Ignition coil - DENSO Global

Loading...
WGP250 : LCR Casey Stoner

Super GT : DENSO SARD SUPRA Andre Couto Ronnie Quintarelli

Formula1 : PANASONIC TOYOTA RACING Ralf Schumacher

http://www.globaldenso.com/PLUG/

http://www.denso.co.jp/PLUG/

DENSO SUPPORT DRIVERS & RIDERS

DENSO RACE SUPPO O Automobile eam A F1 T TOYOT laysian

M Taking

a

GP

TAKINGSITION PO PODIUM

osition P m u i d Po

Supply TOYOTA F1 Racing Plugs

IQ01-31

DENSO Racing Plug GT500 Champion

GT500 Champion

au Supra GT500 CHAMPION

Super GT Castrol TOM'S GT500 CHAMPION

Motorcycle WGP125 Noboru UEDA & Masao AZUMA

3 Victories

Rd.1 Suzuka WGP IRIDIUM POWER

Debut Win

1 Victory

WGP125 Noboru UEDA & Masao AZUMA WGP250 Naoki MATSUDO & Taro SEKIGUCHI

FOGGY PETRONAS DENSO Racing Plug DUCATI916 C.Fogarty DENSO Racing Plug

AZUMA wins Suzuka GP

PROCIRCUIT TEAM KAWASAKI M. BROWN & 3 riders

UEDA wins Italian GP

AMA EAST CHAMPION

YAMAHA KURZ C. MELOTTE & 3 riders

IA 125 CHAMPION JSB(S-NK) JSB(SN-K) CHAMPION

Japan

JSB (S-NK) Champion

IB 125 CHAMPION IB250 Champion

IA125 Champion

KENZ Keiichi KITAGAWA

Prostock Second Place

01

Corporate sponsor Taking F1 Team TOYOTA

Podium

GP Malaysian

Positio

n

Corporate sponsor

Rd.3 Mexico IRIDIUM POWER Supply WRC Plugs

WRC

Debut Win

GT500 Champion

Esso Supra GT500 CHAMPION

WGP125 Masao AZUMA & Yoichi UI

WGP125 Yoichi UI

3 Victories

7 Victories

WGP250 Naoki MATSUDO & Team LCR

WGP250 Naoki MATSUDO & Taro SEKIGUCHI & Team LCR

WGP125 Toshinaga KUZUHARA & Tomoyoshi KOYAMA WGP250 Team LCR Robert Locatelli & Casey Stoner

DENSO SUPPORT DRIVERS & RIDERS

ORT HISTORY

2 Victories

M. BROWN & 3 riders

IVAN TEDESCO & 3 riders

AMA EAST CHAMPION

SUZUKI KURZ L. DOVES & 1 rider

C. MELOTTE & 3 riders

JSB 1000 CHAMPION

KENZ Keiichi KITAGAWA

YOSHIMURA WATANABE KENZ NASHIMOTO Team Wheelie KIKUCHI

JSB 1000 Champion

IB 125 CHAMPION IB125 Champion

PROSTOCK CHAMPION Prostock Champion

PROSTOCK CHAMPION Prostock Champion

IA250

TAJIMA NAYA

NOTO1

ONISHI

DRAG

NAKAMURA

02

DENSO SUPPORT DRIVERS & RIDERS

WRC:SUBARU WORLD RALLY TEAM Petter Solberg

WGP125 : AJO MOTORSPORTS Tomoyoshi Koyama

WGP250 : TEAM LCR Roberto Locatelli

03

CONTENTS Chapter 1

Outline

1 4-Stroke Engines

P05

4 Types of Ignition System

P08

2 Role of the ignition System

P06

5 Comprehensive Test

P08

3 Ignition System Configuration P07

1 Spark and ignition

P09

5 Service Life

2 Structure

P13

6 How to read Sperk Plugs P29

3 Types

P15

7 Troubleshooting

P31

4 Heat Range

P25

8 Comprehensive Test

P34

1 High Voltage Generation

P35

4 Ignition Order

P39

2 High Voltage Control

P38

5 Comprehensive Test

P40

3 Ignition Timing

P39

Chapter 2

Spark plugs

Chapter 3

Basics of Ignition

Q&A

The PLUGS CONFIGURATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • P41 Q&A Q1. What type of spark plug is the

?

P43

Q2. Why was the center electrode of the

reduced to only 0.4 mm? P44

Q3. How is the iridium tip of the

welded to the electrode?

P45

Q4. What advantages does the U-groove in the

ground electrode have? P46

Q5. What advantages does the tapered cut in the

ground electrode have? P47

Q6. What are the differences between offered as genuine parts by car manufacturers?

P48 ? P49

electrodes?

Q9. In what other fields is iridium commonly used for? Q10. Is the tip in the

made of pure iridium?

?

P66

Q2. What makes the ignitability of

so good?

P67

Q3. How does the superior ignitability of

welded to the electrode?

Q5. What is the difference between

?

Q6. What patented technologies are used with

?

P72

Q10. Is the tip in the

P73

made of pure iridium?

P50

Q11. Tell me about the ignitability of the

P50

Q12. Tell me about the required voltage in the

.

.

P53

Q15. Does engine performance improve when

P54

P74 .

Q14. What happens to fuel consumption when

is used?

P55

Q15. Does engine performance improve when

is used?

P56

Q17. Can spark plugs of other brand-names be substituted with

P57

Q18. Does the engine need to be specially set when fitting

P58

Q19. How do I select the correct heat-range when fitting

P58

Q20. How does the

? ?

Q19. How do I select the correct heat-range when fitting

to my vehicle? P59

Q20. How would compare against high-performance spark plugs offered by other spark plug manufacturers?

P59

Q21. Is there anything I need to be aware of when fitting

P60

Q22. Can the gap be adjusted? Can I use any spark plug cleaners with the

LINEUP

?

Q21. Can

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

P76

is used?

P77

is used?

P78

0.6mm iridium plugs, P79 ? ?

P80 P81

to my vehicle? P81

compare to iridium plugs from other makers? P82 be used to replace plugs with 2, 3 or 4 ground electrodes?

Q22. Is there anything I need to be aware of when fitting Q23. Can the gap be adjusted? Can I use any spark plug cleaners with the Q24. What plugs are in the

?

P75

is used?

Q16. How does the compare to the platinum plugs and normal spark plugs?

Q18. Does the engine need to be specially set when fitting

P71 P72

Q9. In what other fields is iridium commonly used for?

is used?

Q17. What type of cars can current be fitted with

?

electrodes?

Q14. What happens to fuel consumption when

?

