised that they be returned to the givers. The Quran and the prophet’s sunnah are filled with warnings forbidding Muslims from committing bribery. Muslims, Muslim leaders and Muslim countries have enough references to fulfil the trust and responsibility toward Siratul Mustaqim (“the true path”), as read in verse 6 of Surah Al-Fatihah. If Islam was fully internalised and practised, an Islamic nation under the leadership of Muslims should record zero corruption. On the night of Isra Mi’raj, the prophet saw a group of people whose tongues had been cut. He asked: “Who are those people?” The angel Gabriel answered: “They are the missionaries from among thy people who do not practise what they call.” Allah says in verse 44 Surah Al-Baqarah, meaning: “Do you order righteousness of the people and forget yourselves while you recite the Scripture? Then will you not reason?” The vision shown during Isra Mi’raj is a warning to anyone entrusted with the responsibility of leadership, especially those who have pledged to do right and fight wrongfulness, to avoid being caught in rhetoric.

Sultan of Perak Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah delivering his royal address during the 47th anniversary of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission on Wednesday in Kuala Lumpur. Seated on the stage are Dewan Negara president Tan Sri Abu Zahar Ujang (left) and MACC chief commissioner Tan Sri Abu Kassim Mohamed. Pic by Mohd Yusni Ariffin – TQ NST This entry was posted in Feature and tagged Corruption, MACC, malaysia, Sultan Perak on October 4, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/04/sultan-nazrin-facing-the-challenges-of-corruption/] .

Bribe: Warehouse operator charged assisting high-ranking Malaysian Customs officer KUALA LUMPUR: A warehouse operator was charged in the Sessions Court with assisting a high-ranking customs officer to take bribes related to the importation of untaxed liquor. Ooi Geim Leong, 41, claimed trial to allowing his bank account to be used by customs officer Som Chit Tiang, 48, to accept RM10,000 in bribes from a company involved in importation of untaxed liquor. Som, a senior assistant director at the Customs special investigation division in Putrajaya, was charged on Monday with taking said bribes as inducement not to take action against the same company. Ooi faces up to 20 years prison and a fine, for each of the three charges under Section 28(1)(c) of the Malaysian Anti Corruption Commission (MACC) Act 2009, if convicted. DPP Husmarudin Husin urged the court to set bail at RM15,000 and to order Ooi to surrender his passport. Ooi, who was unrepresented, plead for lower bail, claiming his bank accounts had been frozen and asked to keep his passport as the nature of his business requires him to travel. However, Husmarudin told the court that Ooi’s accounts had not been frozen. He added that while Ooi had been cooperative with the investigators, prior to his arrest at a hotel, Ooi was difficult to locate and was believed to have been on the run. Judge Allaudeen Ismail set bail at RM12,000 with one surety and ordered Ooi to surrender his passport. He added that Ooi could however request his passport be released on certain dates should he need to travel for work. The case is fixed for mention on Nov 10. – TQ The Star This entry was posted in News/Berita and tagged Corruption, customs, MACC, malaysia on October 3, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/bribe-warehouse-operator-charged-assisting-high-ranking-malaysian-customs-officer/] .

Sultan Perak: Jihad perangi rasuah

Titah Diraja Sultan Perak, Sultan Nazrin Shah sempena Ulang Tahun Penubuhan Badan Pencegah Rasuah (BPR/SPRM) Ke-47

Sultan Nazrin Shah bertitah sempena Ulang Tahun BPR/SPRM. Beta bersyukur ke hadrat Ilahi kerana dengan izin dari-Nya, Beta dapat berangkat untuk menzahirkan Titah Diraja sempena Sambutan Ulang Tahun Ke-47 penubuhan Badan Pencegah Rasuah yang kini dikenali dengan nama Suruhanjaya Pencegah Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM). Titah ini akan menyentuh dua aspek – pertama: senario umum dan kedua: menangani rasuah. Aspek Pertama: Senario umum; rasuah adalah perbuatan pecah amanah. Dosa pertama yang dilakukan manusia adalah kesalahan melanggar amanah; dikisahkan dalam ayat 115 Surah Taha bermaksud: “Dan sesungguhnya telah Kami perintahkan kepada Adam dahulu, maka ia lupa (akan perintah itu), dan tidak Kami dapati padanya kemahuan yang kuat”. Perintah terkandung dalam ayat 35 Surah Al-Baqarah yang bermaksud: “Dan Kami berfirman: Hai Adam, diamilah oleh kamu dan isterimu syurga ini, dan makanlah makanan-makanannya yang banyak lagi baik di mana saja yang kamu sukai, dan janganlah kamu dekati pohon ini, yang menyebabkan kamu termasuk orang-orang yang zalim.” Dokumen tertua ditemui menyentuh rasuah, terkandung dalam Arthasastra, tulisan BC Kautilya di India, pada tahun 300 sebelum Masihi. Di China, Dinasti Qing pada tahun 220 sebelum Masihi memahami konsep rasuah dan mengenakan hukuman berat ke atas mereka yang terbabit. Takrif rasuah Rasuah ditakrifkan perbuatan salah guna kuasa untuk memperkayakan atau memberi kelebihan kepada individu, anggota keluarga dan kenalan rapat ketika seseorang itu diamanahkan tanggungjawab mentadbir urus sumber awam. Prof Emeritus Dr Petrus van Duyne (Tilburg Universiti), penyelidik tersohor jenayah ekonomi, penyeludupan wang dan rasuah, mentakrifkan konsep rasuah secara saintifik: “Corruption is an improbity or decay in the decision-making process in which a decision-maker consents to deviate or demands deviation from the criterion which should rule his or her decision-making, in exchange for a reward or for the promise or expectation of a reward, while these motives influencing his or her decision-making cannot be part of the justification of the decision.” Rasuah berlaku di sektor awam dan swasta, malah hari ini turut berlaku dalam institusi antarabangsa, institusi agama serta badan sukarela dan badan sukan. Ban KiMoon, Setiausaha Agung Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu pada September 2007 menyatakan: “Corruption undermines democracy and the rule of law. It leads to violations of human rights. It erodes public trust in government. It can kill.” Rasuah sebagai antara sebab utama membantutkan pertumbuhan ekonomi, menghilangkan minat pelaburan asing, meningkatkan kos pentadbiran dan urus niaga, menidakkan rakyat daripada mendapat perkhidmatan serta mendorong kepada berlakunya ketidakstabilan politik. Banyak negara dianugerahi rahmat Ilahi dengan pelbagai sumber kekayaan tetapi kerana rasuah, ada yang terbenam dalam kemelut kemunduran – ada yang tertimbus dalam lumpur kemiskinan. Kekayaan negara disalah guna – hasil mahsul lesap, akibatnya kemunduran terus melanda – kemiskinan terus merebak. Apabila tidak ada kesungguhan untuk membanteras rasuah, ia akan tumbuh melebar – subur membesar, lalu diterima sebagai norma dan akhirnya meresap menjadi budaya, hingga memusnahkan sesebuah negara bangsa. Khazanah negara tiris akibat rasuah Rasuah mengakibatkan ketirisan khazanah negara, pembangunan tidak lestari, pencemaran alam sekitar, agihan kekayaan tidak seimbang, dan peningkatan kemiskinan. Antara tahun 2001 hingga 2010, hampir enam trilion dolar disalah guna di negara-negara miskin hingga menjejaskan kehidupan rakyat biasa. Dianggarkan, setiap tahun, satu trilion dolar pengubahan wang secara haram berlaku di negara-negara miskin dan kurang membangun; dianggarkan juga, setiap tahun, 38 ke 64 bilion dolar hasil dalam bentuk cukai di negara sedang membangun, tidak dipungut kerana rasuah. Ketirisan satu trilion dolar, menjadi punca kepada 3.6 juta kematian setahun; kerana hasil negara yang sepatutnya dibelanjakan untuk perkhidmatan kesihatan, makanan dan infrastruktur, telah dilesapkan. Perangkaan tahun 2012 mendedahkan, separuh daripada 61 juta kanak-kanak yang tercicir sekolah rendah berlaku di Sub Saharan Afrika. Jika rasuah berjaya dihapuskan di Sub Saharan Afrika, setiap tahun, 10 juta kanak-kanak akan mendapat kemudahan sekolah, 500,000 guru boleh dilantik, dan lebih 11 juta penghidap HIV/AIDS dapat dibekalkan ubat antiretroviral. Rasuah turut berlaku di negara maju – negara kaya, dalam pertubuhan antarabangsa; malah berlaku pada skala lebih besar, memberikan impak global hingga menjejaskan kehidupan insan di serata dunia. Bermakna, mereka di negara maju, tidak sebersih kain yang putih – tidak sejernih air di telaga zamzam. Sektor swasta tidak sunyi daripada skandal rasuah. Pada tahun 2012, bank ternama antarabangsa dikenakan denda 21 bilion dolar atas pelbagai kesalahan membabitkan fraud, mengelak cukai, manipulasi kadar faedah dan pelaburan berisiko tinggi. Syarikat Siemens pada tahun 2008, telah mengolah akaun syarikat untuk menghalalkan rasuah dengan menyediakan peruntukan 50 juta dolar, di bawah klasifikasi Bajet Rasuah Tahunan. Syarikat Siemens didenda 800 juta dolar di bawah akta The Foreign Corrupt Practices, Amerika Syarikat. Pada tahun 2010, enam syarikat minyak dan gas yang beroperasi di Amerika Syarikat didenda 236 juta dolar di bawah akta yang sama. Selama 25 tahun, syarikat Walmart menjadi subjek Foreign Corruption Act; Walmart akhirnya mengaku secara konsisten telah membayar rasuah di Mexico antara tahun 2003-2008. Rolls-Royce membuat pengakuan terbuka menggunakan rasuah sebagai instrumen untuk menembusi pasaran China. Institusi-institusi antarabangsa tidak bebas daripada pelbagai skandal. Nama baik Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu tercemar berikutan pendedahan skandal program ‘oil-for-food’ yang dilakukan oleh pihak tertentu, melibatkan individu dan syarikat di beberapa negara, antaranya, Amerika Syarikat, Australia, Britain, Jerman, Perancis, Russia dan Switzerland. Program Millenium Development Goals (MDG), diperkenalkan pada tahun 2000, bertujuan membantu nasib lebih satu bilion manusia yang berpendapatan kurang daripada satu dolar sehari; rasuah telah mengakibatkan kos program bekalan air bersih dan sanitasi meningkat 48 bilion dolar lebih tinggi. Sumber ekonomi dan kegiatan ekonomi di bawah sistem pemerintahan komunisme terletak di bawah kawalan langsung negara. Maklumat dikawal secara ketat, media berada di bawah kawalan pemerintah dan masyarakat awam tidak mempunyai kebebasan bersuara secara terbuka. Sistem pemerintahan sedemikian membolehkan akar rasuah tumbuh melata. Transformasi ekonomi China Bermula dengan era Deng Xiaoping pada tahun 1978, meskipun kekal dengan doktrin politik berteraskan komunisme, Negara China telah melakukan transformasi ekonomi secara radikal hingga kini muncul sebagai kuasa ekonomi kedua terbesar di dunia. Reformasi ekonomi membuka ruang untuk membolehkan berlakunya rasuah lebih besar, melalui pelbagai peluang baharu penswastaan. Kekayaan baharu mencetuskan masalah baharu. The Washington-based Global Financial Integrity menganggarkan 2.83 trilion dolar telah dialirkan keluar secara haram dari China di antara tahun 2005 hingga 2011. Lebih 150 ‘economic fugitives’ dari China, majoritinya terdiri daripada pegawai yang mempunyai rekod melakukan rasuah dilaporkan berada di Amerika Syarikat. Sumber Reuters melaporkan Interpol mempunyai waran tangkap terhadap 69 warga China atas kesalahan rasuah, menggelapkan wang, fraud, dan sogokan. Xinhua News Agency pada Julai 2014, melaporkan sejak tahun 2008, 730 warga China dari pelbagai negara di serata dunia, yang disyaki melakukan jenayah ekonomi telah diserahkan kembali. Presiden Xi Jinpeng mengakui secara terbuka bahawa China sedang dilanda masalah rasuah; mengumumkan pendirian tegas bahawa kepemimpinan beliau berazam untuk membanteras rasuah. Dalam ucapan sulungnya selepas mengambil alih kepemimpinan negara, Presiden Xi antara lain menegaskan: “Inside the party, there