P70 P70

Q7. What type of material is used to produce the electrode employed for

Q13. What happens at emission when an

Q16. Can spark plugs of other brand-names be substituted with

P69

and

P51 .

Q12. Tell me about the required voltage in the

influence combustion? P68

Q4. How is the iridium tip of the

P52

Q11. Tell me about the firing performance of the Q13. What happens at idling when an

Q1. What type of spark plug is the

Q8. Why can iridium now be used in

and iridium spark plugs

Q7. What type of material is used to produce the electrode employed for Q8. Why can iridium now be used in

P27

? ?

lineup?

P83 P84 P85 P86

P60

P61

• • • • • • • • • • •

P87

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

P88

SPECIFICATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • P63

P89 P91 SPECIFICATIONS CROSS REFERENCE • • • • • • • • P92 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

DENSO Spark Plugs Package Lineup • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • P65

• • • • • • • • • • •

IGNITION TECH Q&A • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • P93 FAKE PLUG • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • P97 04

Spark Plugs Chapter 1

Outline

Study Tips Let us study about the role of the ignition system, its components parts, and its different types.

1 4-Stroke Engines Chapter 1 Outline

Operation of 4-stroke engines The 4-stroke engine was first invented by N. Otto in 1876. So it is also known as the Otto Cycle. The spark plugs ignite and the gasoline burns driving the piston downwards, creating power.

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Exhaust

These four strokes rotate the crankshaft twice and complete one cycle.

Intake 1

Intake stroke Takes the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder.

REFERENCE

Compression 2

Compression stroke Compresses the air-fuel mixture to high temperature and high pressure.

Combustion 3

Combustion stroke Ignites and combusts the gas mixture and uses the resulting high pressure to rotate the crankshaft.

Exhaust 4

Exhaust stroke Exhausts the exhaust gas.

2-stroke engines

These two strokes complete one cycle during one motion of the piston (one crankshaft rotation).

Intake and compression 1

Intake and compression stroke When the piston rises and the cylinder side compresses, the crank case side is a vacuum and takes in the air-fuel mixture.

Combustion and exhaust 2

Combustion and exhaust stroke When the piston is pushed down by the combustion, the air-fuel mixture on the crank case side is sent to the cylinder side where it pushes out the exhaust gas.

2-stroke engines do not require moving valves and have a simpler structure, but the compression ratio is low and they are only appropriate for small displacements.

05

Spark Plugs

Chapter 1 Outline

2 Role of the Ignition System The ignition system applies several thousand volts across the gap between the electrodes of the spark plug to generate spark to discharge and ignites and combusts the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder with this spark energy. Igniting at the optimum time for the varying engine speed, load, etc. is also an important condition.

Three conditions for attaining the performance of gasoline engines REFERENCE

Diesel engine ignition system

Diesel engines directly inject fuel into high-temperature, high-pressure air and have the fuel ignite on its own, so they do not require ignition system.

1

Good Air-Fuel Mixture

REFERENCE

Good Air-Fuel mixture means

The mixture that makes the gasoline combust most readily 1 Gasified and well mixed with air 2 Always the correct air-fuel ratio (mixture proportions)

Air-Fuel ratio (A/F) The proportion by weight of gasoline and air in the air-fuel mixture; these proportions must be varied with the engine state. • Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (about 15:1) Stoichiometric value for complete combustion • Output air-fuel ratio (about 12:1) The mixture ratio that provides the maximum torque • Economy air-fuel ratio (about 16:1) The mixture ratio that provides the best fuel economy • In lean burn engines, this can be as high as about 23:1.

2

Good Compression

REFERENCE

Compression ratio

By compressing the air-fuel mixture, it is possible to obtain large power when the mixture is combusted. The degree of compression of the air-fuel mixture is expressed by the following compression ratio.

3

Compression = ratio

Intake air volume Compressed air volume

Generally, raising the compression ratio provides larger combustion pressure, but if the pressure is too high, knocking occurs. General engines are designed for compression ratios of 9-10.

Good Spark

REFERENCE

"Good spark" is the field for which the ignition system is responsible.

Strong spark High voltage of several thousands of volts are applied between the electrodes of the spark plug for the spark to discharge to ignite and combust the gas mixture.

Correct ignition timing The ignition timing is adjusted to match the running state of the engine (speed and load) and obtain efficient combustion power.

06

Spark Plugs Chapter 1

Study Tips Let us study about the role of the ignition system, its components parts, and its different types.

Outline

3 Ignition System Configuration Chapter 1 Outline

Ignition System Configuration The ignition system comprises the following parts.

6

4

1

2

5 3

1

Battery

2

Supplies current to the primary coil

3

Igniter

The high voltage required for ignition is generated in the secondary coil through coil self-inductance and mutual inductance. The high voltage is generated when the primary current is cut off. 4

Computer Determines the ignition timing or the like

07

Distributor The high voltage generated by the ignition coil is distributed in the correct order to the spark plug for each cylinder.

In order to generate the high voltage required for ignition in the ignition coil, the current flowing through the primary coil is cut off. 5

Ignition coil

6

Spark plug High voltage is applied to the gap between the electrodes to generate the spark and ignite the air-fuel mixture.

Spark Plugs

Chapter 1 Outline

4 Types of Ignition System Structurally, ignition system can be classified into the following three types. Contact Ignition Type

1

Battery

2

Ignition switch

3

Ignition coil

4

Breaker point

5

Distributor

6

Rotor

7

Spark plug

1

Battery

This system generates high voltage by cutting off the current with transistors in the igniter. This system can provide stable high voltage.

2

Ignition switch

3

Coil with an igniter

Demerit

4

Signal generator

The ignition timing is controlled by the signal generator in the distributor, so there are limits to fine control.

5

Distributor

6

Rotor

7

Spark plug

(Ordinary Ignition Type) In this system, the current (primary current) flowing to the ignition coil from the battery is cut off at the mechanical contacts (breaker points) in the distributer to generate high voltage. Demerit

Since these are mechanical contacts, sparks can fly between the contacts or the voltage drops at low speed. Also, sometimes current does not flow adequately due to soiling of the contact surface.

Transistor Ignition Type

Electronic Spark Advance (ESA, DLI) Electronic ignition type (ESA:Electronic Spark Advance, DLI:Distributorless Ignition)

The ignition timing and dwell angle are controlled by microcomputer, which sends the ignition signals to the igniter, where the transistors inside the igniter cut off the current and generate high voltage. This makes more precise control possible and is the current mainstream ignition system.