are many problems that need to be addressed, especially the problems among party members and officials of corruption and taking bribes, being out of touch with the people, undue emphasis on formalities and bureaucracy; …to forge iron, one must be strong.” Rakyat China diingatkan bahawa tentera China tewas kepada tentera Jepun pada tahun 1894 walaupun pertahanan China memiliki kapal yang mahal daripada Eropah. Sejarawan menyifatkan kekalahan China adalah disebabkan amalan rasuah dalam kalangan pemimpin tinggi China ketika itu. Presiden Xi memberi amaran bahawa parti dan negara akan musnah jika rasuah tidak dihentikan. Li Keqiang dalam sidang akhbar pertama selepas dilantik sebagai Perdana Menteri pada 15 Mac 2013, menegaskan: “stirring vested interest may be more difficult than stirring the soul…; clean government should start with oneself,. Only if one is upright himself should he ask others to be upright. After entering public service, we should give up all thought of making money”. Pengisytiharan harta Pegawai kerajaan yang hidup mewah, mengadakan majlis keraian secara besar-besaran termasuk majlis perkahwinan, disiasat, diminta mengisytiharkan sumber pembiayaan. Langkah pengisytiharan harta diri dan anggota keluarga diperkenalkan dalam kalangan ahli parti dan anggota pentadbiran. Serbuan dilakukan di pusat hiburan dan pelacuran, dan tindakan dikenakan kepada polis serta pihak berkuasa tempatan kerana tidak bertindak memberhentikan aktiviti sedemikian. Sejak tahun 2013, lebih 200,000 pegawai dijatuhkan pelbagai hukuman. Sistem pemerintahan berteraskan demokrasi, berpegang kepada doktrin kerajaan rakyat, oleh rakyat, untuk rakyat. Betapa sekalipun kecacatan yang ada, sistem demokrasi sering kali dianggap lebih superior, memiliki mekanisme dan saluran untuk mendedahkan amalan rasuah elit pemerintahan. Ia dikatakan modul terbaik, membolehkan berlangsungnya amalan ketelusan, akauntabiliti serta semak dan imbang. Doktrin demokrasi membolehkan rakyat menukar kerajaan. Jika kerajaan gagal memberikan perkhidmatan terbaik kepada rakyat. India terkenal sebagai demokrasi terbesar dunia, memberi ruang kebebasan yang luas kepada warga untuk bersuara. Namun demokrasi yang mengizinkan kebebasan bersuara tidak banyak membantu membendung rasuah secara berkesan. Amalan rasuah terus menjalar bagaikan parasit yang subur hidup di setiap pepohon pentadbiran negara. Ia dibimbangkan semakin merebak. Peristiwa Tehelka.com adalah kes menarik untuk dijadikan rujukan. Pada 13 Mac 2001, Tehelka.com mengadakan sidang akhbar, mendedahkan skandal rasuah dalam urusan pembelian senjata. Rakaman video mendedahkan penglibatan pemimpin tinggi politik, birokrat dan tentera. Dua wartawan Tehelka.com menyamar sebagai ejen Syarikat West End International, berunding untuk mendapatkan kontrak bagi membekalkan peralatan keselamatan. Kamera dipasang secara sulit merakamkan transaksi rasuah yang berlaku. Rakaman video mendedahkan Bangaru Laxman, Presiden Parti Bharatiya Janata menerima sogokan 100,000 Indian Rupee (2,170 dolar). Tehelka.com dedah rasuah Tehelka.com turut mendedahkan budaya rasuah di Kementerian Pertahanan India. Rakaman video memperlihatkan pegawai kanan tentera minum wiski sambil berfoya-foya bersama pelacur; juga mendedahkan 16 pegawai tentera menerima sogokan antara September hingga Disember 2000. Atas desakan rakyat, Menteri Pertahanan George Fernandez meletakkan jawatan, Bangaru Laxman meletakkan jawatan Presiden Parti Bharatiya Janata, empat Pegawai Kanan Kementerian Pertahanan digantung kerja. Tehelka.com dipuji rakyat kerana berani mendedahkan perlakuan rasuah peringkat tinggi; tetapi kerajaan menguar-uarkan bahawa Tehelka.com menjadi instrumen parti pembangkang, di samping berperanan sebagai ejen Pakistan dan kepada Agensi Perisikan Eropah, bertujuan jahat memburukkan kerajaan. Direktorat Badan Perisikan India, Pihak Berkuasa Percukaian, Jabatan Kastam dan Polis, bergabung tenaga, melakukan pelbagai siasatan terhadap Tehelka.com. Ironinya, siasatan lebih menumpukan kepada etika kewartawanan dan bukannya perlakuan rasuah yang didedahkan. Kesudahannya, Ketua Pengarang Tehelka.com, Tarun Tejpal didakwa pada September 2001 atas kesalahan moral menawarkan pelacur kepada pegawai tentera. Shanker Sharma, pelabur terbesar Tehelka.com dipenjarakan tanpa dakwaan. Bilangan staf Tehelka.com menguncup daripada 120 orang pada tahun 2001 kepada empat orang pada tahun 2003, di samping aset syarikat yang tinggal hanya tiga komputer dan beberapa kerusi berdebu. Bermakna, Tehelka.com terpaksa gulung tikar kerana bertindak sebagai whistle blower; sementara pihak yang didedahkan melakukan rasuah, terlepas daripada hukuman; malah George Fernandez dilantik semula sebagai Menteri Pertahanan tujuh bulan selepas meletakkan jawatan. India disifatkan memiliki budaya rasuah berterusan dan berulang. Data tahun 2003 menunjukkan hanya 15 peratus daripada Dana Membasmi Kemiskinan, sampai kepada rakyat miskin. Laporan The Centre of International Policy yang berpangkalan di Washington bertarikh November 2010 mencatatkan, sejak mencapai kemerdekaan, India dianggarkan kehilangan 452 bilion dolar, pada kadar 20 bilion dolar setahun melalui pemindahan wang ke luar negara secara haram. Wawancara Julian Assange yang disiarkan oleh Times Now News Channel, pada 26 April 2011, menyatakan rekod simpanan wang dalam bank-bank di Switzerland dari kalangan warga India mengatasi warga lain dunia. Di Jepun, Skandal Lockheed 1976, melibatkan Perdana Menteri Kakuei Tanaka dalam urusan pembelian 21 pesawat Airbus oleh All Nipon Airways. Kakuei Tanaka melalui proses perbicaraan mengambil masa tujuh tahun. Pada Oktober 1983, Tanaka disabitkan oleh Mahkamah Daerah Tokyo, dijatuhkan hukuman empat tahun penjara dan denda 500 juta Yen. Tanaka mengemukakan rayuan. Pada Julai 1987, Mahkamah Tinggi Tokyo mengekalkan keputusan; Tanaka sekali lagi mengemukakan rayuan. Meskipun