Distributor

IGt

Engine speed .NE Crankshaft position detection .G

Ignition timing control

Sensors Air flow sensor Water temperature sensor Air conditioner signal etc

Igniter

ECU

Dwell angle control

Constant-current control Ignition signal

Ignition

Dwell angle reduction

IGf Ignition monitor signal

5 Comprehensive Test From the following statements about ignition system, select the incorrect one. 1 Both gasoline engines and diesel engines require spark plugs to ignite the air-fuel mixture. 2 The ignition timing is adjusted according to changes in the engine speed and load. 3 The air-fuel mixture for gasoline engines is the proportion of air and gasoline by weight and about 15:1 is called the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. 4 The spark voltage for spark plugs is generated when the primary current through the igniter is cut off. 5 4-cycle engines ignite and combust each cylinder one time for two rotations for the engine crankshaft. Answer on next page

08

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

1 Spark and Ignition Spark

Sparking wear

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

When the high voltage produced by the ignition system is applied between the center electrode and ground electrode of the spark plug, the insulation between the electrodes breaks down, current flows in the discharge phenomenon, and an electrical spark is generated. This spark energy trigger ignition and combustion in the compressed air-fuel mixture. This discharge is of extremely brief duration (about 1/1000 of a second) and is extraordinarily complex.

10,000 deg.C

The role of the spark plug is to reliably generate a strong spark between the electrodes accurately at the specified time to create the trigger for combustion of the gas mixture.

High melting point

Ignition Ignition by electrical spark occurs because the fuel particles between the electrodes are activated by the spark to discharge, a chemical reaction (oxidation) is triggered, the heat of reaction is generated, and the flame core is formed. This heat activates the surrounding air-fuel mixture, eventually a flame core is formed that spreads the combustion to the surroundings itself. However, if the quenching effect between the electrodes (the work of the electrodes absorbing the heat and extinguishing the flame) is greater than the flame core heat generation action, the flame core is extingushed and the combustion stops. If the plug gap is wide, the flame core is larger and the quenching effect is smaller, so reliable ignition can be expected, but if the gap is too wide, a large discharge voltage becomes necessary, the limits of the coil performance are exceeded, and discharge becomes impossible.

1

4

3

5 4

2

Formation of the flame core 1 Center electrode

09

Answer: 1

2 Ground electrode

Quenching effect 3 Flame core

4 Heat absorption

5 Flame propagation

Spark Plugs

Change in the required voltage The ignition system normally generates 10-30 kV secondary voltage.

1 Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

4 3

3

−10kV∼30kV

1 a

V

d c

e

4 T

−300V

2 b

5 2

1 Voltage rise 2 Spark generation 5 About 1 millisecond V: Voltage T: Time

3 Capacitance spark

4 Inductance spark

1 When the primary

2 At the 'b' point,

3 Between 'b' and 'c' is 4 Between 'c' and 'd' is

current is cut off at the 'a' point, the secondary voltage rises.

partway through the rise in voltage, the spark plug reaches the required voltage and a spark is generated between the electrodes.

called the capacitance spark. At the start of the discharge, the spark is generated by the electrical energy stored in the secondary circuit. The current is large but the duration is short.

.

.

.

.

called the inductance spark. The spark is generated by the electromagnetic energy of the coil. The current is small but the duration is long. From the 'c' point, the discharge is continued for about 1 millisecond and at the 'd' point, the discharge ends.

10

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

The required voltage changes drastically with various conditions. The three factors with particularly large impact are the spark plug gap, the compression pressure, and the air-fuel mixture temperature.

● Conditions that affect the required voltage 1 Spark Plug Gap The required voltage rises in proportion to the spark plug gap. The spark plug gap widens bit by bit as the electrode wears, so high required voltage becomes necessary and misfire occurs more easily.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

G: Spark plug gap V: Required voltage

2

Electrode shape

Even for the same spark plug gap, if there are edges on the electrode, discharge occurs more easily. Older spark plugs have electrodes that have rounded, so discharge becomes more difficult and misfire more likely.

1 Easy discharge

2 Difficult spark

3 Electrode shape

5

11

Electrode temperature

3

Compression pressure

4

Air-Fuel mixture temperature

The required voltage rises in proportion to the compression pressure. The compression pressure is higher for low speed and high load. Sudden acceleration for starting out fits these conditions, so higher voltage is required then and misfire occurs more easily.

The required voltage drops as the airfuel mixture temperature rises. The lower the engine temperature, the higher the required voltage, so misfire occurs more easily at low temperature.

P: Compression pressure T: Air-Fuel mixture temperature V: Required voltage

P: Compression pressure T: Air-Fuel mixture temperature V: Required voltage

6

Air-Fuel ratio

7

Humidity

The required voltage drops as the electrode temperature rises. The electrode temperature rises in proportion to the engine speed, so misfire occurs more easily at low speed.

There is a tendency for the required voltage to be higher the leaner the airfuel mixture (the larger the air-fuel ratio). If the air-fuel mixture becomes leaner due to fuel system trouble misfire occurs more easily.

As the humidity rises, the electrode temperature decreases, so the required voltage becomes slightly higher.

T: Electrode temperature V: Required voltage

A/F: Air-fuel ratio V: Required voltage

H: Relative humidity V: Required voltage

Spark Plugs

The effect on the spark plugs of ignition and combustion of the running engine is severe and various aspects of performance for withstanding this are required. ● Performance required of spark plugs Can withstand sudden heat and sudden cold

The temperature received by the inside surface of the spark plug reaches as high as 3000° C during combustion of the air-fuel mixture and during the intake stroke, the spark plug is subject to sudden cooling by low-temperature gas. In 4-cycle engines, this sudden heating and sudden cooling is repeated every other rotation as long as the engine is running. As the same time that it must provide such capacity to withstand heat, the spark plug must also give off enough heat to avoid becoming a starting point for pre ignition.

3

Has insulation at high voltage

In an environment in which the temperature and pressure are constantly changing drastically, spark plugs must have adequate insulation to withstand high voltages that reach about 10-30 kV.

2

Can withstand severe pressure changes.

In the intake stroke, the pressure is less than 1atm, but in the combustion stroke it reaches 50 atm or higher. The mechanical strength to withstand this severe pressure change is required.

3

4

Maintains an airtight seal in a harsh environment



4

Spark plugs must maintain an airtight seal between the housing and the insulator under conditions of drastic temperature and pressure change and high voltage. DENSO's heat staking process provides stable air tightness.

6 1 2

5

Minimizes electrode wear

Spark plugs must have the wear-proof resistance to minimize electrode wear in a severe usage environment. DENSO's patented iridium alloy is effective against wear.

6

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

1

5

Minimizes fouling from combustion

It is required that under severe usage conditions, spark plugs minimize fouling of electrodes by the combustion of the airfuel mixture and have self-cleaning that burns away carbon deposits with heat. Therefore, it is desirable that the spark plug temperature rise quickly even when the vehicle is moving at low speed and that the insulator section reach the selfcleaning temperature (about 500° C ).

12

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

Spark Plugs 2 Structure

A spark plug consists of three main parts, the housing, the insulator, and the electrodes. Let us take a look at the figure, which shows an and look at the features of each part.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

1

spark plug as an example,

2

10 12

11 3 1 Insulator

4

2 Terminal 3 Ring

5 6

4 Center shaft (stem) 5 Housing 6 Glass seal

7

7 Gasket 8 Electrode with copper 9 Packing washer 10 0.4-mm iridium center electrode

9

8

11 U-groove ground electrode 12 Taper cut ground electrode

1

Insulator

Insulates the terminal, center shaft and center electrode from the housing, preventing escape of high voltage from the electrodes. Since the bottom of the insulator projects into the combustion chamber, high purity alumina with superior heat-proof characteristic, mechanical strength, excellent insulation and thermal conductivity at high temperature, etc. is used.

13

2

Terminal

The terminal is connected to a high-tension cord through which high-voltage current from the ignition system flows. A terminal nut is installed so this type can support almost any high-tension cord in the world. For vehicles not requiring a terminal nut, the terminal can be removed.

3 9

Ring, Packing washer

Makes the insulator and the housing fit tightly to each other and maintains the airtightness.

Spark Plugs

Center shaft (stem)

7

6

Housing

0.4-mm iridium center electrode

A new iridium alloy tip with a diameter of 0.4 mm is laser welded to the tip of the center electrode to make the center electrode ultra-fine. This lowers the required voltage, secure reliable spark, reduces the quenching effect, and improves ignition performance. Iridium, like platinum, is a precious metal and has extraordinarily superior properties for a spark plug electrode, for example hightemperature withstand, high strength, and low resistance. In order to further improve oxidation resistance at high temperatures, DENSO developed a unique new iridium alloy containing Rhodium.

Glass seal

Mounted between the center shaft and insulator to maintain the airtightness. DENSO uses the glass seal method. A special mixture of glass powder and copper powder is charged in the installation section for the insulator and center shaft and center electrode and melted at high temperature. This bonds the center shaft and the center electrode and fuses the insulator and the metal. The sealing for both is good and the thermal ratio of expansion is appropriate, so even under harsh conditions gaps do not occur and good airtightness can be secured.

Standard tightening torque

Special nickel alloy is used for the center electrode to reduce electrode wear. Copper is sealed into the center section to improve thermal conductivity.

8

Gasket

Makes the housing and the engine fit tightly to each other and maintains the airtightness of the combustion chamber. There is a procedure for tightening and the appropriate tightening margin must be secured.

10

5

The housing forms an outer shell that surrounds the insulator, supports the insulator, and installs the spark plug in the engine. At the bottom the ground electrode is located, so current can flow through the engine itself to the center electrode over the gap.

Thread diameter (mm)

Tightening torque (Nm)

8

8 ∼10

10

10∼15

12

15∼20

14

20∼30

18

30∼40

11

U-groove ground electrode

Nickel chrome material is used for the ground electrode and various measures are taken with the shape to improve ignition performance. One of these measures is the U- groove. 1 The surface contacted by the air-fuel mixture is large, 2 There is much edge section, and sparks occur easily. 3 The flame core (flame size) widens easily. There are many other feaures as well and large ignition energy can be obtained. DENSO obtained patents for spark plug Ugrooves from 1975 to 1992.

12

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

4

Center shaft connecting the terminal and the center electrode. This shaft is made of steel and has the role of allowing high-voltage current to flow from the terminal to the center electrode without loss.

Electrode with copper

Taper cut ground electrode

The ground electrode has a shape in which the electrode tip is cut to a finely tapered shape. This reduces the quenching effect, so it improves ignition performance.

14

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

3 Types Main types of spark plugs

1

2

3

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

P.16

5

Genuine iridium

P.17

6

P.19

9

P.21

13

3 electrodes

P.23

15

P.18

7

Resistor

For rotary use

P.20

11 Extended

P.21

14

Compact type

P.23

12

P.23

Semi-surface discharge

P.22

16

Taper seat

Platinum ZU

P.20

P.22

15

Needle to needle Iridium Plug

P.18

8

U-groove

P.19

10

Platinum

4

For motorcycle

P.24

Spark Plugs

1

(1)

Uses the world's first and the world's smallest ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium tip for the center electrode. This lowers the required voltage and greatly improves ignitability.

1

(1)



2

1

3

The inside of the ground electrode has a U-shaped groove to secure the large space required for flame core formation. This provides superior ignition performance with low spark voltage without enlarging the plug gap.



4

7

● The ground electrode tip is cut to a shape with a tapered tip. This reduces the quenching effect and greatly improves ignitability.

6

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

5 8 9

1 Taper cut ground electrode 2 U-groove ground electrode 3 Ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium alloy center electrode

4 Increased center electrode projection 7 Terminal Nut

1

5 Insulator projection

8 Built-in high-reliability resistor

(2)

1

6 All-round laser welding 9 Plated with highly corrosion resistant nickel

(2)

The finer the electrodes, the more the potential concent-rates at the electrode tip and the stronger the electrical field, so the lower the required voltage. Therefore, reliable combusion is obtained over a wide range and engine starting and acceleration are improved. ●

1 1 Normal spark plugs

3

2 4

5

2 3 Weak 4 Electrical field strength 5 Strong Electrical field strength shown using FEM analysis 16

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs 1

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

(3)

The electrodes have been taken to the limit of fineness, so the contact area with the flame core is small, the quenching effect is reduced, and the ignition performance is improved.



can replace almost all normal spark plugs in Japan and overseas. When replacing normal spark plugs with check in the application table.



● For normal engines, replace with the same heat range as the spark plugs being replaced; for a tuned engine, select spark plugs that match the tuning level.

1

(3)

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

1 1 Sparks Sparks discharge on the part of the electrode where they can spark most easily.

2 2 Formation of the flame core The spark energy activates part of the air-fuel mixture and a small flame is produced.

2 The center electrode uses the world's first ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium alloy for high performance and a platinum tip is used for the ground electrode to secure service life equal to platinum spark plugs.