disabitkan kesalahan, Tanaka tetap mendapat sokongan rakyat, dipilih sebagai Ahli Parlimen (DIET) kawasan Niigata dengan kemenangan majoriti besar dalam pilihan raya yang berlangsung pada Disember 1983. Seluruh prosiding perbicaraan Tanaka melewati 17 tahun. Ketika Tanaka meninggal dunia pada 16 Disember 1993, proses rayuannya masih belum selesai; bermakna Tanaka terlepas daripada menjalani hukuman. Soal selidik dilakukan pada Januari 1995 oleh akhbar Yomiuri Shimbun mendapati, populariti Tanaka tidak terjejas kerana Skandal Lockheed, malah Tanaka berada di ranking teratas berbanding Perdana Menteri Yoshida Shigeru, Sato Eisaku dan Ikeda Hayato. Dalam kalangan penyokong, Tanaka disanjung sebagai pemimpin yang mengambil berat nasib rakyat, dianggap pemimpin politik Jepun paling popular pada era pasca Perang Dunia Kedua. Jepun hampir capai sifar rasuah Indeks Persepsi Rasuah 2013, mencatatkan Jepun mencapai 74 markah, berada pada ranking ke-18. Namun skandal rasuah yang berlaku, meletakkan Jepun berada dalam paradoks, di antara jernih air di permukaan tasik dengan lumpur hitam di dasar tasik. Jepun dianggap hampir mencapai status sifar rasuah pada peringkat petty corruption yang melibatkan pegawai bawahan, tetapi berlaku structural corruption secara besar-besaran melibatkan pihak atasan. Ahli politik Jepun perlu modal besar untuk survival, menampung perbelanjaan aktiviti politik dan untuk mendapatkan sokongan politik. Skandal Lockheed 1976, antara faktor yang mendorong Amerika Syarikat menggubal The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Skandal besar lain di Jepun adalah kes Recruit (1989), menjadi punca kepada kejatuhan pentadbiran Perdana Menteri Noboru Takeshita, kes-kes kontraktor Zenecon (1993-1994), mengakibatkan beberapa Prefectural Governors disabitkan kesalahan dan seorang daripadanya membunuh diri, dan skandal Bank of Japan/Kementerian Kewangan (1997-1998), mengakibatkan tangkapan, peletakan jawatan dan membunuh diri beberapa pegawai tinggi. Budaya politik yang berlangsung di Jepun pasca Perang Dunia Kedua mencatatkan belanja bagi tujuan kempen pilihan raya mencecah 10 bilion dolar; sebahagian besar perbelanjaan ditaja oleh kumpulan yang dikenali sebagai Yakuza, kumpulan mafia yang berlegar dalam sistem politik dan sistem ekonomi Jepun, menghulurkan derma kepada ahli-ahli politik, kemudiannya mendapat perlindungan daripada ahli politik. Structural Corruption begitu endemik dalam sistem yang dikawal oleh oligarki yang mengamalkan politik naungan dan budaya imbuhan lalu terbina segi tiga yang reput, persepakatan, di antara ahli politik, anggota birokrasi dan tokoh perniagaan. Amerika Syarikat tidak terkecuali dengan skandal rasuah dan salah guna kuasa. Spiro Agnew adalah Naib Presiden yang pertama meletakkan jawatan dalam keadaan aib pada 10 Oktober 1973 kerana Jabatan Kehakiman mendapati cukup bukti beliau melakukan rasuah politik dan menerima sogokan. Agnew berkompromi untuk tidak mencabar dakwaan di bawah Federal Income Tax Evasion Act jika dakwaan rasuah politik digugurkan. Beliau dikenakan denda 10,000 dolar, dihukum tiga tahun probation dan ditegah daripada mengemukakan rayuan. Skandal Watergate berlaku pada 17 Jun 1972. Presiden Richard Nixon mengetahui dan terlibat dengan operasi espionage tersebut. Selain menyogok wang untuk menutup kes, Presiden Nixon turut menggunakan CIA untuk menghalang FBI daripada melakukan siasatan, memusnahkan bukti dan memecat staf yang tidak mahu bersubahat dengannya; perbuatan salah guna kuasa yang ketara. Apabila penglibatan Presiden Nixon tidak lagi dapat dilindungi, beliau meletakkan jawatan pada 8 Ogos 1974. Pengganti beliau, Presiden Gerald Ford memberikan Richard Nixon pengampunan di atas apa juga jenayah yang telah beliau lakukan atau mungkin telah lakukan ketika menjawat jawatan Presiden; bermakna Richard Nixon bebas daripada sebarang dakwaan mahupun hukuman. Apakah moral di sebalik skandal yang berlaku di tiga negara demokrasi ini. Ia mencerminkan sistem nilai dalam masyarakat yang terperangkap dalam paradoks antara undang-undang, moraliti dan emosi. Betapa jawatan dan status, memberikan imuniti melepaskan seseorang yang melakukan kesalahan daripada menjalani hukuman. Ia melibatkan persoalan moral, betapa ikatan emosi di antara pengikut dengan pemimpin, betapa esprit de corps di antara mereka yang berada dalam liga yang sama, mencetuskan kesetiaan yang menghalang proses keadilan dapat dilaksanakan; mereka saling mempertahankan, saling melindungi, saling membela rakan dan kawan daripada dikenakan hukuman. Nicollo Machiavelli dan Jean-Jacques Rousseau, memetik contoh daripada negara era silam, merumuskan kerosakan rasuah berlaku apabila rakyat sudah tidak mengambil kisah, malah memberikan kesetiaan yang membuta tuli kepada pemimpin kerana terlalu bergantung pada pemimpin hingga hilangnya minda dan jiwa merdeka; akibatnya masyarakat juga terperangkap dalam putaran ganas rasuah dan menjadi masyarakat yang rasuah, hatta tidak berupaya mengawal pemimpin daripada melakukan rasuah. Institusi agama sewajibnya berpegang kepada etika dan nilai moral yang tinggi. Namun, dunia didedahkan dengan pelbagai skandal di Vatican. Antaranya, Monsignor Nunzio Scarano, ditahan dan disoal siasat kerana disyaki terlibat dalam perancangan penyeludupan 20 juta Euro dari Switzerland ke Itali. Pengarah Bank Vatican, Paolo Cipriani dan Timbalan Pengarah Massimo Tulli diarah berundur, disyaki terlibat dengan skandal kewangan bernilai 23 juta Euro. Dunia kesinambungan akhirat Islam agama syumul, menyeluruh lagi sempurna. Kehidupan dunia berkesinambungan dengan kehidupan akhirat seperti diperingatkan dalam firman Allah SWT, Surah Al-Mu’min, ayat 39 bermaksud: “…,sesungguhnya kehidupan dunia ini hanyalah kesenangan (sementara) dan sesungguhnya akhirat itulah negeri yang kekal.” Hadis Rasulullah SAW diriwayatkan oleh Bazzar, Thabrani-Al-Targhib bermaksud: “Tidak dapat bergeser kaki seorang hamba pada hari kiamat, sehingga ia ditanya empat perkara: Tentang umurnya, untuk apa dihabiskan? Tentang masa mudanya, untuk apa ia gunakan? Tentang ilmunya, apakah ia mengamalkannya? Tentang hartanya dari mana ia dapat dan ke mana ia belanjakan?” Islam menetapkan tanda aras yang tinggi untuk menghindarkan rasuah dengan menegaskan aspek integriti. Islam menegah keras perbuatan salah guna kuasa dalam kalangan mereka yang telah diamanahkan dengan jawatan dan kuasa. Abu Humaid Ibn Sa’d As-Saidi, meriwayatkan peristiwa di antara Rasulullah SAW dengan Ibn Al-Lutabiyyah yang Baginda lantik bertugas memungut zakat. Semasa Al-Lutabiyyah memungut zakat, beliau turut diberikan hadiah. Ketika menyerahkan kutipan zakat, Rasulullah SAW bertanya, bahagian yang beliau tidak serahkan. Al-Lutabiyyah memaklumkan, bahagian tersebut telah dihadiahkan oleh beberapa pembayar zakat kepadanya. Rasulullah SAW bertanya, adakah beliau akan diberikan hadiah, jika beliau tidak ditugaskan memungut zakat; Rasulullah SAW menganggap pemberian sedemikian diragukan, berkemungkinan menjadi pencetus kepada perbuatan rasuah, lalu menasihatkan agar ia dikembalikan kepada pemberi. Al-Quran dan sunah Rasulullah SAW sarat dengan peringatan menegah ummah daripada melakukan rasuah. Umat Islam, pemimpin Islam dan negara Islam mempunyai cukup rujukan untuk memenuhi amanah dan tanggung jawab menuju Siratul Mustaqim iaitu “jalan lurus yang dipohonkan”, menurut yang diseru dalam ayat 6, surah Al-Fatihah. Jika ajaran Islam dihayati lalu diamalkan sepenuhnya, negara Islam di bawah pimpinan umat Islam sewajibnya sifar rasuah. Pada malam berlakunya peristiwa Isra Mi’raj, Rasulullah SAW melihat sekelompok manusia yang lidahnya digunting-gunting. Baginda bertanya, “Siapakah orang itu?” Jibril Alai Hissalam menjawab, “Mereka adalah para mubaligh dari kalangan umat Mu yang tidak mengamalkan apa yang mereka dakwahkan.” Firman Allah dalam ayat 44 Surah Al-Baqarah bermaksud: “Mengapakah kamu suruh orang lain (mengerjakan) kebajikan sedang kamu melupakan diri (kewajipan) mu sendiri, padahal kamu membaca Al Kitab…” Gambaran diperlihatkan ketika peristiwa Isra Mi’raj wajib dijadikan peringatan oleh setiap insan yang diamanahkan dengan tanggungjawab pimpinan, apatah lagi dalam kalangan mereka yang berikrar akan melakukan yang makruf dan menentang yang mungkar, supaya ikrar tidak tergantung dalam retorik. Aspek Kedua: Cabaran menangani rasuah. Ternyata rasuah berlaku dalam setiap sistem pemerintahan dan dalam setiap negara. Kautilya ketika menghasilkan Arthashastra mengenal pasti 40 kaedah menyalahgunakan wang yang dilakukan pegawai awam untuk kepentingan peribadi. Kautilya menyatakan: “Just as it is impossible not to taste honey or the poison that finds itself at the tip of the tounge, so it is impossible for a government servant not to eat up, at least, a bit of the King’s revenue. Just as a fish underwater cannot possibly be found out either as drinking or not drinking the water, so government work cannot be found out (while) taking money (for themselves)”. Transparacency International, menyatakan misi atau mission statement; “(Corruption) undermines good government, fundamentally distorts public policy, leads to the misallocation of resources and particularly hurts the poor. Controlling it is only possible with the cooperation of a wide range of stakeholders in the integrity system, including most importantly, the state, civil society, and the private sector.” Rasuah sering kali menjadi isu utama menyebabkan pemimpin dijatuhkan lalu diganti dengan yang baharu. Setiap pemimpin diberikan amanah berikrar mahu memerangi rasuah. Undang-undang baharu, digubal; undang-undang sedia ada, dipinda; pelbagai agensi dibentuk; rakyat dijanjikan dan harapan diberikan; tetapi jika undang-undang hanya berstatus dokumen bertulis, tidak dikuatkuasakan, ia tidak mungkin menjadi senjata berkesan memberi kemenangan dalam medan perang menghadapi rasuah. Pelbagai agensi ditubuhkan tidak akan menjadi briged perang yang boleh mengibarkan bendera kemenangan jika medan memerangi rasuah dilakukan secara selektif. Dalam kalangan negara Asia, Filipina memiliki instrumen pencegahan rasuah paling banyak, tujuh undang-undang dan 19 agensi penguat kuasa. Presiden Ferdinand Marcos memperkenalkan lima Agensi Pencegah Rasuah yang baharu dalam tempoh 21 tahun era pemerintahannya (1965-1986). Namun, ia hanyalah kosmetik hiasan untuk melindungi wajah yang hodoh. Bumi dan langit Filipina sarat diselubungi mendung rasuah. Amalan rasuah memuncak ketika era pemerintahan Marcos; amalan kronisme berlaku secara berleluasa, sanak saudara dan kenalan rapat dilantik mengetuai pelbagai agensi; masing-masing lebih cenderung mengumpul kekayaan peribadi. Usaha Malaysia banteras rasuah Ketika berucap pada Perasmian Persidangan Pertubuhan Agensi Penguat Kuasa Anti Rasuah Antarabangsa pada 4 Oktober 2012, Perdana Menteri menegaskan azam dan usaha kerajaan Malaysia untuk membasmi rasuah. Usaha membanteras rasuah ditetapkan sebagai satu daripada tujuh komponen Bidang Keberhasilan Utama Negara (NKRA) di bawah Program Transformasi Kerajaan (GTP) dan Program Transformasi Ekonomi (ETP). Pelbagai langkah susulan dirintis termasuk penubuhan 14 mahkamah khas rasuah. Kajian Persepsi Keberkesanan Tindakan SPRM 2013, menunjukkan tahap keyakinan rakyat terhadap keberkesanan SPRM telah meningkat daripada 64 peratus ke 65.8 peratus; dan tahap sokongan masyarakat kepada SPRM turut meningkat daripada 86.4 peratus dalam tahun 2012 kepada 87.3 peratus dalam tahun 2013. Usaha terus dirintis untuk memperkemaskan undang-undang di samping meningkatkan kapasiti dan capability agensi penguat kuasa. Undang-undang dan agensi penguat kuasa adalah instrumen yang perlu dilengkapi dengan program yang komprehensif lagi holistik. Memahami latar belakang pelaku rasuah akan memberikan kelebihan kepada