3

4

3 Growth of the flame core The flame grows even though energy is absorbed in the center and ground electrodes.

4 Ignition Growth of the live coal accelerates and finally, the flame spreads as explosive combustion.

2



1 2 3

4

1 Ground electrode with platinum tip 2 Ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium alloy center electrode

3 All-round laser welding 4 Housing plated with highly

corrosion-resistant, lustrous nickel

17

Spark Plugs

3 Combining the ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium alloy center electrode with the 0.8-mm square all-platinum ground electrode, spark cleaning pocket, housing end chamfer, silicon oil application, racing insulator, etc. greatly improves ignition performance and extends durability.

3



1 2

4

3

5 8

6

1 0.8 mm square all-platinum ground

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

electrode

2 Ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter iridium alloy center electrode

7

3 Racing insulator

9

4 Spark cleaning pocket 5 Silicon oil application

10

6 Housing end chamfer 7 All-round laser welding 8 Terminal 9 Built-in high-reliability resistor 10 Plated with highly corrosion resistant nickel

4 Needle to needle Iridium Plug The ground electrode of this revolutionary iridium plug features DENSO's very own technology and is needle-shaped, resulting in an unparalleled reduction in quenching action.

4



2 1

1 0.55mm diameter. Iridium 2 0.7mm diameter. Platinum

FXE20HE11

18

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs 5 Vehicle

manufacturer's genuine iridium spark plugs

● Compared

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

5 SK16R-P11, SK20R11

to

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

, , and , which emphasize performance, this type emphasizes maintenance (service life). ● The replacement interval is 100,000 km. ● The center electrode is 0.7-mm iridium alloy and a platinum tip is used for the ground electrode.

SK20BR11

3

1 2

- Iridium plug Example : SK16R-P11 SK20R11

1 2

● Denso developed the world's first ultra-fine 0.7-mm diameter iridium alloy spark plugs to greatly improve ignition performance and service life. The SK16R-P11 is used as the genuine spark plugs for the Toyota Century.

- New 3-electrode iridium spark plugs Example: SK20BR11 The design of these spark plugs is optimized for direct injection burning off ●

6 Resistor plug In order to prevent the generation of electromagnetic noise, the spark plug has resistor (5 kilo-ohms) built into the glass seal section. ● This resistance suppresses the capacitance dischage power during discharge and can greatly reduce the electromagnetic noise. ● Recently, with the increased use of electronic products in vehicles, the majority of spark plugs installed in new vehicles have resistors.

SK20R11

carbon. The spark is at the main electrode normally and at the side electrode when the main electrode is sooty. Used as the genuine spark plugs for the Toyota Crown 3-liter direct injection engine.

1 Iridiumφ0.7 tip 2 Platinum tip 3 Side electrode

6



1

1 Resistor

K16R-U11

19

Spark Plugs

7 U-groove

7

Making a U-shaped groove on the inside of the ground electrode secures the large volume required for flame core formation and growth and makes it possible to obtain large ignition energy. ● Since it is possible to reduce the spark voltage without enlarging the spark plug gap, superior ignition performance is attained.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs



K16R-U11

8 Platinum ZU This spark plug uses 0.7-mm diameter ultra-fine special platinum alloy for the center electrode to improve sparking and uses a U-groove and taper cut for the ground electrode to improve ignition.

8



1 Platinum

1 W31ES-ZU

20

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

Spark Plugs 9 Platinum spark plugs

9

Example : PK20R11

PK20R11

These spark plugs have platinum tips welded to the center electrode and ground electrode. ● The tips of the center electrodes are finer than those of ordinary spark plugs. ● They greatly improve fuel consumption, driveability, and durability and support maintenance-free operation.

PK20R-P11

PKJ20CR-L11



1

~ For DLI (+ - discharge) Platinum spark plugs Example : PK20R-P11 Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

PK20TR11

● In

order to prevent wear from + discharge, the volume of platinum for the ground electrodes has been increased.

Q20PR-P11, K16PR-TP11

- Extended platinum spark plugs Example : PKJ20CR-L11 ● Extended the spark position into the combustion chamber improves the combustion efficiency, fuel consumption, and driveability.

- 2-electrode platinum spark plugs Example: PK20TR11 Platinum tips are bonded to the center electrode facing to the ground electrode section. ● The 2-electrode structure reduces the voltage required for + discharge. ●

10 For rotary engines only These special spark plugs for rotary engines were designed taking into account the characteristics rotary engines give spark plugs. ● With rotary engines, heat remains in the ground electrodes and they melt, so to match the higher engine temperature, improvements have been made EA → EDR → semi-surface discharge → surface discharge.

PK20TR11

1 Platinum tip - Single platinum spark plugs Example : Q20PR-P11 K16PR-TP11 These spark plugs use platinum only for the tip of the center electrode to improve fuel consumption, driveability, and durability by making the electrodes finer. ● The K16PR-TP11 has a tapered cut ground electrode to further improve ignition performance. ●

10



1 EA spark plug (initial rotary engine spark plug) This spark has two short facing ground electrodes.

2 EDR spark plug (transitional period) This spark plug has four ground electrodes. It has a built-in resistor to prevent the generation of electromagnetic interference.

3 Surface-discharge spark plugs The surface-discharge action improves ignition, fouling-proof, and durability.

21

1

W25EA

3

2

W27EDR14

S29A

Spark Plugs

11 Extended

11

This type of spark plug projects the center electrode and ground electrode far beyond the bottom section. ● Bringing the spark position closer to the center of the combustion chamber improves the combustion efficiency. ● Extended spark plugs can only be installed in the specified engines. If you use Extended spark plugs in place of ordinary spark plugs, there is a danger of interference with the valves or other parts.

J16AR-U11

KJ20CR11



7mm 5mm

KJ20CR-L11

J16AY

The U-groove ground electrode obtains large ignition energy making it easy to ignite even lean air-fuel mixtures. ● Projecting the spark position into the combustion chamber improves the combustion efficiency, fuel consumption, and driveability.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

Example : J16AR-U11 ●

Example : KJ20CR-11 KJ20CR-U11 ● For

Mazda and Mitsubishi. ● The KJ20CR11 has no U-groove. The KJ20CR-U11 has a U-groove.

5mm

7mm

Example: KJ20CR-L11 A taper cut is adopted for the ground electrode and a thin center electrode is adopted to improve ignitability.



Example : J16AY ● This

spark plug is only for Daihatsu. It has two ground electrodes and provides durability.

12 Semi-surface discharge

12

Semi-surface discharge spark plugs have surface discharge from the entire circumference of the ground electrode and normal discharge from the hook. ● Giving the semi-surface discharge structure to the ground electrode improves the ignition, foulingproofing, and durability.