petugas untuk berupaya memberikan preskripsi dan diagnostik yang tepat. Kategori pelaku rasuah Secara simplistik, pelaku rasuah terbahagi kepada dua kategori. Kategori pertama, adalah kumpulan yang terdesak, terpaksa melakukannya kerana kesempitan hidup, ketidakupayaan mengimbangkan gaji untuk membiayai keperluan asas harian. Data Laporan Model Ekonomi Baru menunjukkan, 80 peratus isi rumah di negara ini berpendapatan kurang RM5,000 sebulan; 40 peratus isi rumah berpendapatan kurang RM2,000 sebulan; 78.6 peratus penyimpan KWSP berpendapatan kurang RM3,000 sebulan. Tahap keupayaan pelaburan dalam kalangan majoriti Bumiputera boleh dimanifestasikan dengan data yang menunjukkan 75 peratus penabung Amanah Saham Bumiputera memiliki purata tabungan hanya RM611 seorang. Permintaan Presiden CUEPACS agar bank membekalkan lebih banyak not RM10 dalam mesin ATM, memberikan petanda bahawa pada masa tertentu, sebilangan pemilik kad ATM, tidak pun mempunyai baki minimum RM50 dalam akaun masing-masing. Data menyentuh agihan sangat membimbangkan dalam usaha gigih negara mahu mencapai taraf negara maju dengan sasaran pendapatan perkapita RM48,000 pada tahun 2020. Agihan tidak seimbang dan jurang pendapatan yang lebar akan mewujudkan persekitaran yang boleh menyuburkan budaya petty corruption. Apakah opsyen yang ada dalam kalangan pegawai awam mahupun swasta jika gaji tidak dapat menampung perbelanjaan hidup harian? Majoriti yang berada dalam kategori ini, sebenarnya, tidak mahu melakukan rasuah. Ada yang melakukan kerja kedua, berniaga di pasar malam, memandu teksi secara sambilan, menjual kuih, mengambil upah menjahit serta melakukan pelbagai kerja sampingan untuk mencukupkan pendapatan. Akibatnya mereka tidak cukup rehat – mereka keletihan, menyebabkan mereka menjadi petugas yang lesu ketika bertugas lalu menjejaskan produktiviti. Inilah hakikat senario semasa di dalam negara. Bilangan yang tergolong dalam kategori ini akan semakin bertambah jika formula berkesan tidak diperkenalkan terutama memberikan fokus kepada aspek perumahan, makanan, pengangkutan serta khidmat kesihatan dan rawatan perubatan yang kosnya semakin hari semakin meningkat. Negara tidak boleh berada dalam minda penafian akan realiti sebenar yang sedang berlaku. Ia cabaran besar kepada negara. Ia bukan sakit tekak yang bersifat sementara, boleh diubati dengan gula-gula strepsil. Ia penyakit sosial yang serius, memerlukan rawatan intensif daripada doktor dan pakar bedah sosial, memerlukan formula perubatan dari farmasi sosial yang berupaya merangka dasar sosial yang komprehensif lagi holistik untuk dilaksanakan. Pelaku rasuah kategori kedua terdiri daripada kalangan yang bersifat tamak – bersifat haloba; secara umumnya daripada kumpulan atasan, berjawatan penting, bernafsu tinggi, mengamalkan gaya hidup mewah – gaya hidup megah. Pelaku rasuah dalam kategori ini amat licik, melakukan rasuah secara sofistikated, bijak membersihkan tangannya daripada sebarang lumpur kekotoran, tidak mudah untuk disabitkan, di samping sebahagian mempunyai hubungan intim dengan orang atasan. Usaha perangi rasuah fokus dua aspek Usaha memerangi rasuah wajib memberi fokus kepada dua aspek. Aspek pertama LANGKAH PUNITIF YANG TEGAS DAN TIDAK SELEKTIF, dilaksanakan tanpa gentar – tanpa pilih kasih; aspek kedua: LANGKAH PREVENTIF UNTUK MENGUKUHKAN INTEGRITI. TEGAS dan TIDAK SELEKTIF adalah dua kata kunci penting yang wajib dijadikan prinsip. Negara mempunyai contoh yang boleh dijadikan tanda aras dan rujukan, dijadikan sumber inspirasi dan sumber kekuatan untuk berani bertindak. Majistret pertama yang dilantik di Pulau Pinang lebih 200 tahun lalu pada era pemerintahan kolonial, dipecat kerana melakukan rasuah. Pada era kepemimpinan Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, Menteri Pelajaran merangkap Menteri Kesihatan pada tahun 1964, Abdul Rahman Talib kalah dalam perbicaraan kes sivil melawan S P Seenivasagam, memberi implikasi Abdul Rahman Talib terlibat dengan rasuah. Abdul Rahman Talib mengundur diri dari menjadi anggota Jemaah Menteri. Sokongan terhadap parti pemerintah, PERIKATAN, merosot pada Pilihan Raya Umum 1969. Tun Abdul Razak peka membaca mesej rakyat. Tun Abdul Razak meneliti isu-isu utama yang dijadikan peluru menyerang Parti Perikatan dan kerajaan semasa kempen pilihan raya; lalu segera bertindak melakukan langkah pembetulan. Imej kerajaan berkaitan rasuah ditangani tanpa bertangguh. Tun Abdul Razak tidak memberi perlindungan kepada anggota pentadbiran dan ahli parti yang terpalit dengan rasuah. Atas nasihat Datuk Harun Hashim, Majlis Gerakan Negara (MAGERAN) melalui Ordinan Darurat No. 22, memberikan kuasa kepada Ketua Pengarah Badan Pencegah Rasuah (BPR), membekukan aset orang yang disyaki melakukan rasuah. Menteri Besar Perak, Datuk Ahmad Said didedahkan memiliki hampir satu perpuluhan dua juta ringgit (RM1,138,403); tiga ratus tiga puluh ribu ringgit (RM329,979) disita kerana didapati diperoleh secara rasuah. Ahmad Said meletakkan jawatan pada Februari 1970. Pada Julai 1970, Menteri Besar Terengganu, Ibrahim Fikri diarah bercuti dua bulan; selepas itu beliau digantikan dengan Mahmood Sulaiman. Pada peringkat Persekutuan, Khaw Kai Boh diarah berundur daripada menjadi anggota Jemaah Menteri pada September 1970. Pada era kehebatan Rom, pemerintahan diktator diizinkan undang-undang untuk dilantik bagi tempoh enam bulan dalam situasi negara menghadapi krisis; selepas itu kuasa hendaklah dikembalikan kepada rakyat. Cincinnatus, Jeneral Bersara, yang diserahkan kuasa memerintah secara diktator adalah contoh pemimpin Rom yang tidak gilakan pangkat mahupun sanjungan. Cincinnatus dilantik memimpin ketika Rom menghadapi krisis; selepas Rom kembali tenteram, walaupun rakyat Rom memohon agar dia terus memimpin, Cincinnatus, menolaknya, dan mengembalikan kuasa kepada rakyat. Machiavelli merujuk sifat sedemikian sebagai ciri mulia; sifat seorang pemimpin yang memiliki kekebalan serta daya tahan daripada melakukan rasuah kerana tidak haloba untuk mengekalkan kuasa. Sifat terpuji Cincinnatus, sebenarnya menjelma pada Tun Abdul Razak yang mindanya tidak boleh dirasuah dengan sifat tamak mempertahankan kuasa. Sebagai Pengarah MAGERAN, pasca tragedi 13 Mei, Tun Razak memiliki kuasa mutlak. Apabila negara kembali aman, meskipun dipohon untuk tidak membubarkan MAGERAN, Tun Abdul Razak memilih untuk mengembalikan kuasa kepada institusi rakyat; sistem demokrasi berparlimen dihidupkan semula. Pada era pimpinan Datuk Hussein Onn, Datuk Harun Idris pada tahun 1976 disabitkan kesalahan rasuah. Datuk Harun dibicarakan di hadapan Paduka Ayahanda Beta, ketika itu Hakim Raja Azlan Shah. Hakim Raja Azlan Shah menghadapi tugas berat. Tertuduh, bukan sahaja mempunyai sokongan politik, tetapi seorang individu yang baginda kenal. Ketika menjatuhkan hukuman antara lain Hakim Raja Azlan Shah menyatakan: “It is painful for me to have to sentence a man I know. I wish it were the duty of some other judge to perform that task. To me this hearing seems to re-affirm the vitality of the rule of law. But to many of us, this hearing also suggests a frightening decay in the integrity of some of our leaders. It has given horrible illustrations of Lord Acton’s aphorism ‘power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely’, and has focussed concern on the need of some avowed limitations upon political authority. ..the law is no respector of persons. Nevertheless it will be impossible to ignore the fact that you are in a different category from any person that I have ever tried. It would be impossible to ignore the fact that, in the eyes of millions of our countrymen and women, you are a patriot and a leader. Even those who differ from you in politics look upon you as a man of high ideals. You had every chance to reach the greatest height of human achievement. But half-way along the road, you allowed avarice to corrupt you. It is incomprehensible how a man in your position could not in your own conscience, recognise corruption for what it is. In so doing, you have not only betrayed your party cause, for which you have spoken so eloquently, but also the oath of office which you have taken and subscribed before your Sovereign Ruler, and above all the law of which you are its servant”. Utama kedaulatan undang-undang Penghakiman itu mengandungi bukan sekadar kata-kata mensabitkan kesalahan dan menjatuhkan hukum, ia turut mengandungi komponen nasihat, teguran, peringatan dan amaran, agar dijadikan teladan. Tentulah berat bagi Hakim Raja Azlan Shah untuk menzahirkan ungkapan kata-kata sedemikian keras – sedemikian tegas terhadap tertuduh yang turut baginda kenali; tetapi Hakim Raja Azlan Shah perlu lebih mengutamakan kedaulatan undang-undang dan kepentingan umum daripada kenalan. Bertindak secara tegas lagi tidak selektif bukan satu opsyen, tetapi satu kemestian. Allah SWT telah memperlihatkan contoh panduan. Nabi Adam adalah ciptaan Ilahi, dimuliakan, dikurniakan status tinggi hingga malaikat diperintahkan sujud kepadanya. Namun apabila peraturan gagal dipatuhi, hukuman dilaksanakan oleh Ilahi secara tegas lagi segera; Nabi Adam Alaihissalam diperintah keluar dari syurga. Demikian tegasnya prinsip melaksanakan keadilan dalam Islam yang tidak sama sekali memberi sebarang keistimewaan atau pengecualian kepada sesiapa sahaja yang melakukan kesalahan baik diri sendiri, teman rapat, kaum keluarga mahupun ibu bapa. Perintah yang terkandung di dalam ayat itu diperkukuhkan lagi dengan u hadis Rasulullah SAW yang bermaksud: “Sesungguhnya telah binasa orang yang sebelum kamu ia itu sekiranya yang mencuri itu yang berpangkat tinggi, lalu mereka dibiarkan sahaja; tetapi jika yang mencuri itu mereka yang lemah, lalu dengan segera dijatuhkan hukuman ke atasnya. Demi Allah, yang aku di dalam kekuasaan Nya, kalaulah Fatimah binti Muhammad mencuri, nescaya ku kudungkan tangannya.” Tingkat integriti Aspek preventif memerlukan usaha meningkatkan integriti agar insan dibina dengan ketahanan dalaman, tidak terpengaruh oleh dorongan nafsu. Sifat tamak adalah faktor yang sering kali menjerumuskan manusia melakukan dosa. Islam menganjurkan insan untuk mengamalkan sifat kesederhanaan, menjauhkan diri daripada sifat bermegah dan bermewah; tercatat peringatan Ilahi dalam Kisah Nabi Hud Alaihissalam, pada ayat 128 Surah Asy-Syu’araa. Betapa dinding ketahanan iman ditembusi kerana tarikan untuk mendapatkan kuasa. Nafsu gilakan kuasa nyata boleh menewaskan kewarasan akal. Memperkukuhkan iman adalah benteng pertahanan yang wajib dibina untuk meningkatkan daya tahan insan daripada tergelincir dengan tarikan kebendaan – tarikan kemewahan serta tarikan kepada pangkat dan tarikan kepada kuasa. Insan wajib diperingatkan dengan firman Allah SWT yang terkandung dalam ayat 35 Surah AlAnbiyaa bermaksud: “Tiap-tiap yang berjiwa akan merasakan mati. Kami akan menguji kamu dengan keburukan dan kebaikan sebagai cubaan (yang sebenarbenarnya). Dan hanya kepada Kamilah kamu dikembalikan.” David Owen, dalam karyanya, ‘The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power‘, melakukan analisis perlakuan rasuah daripada lensa seorang doktor perubatan; Owen menyifatkan perlakuan rasuah yang berlaku kerana gilakan kuasa adalah satu penyakit mental. Mahatma Ghandi memerhatikan bahawa kuasa membuatkan manusia menjadi tuli dan buta; lalu keputusan dilakukan berdasarkan naluri; kepuasan peribadi mengatasi kepentingan awam; sebarang pendapat bercanggah, meskipun datang daripada kenalan rapat, dianggap bersuara musuh – dianggap mengancam kedudukannya; lalu pelbagai tindakan dilakukan untuk menghapuskan apa jua tentangan. Kehidupan dunia adalah ujian. Pangkat dan jawatan adalah ujian. Amanah dan tanggung jawab juga ujian. Menegak yang makruf dan menentang yang mungkar adalah tuntutan. Setiap janji diungkapkan, setiap perkara dilakukan atau tidak dilakukan akan diperiksa pada hari kebangkitan; ketika itu tidak ada peguam bela untuk membela dosa yang dilakukan, begitu juga amanah yang gagal disempurnakan. Memerangi rasuah adalah jihad, yang perlu disemaikan di hati sanubari insan. Semoga Allah SWT memberikan petunjuk dan kekuatan kepada setiap anggota Suruhanjaya Pencegah Rasuah Malaysia, gigih menyempurnakan tugas berat membasmi rasuah. – TQ Berita Harian This entry was posted in News/Berita and tagged MACC, malaysia, rasuah, sprm, Sultan Perak on October 3, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/sultan-perak-jihad-perangi-rasuah/] .