W20EKR-S11

W20ETR-S11



- Semi-surface discharge spark plugs Example : W20EKR-S11 W20EPR-S11

K20DTR-S11

● The use of semi-surface discharge improves ignition and fouling-proofing. ● The W20EKR-S11 is used in Honda and the W20EPR-S11 is used in Mitsubishi.

- semi-surface discharge 2-electrode spark plug Example: W20ETR-S11 ● 2 ground electrodes are adopted with the gap set to 1 mm.

Superior durability is secured by using two short facing ground electrodes. ● The ignition is improved with full projection. ● The new auxiliary cap improves fouling-proofing. ● Used for Toyota and Daihatsu. ●

- 2-electrode half-surface discharge spark plug with shroud Example : K20DTR-S11 W20DTR-S11 In addition to the half-surface discharge structure, the thread tip is extended into the combustion chamber and a shroud formed to improve the fouling-proofing. ● Used for Daihatsu and Subaru. ●

22

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs 13 3 electrodes There are three ground electrodes for increased durability. ● For Audi, VW, Citroen, Fiat, Mercedes-Benz, and Renault.

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

13

K22PB, W20EPB



Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

14 Compact type ● Compact and light weight (contributes to improved fuel consumption).

- Compact spark plugs Example : Q16R-U11 Q16PR-U11

14

By reducing the hexagonal width across flats (to 16 mm), lighter spark plugs were attained.

Q16R-U11

K16R-U11



50.5mm

53mm

- ISO compact spark plugs Example : K16R-U11 K16PR-U11 ● Spark

plugs that meet ISO standards. * Be careful when installing these spark plugs. The height (H) is 2.5 mm shorter than for the Q type.

XU22EPR-U

- Compact spark plugs for mini-sized cars Example : XU22EPR-U

QL20PR-U/QL20TR-S

By reducing the hexagonal width across flats (to 16 mm), these spark were made usable in mini-sized cars. The thread diameter is 12 mm.



- Compact, long-torso spark plugs Example : QL20PR-U QL20TR-S ● The

housing torso section is lengthened to secure the installation dimensions. ● Only for Daihatsu. ● The QL20TR-S has two ground electrodes and a semi-surface discharge, so it has improved foulingproofing.

15 Taper seat A special type of spark plug for foreign vehicles only; this type has no gasket.



23

15

T16EPR-U

Spark Plugs

16 For motorcycle There are various types for different manufacturers and models. ● Because spark plugs must be used in specific engines, it is difficult to make a general (common) spark plug. ●

16 X24GPR-U

X24EPR-U9

19mm

Example : X24GPR-U There is a 3 mm shroud at the thread tip and the thread length is 22 mm, so this spark plug can only be used in the specified vehicles. ● Only for Honda. ●

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

3mm

Example : X24EPR-U9 ● φ12

mm × L 19 mm

W27EMR-C

U27FER9

Example : W27EMR-C ● Spark ● Only

plug with compact insulator head section. for Suzuki and Honda.

Example : U27FER9 ● φ10

mm × L 19 mm half threads. Ignition is improved by widening the gap from 0.6-0.7 mm for previous models to 0.9 mm. ● Only for Honda. ●

6.3mm 12.7mm

Example : U31ETR The heat-proofing is improved by having two ground electrodes. ● For Kawasaki and Suzuki. ●

U31ETR

U27ESR-N

U20FSR-U

Y27FER

Example : U27ESR-N ● φ10

mm × L 19 mm all threads. The fouling-proofing is improved with the 0.5-mm projection. ● For Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha. ●

Example : U20FSR-U ● φ10

mm × L 12.7 mm

Example : Y27FER Ultra-compact spark plugs φ8 mm x L 19 mm half threads. ● Can only be installed in the specified vehicles. ● Only for Honda. ●

6.3mm 12.7mm

24

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

Spark Plugs 4 Heat Range Spark plug heat dispersion

2%

The heat that the electrode section of the spark plug receives due to combustion is dispersed through the path in the figure.

10%

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

The degree to which a spark plug disperses the heat it receives is called its "heat range". Spark plugs with a high degree of heat dispersion are called high heat range (cold type) and those with a low degree of heat dispersion are called low heat range (hot type).

10% 80%

This is largely determined by the temperature of the gas inside the combustion chamber and the spark plug design.

1

38% 20%

2

1 Water 2 Cooled by intake air-fuel mixture

20%

100%

Low heat range and high heat range Low heat range plugs have long insulator leg sections and the surface area affected by the flame and the gas pocket capacity are large. Also, since the heat release path from the insulator nose to the housing is long, heat dispersion is low and the temperature of the center electrode rises easily. On the other hand, high heat range plugs have short insulator nose and the surface area affected by the flame and the gas pocket capacity are small. Also since the heat release path from the insulator nose to the housing is short, heat dispersal is high and the temperature of the center electrode does not rise easily.

3 1 1 Low heat range (hot type) spark plugs

25

2 2 High heat range (cold type) spark plugs

3 Gas pocket

Spark Plugs

(℃) 2 4

800

5

3

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

1000

T 600 1

400 S 1 Self-cleaning temperature

2 Pre-ignition temperature

3 Low heat range (hot type) spark plugs

4 Standard spark plugs

5 High heat range (cold type) spark plugs

S: Vehicle speed T: Spark plug temperature ( ° C)

Spark plug temperature and vehicle speed (1)

Spark plug temperature and vehicle speed (2)

Spark plug temperature and vehicle speed (3)

Spark plug temperature and vehicle speed (4)

The relationship between the spark plug temperature and vehicle speed and heat range is expressed with a graph like that in the figure.

- self-cleaning temperature

- pre-ignition temperature

Low heat range spark plugs have center electrode

When the center electrode temperature is 500° C or lower, free carbon generated when the fuel does not combust completely is deposited on the surface of the insulator. Therefore, the insulation between the insulator and the housing falls, electricity leaks occurs, the spark across the gap is incomplete, causes ignition failures. This temperature of 500° C is called the self-cleaning temperature because above this temperature the carbon is naturally burnt away completely by combustion.

When the center electrode reaches 950° C or higher, preignition (early ignition) occurs, meaning that the electrode serves as a heat source and ignition occurs without a spark. Therefore, output falls and this can reach the level of electrode wear and insulator damage.

tem-peratures that rise easily and even at low-speed, they easily reach the self-cleaning temperature, so carbon is not deposited easily on the insulator section.

There are restrictions on the temperatures at which spark plugs can be used: the lower limit is the self-cleaning temperature and the upper limit is the pre-ignition temperature.A spark plug only functions completely when its center electrode temperature is between these temperatures of about 500° C and 950° C.