MACC: Arrest of senior Customs officers ‘is a cleansing process’ KUALA LUMPUR: The arrest of senior customs officers for alleged corruption by the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) is to enhance the image and integrity of the Royal Customs and Excise Department. MACC Chief Commissioner Tan Sri Abu Kassim Mohamed said the collaboration between the customs and the MACC shows that the government is serious in fighting corruption. “This is one way to improve the integrity of the Customs Department. The people should not view it from a negative angle. It is a cleansing process. “Corruption does not involve all customs officers. It is important to prevent a repeat in the future,” he told Bernama after the Ruang Bicara programme on Bernama TV Thursday. Abu Kassim stressed that MACC’s Consulting and Inspection Division will work with the Customs Department to identify management areas with high risk of fraud and corruption. Currently, Malaysia is said to be among the countries with high outflow of dirty money in the world. “The Consulting and Inspection Division will focus on the Duty Free Zone and conduct a thorough examination,” he added. A total of 30 senior customs officers and staff were arrested since Sept 2 in a special MACC operation against the smuggling of liquor with losses of RM4 billion to the country. Of the total, 25 people had been charged in the Special Corruption Sessions Courts in Shah Alam, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh. Their arrests followed monitoring of more than year in the Port Klang Duty Free Zone. – TQ Bernama This entry was posted in News/Berita and tagged customs, MACC, malaysia on October 3, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/maccarrest-of-senior-customs-officers-is-a-cleansing-process/] .

Civil defence assistant fined RM5,000 for making false claims SHAH ALAM: A Hulu Selangor civil defence assistant was fined RM5,000 in default three months’ jail at the Sessions Court here today after he pleaded guilty to making false claims totalling RM3,936 last year. Mohd Faizal Zahri, 31, committed the offence by using the name of his 53-year-old mother, Hasnah Dollah, who is also a volunteer of the Civil Defence Department, at the Hulu Selangor Civil Defence Office between April 5 and August 5, 2013. In mitigation, his lawyer Ridha Abdah Subri asked the court to free his client on a bond of good behaviour as he had regretted his mistake and had also returned the money, which was deposited in his mother’s bank account. In her judgment, Judge Datuk Noraidah Ahmad, however, said that as a civil servant, the accused should show more integrity in handling all claims as the end does not justify the means. Deputy public prosecutor from the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, Mohd Heikal Ismail prosecuted. – TQ Bernama This entry was posted in News/Berita and tagged Corruption, MACC, malaysia on October 3, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/civildefence-assistant-fined-rm5000-for-making-false-claims/] .

Perak Sultan: Focus holistic approach to combat corruption KUALA LUMPUR: The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Nazrin Muizuddin Shah, called on the authorities today to adopt the holistic approach to combat corruption in the country. He said the holistic approach focused on two aspects, namely strict and non-selective punitive measures as well as preventive measures to strengthen integrity. There were two categories of perpetrators of corruption – the desperate who faced hardship and the greedy, he said in his address at the 47th anniversary celebration of the Anti-Corruption Agency (ACA)/Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC), in the capital. “The number of perpetrators of corruption in the first category will rise without the introduction of an effective formula that focuses on their welfare, especially in terms of the cost of living. “The country cannot remain in a state of denial of the reality that is taking place. It is a major challenge,” he said. Sultan Nazrin Shah said legislation and enforcement agencies were instruments that had to be equipped with comprehensive and logistic programmes to combat corruption. “It (corruption) is not a sore throat that is temporary and can be treated with lozenges; it is a serious social ill that needs intensive care administered by social physicians and surgeons,” he said. The ruler said that acting in a strict and non-selective manner in combating corruption was not an option but a necessity. He said that the preventive aspect required efforts to enhance integrity so that individuals were moulded with internal resistance, without being driven by greed. MACC chief commissioner Tan Sri Abu Kassim Mohamed and Dewan Negara president Tan Sri Abu Zahar Ujang were present at the event. – TQ BERNAMA This entry was posted in Feature and tagged Corruption, MACC, malaysia, Perak Sultan on October 1, 2014 [http://zerocorruptiondotnet.wordpress.com/2014/10/01/perak-sultan-focus-holistic-approach-to-combat-corruption/] .

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si poate ca el a scris si articolul de pe Wikipedia.. e un fragment din carte. ... shi niciodata n-a fost mai citita pe