On the other hand, high heat range spark plugs have center electrode temperatures that do not rise easily, so they are unlikely to reach the preignition temperature even at high speed. Therefore, this type of spark plug is generally used for high speed, high output engines. That is why it is necessary to select spark plugs with the appropriate heat range for the engine characteristics, run-ning conditions, etc.

26

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

5 Service Life Electrode wear The electrode wears from the locations that discharge easily with spark discharge. In particular, since the center electrode reaches high temperatures, it oxidizes and wears.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

The amount of electrode wear varies with the electrode material melting point, strength, hardness, etc. In order to reduce the amount of this wear, nickel alloys, platinum, iridium, and other such materials are used for the electrodes and service lives are also extended with fine electrodes. Also, the wear varies with the engine type and usage conditions, but for normal nickel alloy plugs, it is approximately in the range of 0.10-0.15 mm for each 10,000 km driven.

Electrode wear

Rise in required voltage The required voltage rises in proportion to the distance driven. This rise in the required voltage is large until the sharp section at the end of the center electrode is worn round to some degree (about 4,000 km). After that, the main factor is the enlargement of the gap due to electrode wear and the rise in the required voltage is smaller.

1 Shape change D: Mileage driven (km)

Misfiring and its cause

Air-Fuel mixture does not burn.

Failure due to sparks not dischanging between the electrodes of the spark plug This occurs when the voltage generated by the ignition coil is lower than the voltage required by the spark plug.

Sparks dischange between the electrodes of the spark plug but the air-fuel mixture does not ignite and burn.

27

2 Gap wear V: Required voltage (kV)

Spark Plugs

Economic service life

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

The physical service life for a spark plug can be thought of as the number of kilometers driven until the spark plug begins to misfire. Misfiring causes not only wastage of fuel, but also irregular engine vibration and output drop. In particular, for vehicles with emissions controls, misfiring can damage the catalytic converter, so using a spark plug all the way to the end of its physical service life is inexpedient economically. Therefore, as the economical replacement interval, replacement after the number of kilometers in the figure above is recommended. (However, 100,000 km for platinum & iridium spark plugs.)

Recommended Torque and Tightening Angle for DENSO plugs. 1) Use the correct wrench for the hex on the plug, and be careful not to damage the insulator. 2) When changing, make sure that the oil, etc. on the outside of the plug does not enter the engine interior. 3) When putting the plugs in, clean the engine side of the flange, and put in the plugs after making sure the gasket is in the flange. 4) Make sure the plugs are vertical, and tighten them by hand until they cannot be tightened any further.

If a thread lubricant such as grease is coated on the thread, tightening to the recommended torque is tightening too much; this has been linked to seal leakage. Do not use a thread lubricant. Tightening more than the tightening angles and torques shown on the right could result in damage to the engine and furthermore could result in the plug coming off at the thread.

(※1)IUH27ES, U24FER9S

5) Then, use a plug wrench to tighten them accurately to the torque or rotation angle showed in the chart below.

Thread Size

Applicable Models

Recommended Recommended Tightening Angle Torque New Plug Previously Used

M8

All Types

8-10N・m

About 1 turn

About 1/12 turn

M10

Types other than the ones shown below

10-15N・m

About 1/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M10

UFE, IUH, VUH, VNH Types

10-15N・m

About 2/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M10

Stainless Gasket Type(※1)

10-15N・m

About 3/4 turn

About 1/12 turn

M12

All Types

15-20N・m

About 1/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14

Types other than the ones shown below

20-30N・m

About 1/2 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14

Stainless Gasket Type(※2)

20-30N・m

About 2/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M18

All Types

30-40N・m

About 1/4 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14 Taper seat All Types

20-30N・m

About 1/16 turn

About 1/16 turn

(※2) PK22PR-L11S, SK22PR-M11S, IK16G, IK20G, IK22G, VK16G, VK20G, VK22G, K20PR-U9S, SK20PR-L9S SKJ20DR-M11S, KJ20DR-M11S, K20PR-L11S

28

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

6 How to read Spark Plugs How to read types DENSO spark plug type names are combinations of letters and numbers. The model names tell you the installation thread diameter, heat range, reach, and shape. Car manufacturers select appropriate spark plugs for the engine and vehicle type, so use the specified spark plugs.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

I : High-performance spark plugs W : Thread Diameter and Hex Size 16 : Heat range E : Reach X : Shape (type, ) R : Internal Construction U : Shape (type) 11 : Gap

High Performance Plug Thread Diameter and Hex Size Heat Range Reach High Performance Plug Shape (Type) Shape ( Thread Diameter and Hex Size Internal Construction Heat Range Shape (Type) Reach Gap Shape (Type) Shape (

)

)

Internal Construction Shape (Type) Gap High Performance Plug Thread Diameter and Hex Size Heat Range Reach Shape (Type)

Shape (

Internal Construction 29

)

Spark Plugs

High Performance Plug Thread Diameter and Hex Size Heat Range Reach Shape (Type)

Shape (

)

High Performance Plug

Internal Construction High Performance High Performance Plug Plug ShapeThread (Type)Diameter Thread Diameter and Hex Size and Hex Size

Thread Diameter and Hex Size

Gap Range Heat Heat Range

Reach

Reach Reach

Shape (Type) Shape (

)

)

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

Shape Shape (Type) (Type) Shape (

Heat Range Shape (

Internal Construction

InternalInternal Construction Construction

Shape (Type)

Shape Shape (Type) (Type)

Gap High Performance Plug

Gap Gap High Performance Plug

Thread Diameter and H

Thread Diameter and Hex Size

Heat Range

Heat Range

Reach

Reach

Shape (Type)

Shape (Type)

Shape (

)

Shape (

Internal Construction

Internal Construction

Shape (Type)

Shape (Type)

Gap

Gap

30

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

7 Troubleshooting Troubleshooting Diagnosing the state of the spark plugs is an effective method for elucidating the cause of engine troubles. ● Normal

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs The insulator leg section has light gray or tan deposits and slight electrode erosion.

1

1

Carbon fouling

2 3 4 5 6 [Appearance] The insulator foot section and electrode section are covered with dried, soft black carbon. [Results] Poor starting, misfiring, acceleration defect. [Cause] Repeated short-distance driving (driving with the engine cool), incorrect choking (overly rich air-fuel mixture), injection timing delay, plug heat range too high.

31

Spark Plugs

Oil fouling

4

Extreme electrode wear

[Appearance] The insulator section and electrode section is black and lustrous with wet oily deposits.

[Appearance] The center and ground. electrodes are rounded and the gap has become too wide.

[Results] Poor starting and misfiring.

[Result] Poor starting and acceleration.

[Cause] Oil leaking due to piston ring, cylinder, or valve guide wear (occurs easily to new engines and engines that have just been overhauled), high oil content in air-fuel mixture (2-stroke engines).

[Cause] Inadequate maintenance (spark plug has exceeded its service life).

3

Fuel fouling

[Appearance] The spark plug is wet with gasoline immediately after it is removed, but it soon dries off. [Results] Poor starting and misfiring. [Cause] The air-fuel ratio is too rich and is not igniting. (Among the ways this can happen is if the driver presses the accelerator over and over while starting the vehicle.)

5

6

Insulator breakage

[Appearance] Insulator cracked.

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

2

[Result] Shorts due to insulation defect, causes poor idling and misfiring during acceleration. [Cause] Spark plug removed/installed incorrectly (spark plug turned too far with spark plug wrench, excess tightening torque, or other inappropriate work).

Spark plug gap too large

[Appearance] The gap is wider than appropriate. [Result] Poor starting and acceleration. [Cause] The gap is inappropriate; the wrong spark plug was selected.

[Handling] Remove all the spark plugs, crank the starter motor to bring fresh air into the cylinder and make the air-fuel ratio leaner.

● Lead fouling

[Appearance] The insulator leg section has yellow or yellowish-brown burnt on deposits or is covered with a glossy surface. [Result] Misfiring during rapid acceleration or under high load, but no problem in normal running. [Cause] Use of gasoline with much lead.

32

Spark Plugs Chapter 2

Spark Plugs

Study Tips The spark plugs are critical parts that dominate the engine combustion and bear a major responsibility for higher engine performance.

4

Housing installation screw section melting

1 2 3 4 Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

[Appearance] Thread screw section melting.

5

[Result] Power loss due to engine damage. [Cause] Incorrect spark plug tightening.

6

1

Overheating

[Appearance] The insulator nose section is scorched extremely white with small black deposits. Rapid electrode wear. [Result] Loss of power when running at high speed or under high load. [Cause] Spark plug incorrectly tightened, engine cooling problem, ignition timing too early, spark plug heat range too low, severely abnormal combustion.

2

Pre-ignition

5

Physical damage to ignition tip section

[Appearance] The center electrode or ground electrode is melted or scorched. There are spots on the insulator nose section and deposits of aluminum or other metal powder.

[Appearance] The electrode is bent and the insulator nose section is broken. Indentations are sometimes seen on the electrode.

[Result] Power loss due to engine damage.

[Results] Misfiring

[Cause] Often this is due to overheating; preignition is a phenomenon in which combustion occurs before ignition.

[Cause] The spark plug thread reach is too long for the engine head or there is some kind of foreign matter (a small bolt, nut, or the like) in the combustion chamber.

The plug heat range is too low, the injection timing is too advanced, etc.

3

Insulator breakage

6

Ground electrode breakage

[Cause] Overheating of the ground electrode and severe engine vibration.

[Appearance] The insulator nose section is cracked or broken. [Results] Misfiring [Cause] Severely abnormal combustion, lack of attention to gap adjustment.

33

Spark Plugs

● Corona stain

Chapter 2 Spark Plugs

[Appearance] Brown deposites on the insulator directly above the housing. [Result] No impact on the spark plug performance. [Cause] This occurs due to electrical stress in the air near the insulator. (This is not a spark plug gas leak, for which it is sometimes mistaken.)

8 Comprehensive test From the following statements about select the incorrect one.

spark plugs,

1

These are high-performance spark plugs that use the world's first ultra-fine 0.4-mm diameter center electrodes.

2

They greatly reduce the required voltage and raise the ignition performance.

3

Thanks to DENSO's unique U-groove ground electrodes, they secure a large volume for flame core formation.

4

The new iridium alloy for the center electrodie improves the oxidation resistance at high temperature.

5

They have longer service life than vehicle manufacturer's genuine iridium spark plugs.

6

When using

7

Select an

8

Since the required voltage is 3-5 kV, lower than it of normal spark plugs, use with a wider gap.

9

When installing new spark plugs on the engine, the same as for normal spark plugs, turn them in as far as they will go by hand, then tighten 1/4-1/2 rotation with a spark plug wrench.

spark plugs in vehicles which have used normal spark plugs, check in the application table. spark plug with the same heat range as the normal spark plug.

Answer on next page

34

Spark Plugs Chapter 3

Basics of Ignition

Study Tips How is the high voltage produced? When does the spark discharge occur?

1 High Voltage Generation Let us try. (1) If you line up the two coils and pass current through one coil (the primary coil), magnetic flux is generated.

Switched on

5

When a constant current is flowing in the primary coil, the magnetic flux does not change, so electromotive force is not generated in the secondary coil.

4

6 2

With the coils in this state, let us try cutting off the current in the primary coil with the switch.

3

Let us try. (2) Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

When the switch is switched On → Off to cut off the primary current, the magnetic flux generated up until now by the primary current disappears suddenly. This change in the magnetic flux generates hundreds of volts of counter-electromotive force in the primary coil (self-induction action) and furthermore generates electromotive force in the secondary coil that is amplified by the winding ratio. (Mutual induction action) This is how the high voltage required for the ignition spark is generated. The number of windings in the secondary coil. Secondary = × voltage The number of windings in the primary coil.

1

1 Battery 4 Secondary coil

2 Switch 5 Voltmeter

Switched off

5

(Counterelectromotive force in the primary coil)

2 3

Also when the switch is switched Off → On, the magnetic flux changes due to the change in the primary coil and the self-induction action of the coil generates counter-electromotive force, but this does not rise higher than the battery voltage.

35

Answer: 5,8

4

6

Let us try. (3)

Therefore, the change in the magnetic flux is softened and the voltage generated in the secondary coil is so low that it does not reach the discharge voltage.

3 Primary coil 6 Magnetic flux

1

1 Battery 4 Secondary coil

2 Switch 5 Voltmeter

3 Primary coil 6 Magnetic flux

Spark Plugs

Reference

Self-induction action

Switched off

When you change the current flowing through one coil, its magnetic flux also changes and induced electromotive power is generated in the coil. This phenomenon is called self-induction action. The induced electromotive power works to obstruct the change in the current.

Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

Therefore, when current is passed through a coil, the self-induction action works to obstruct that current, so it takes time for the current to flow into the coil. This phenomenon is called the primary current rise time.

Switched on

2

1

1 Current

2 Counter-electromotive force due to self-induction

36

Spark Plugs Chapter 3

Basics of Ignition

Study Tips How is the high voltage produced? When does the spark discharge occur?

Ignition coil This generation of high voltage through such coil self-induction action and mutual induction action takes place within the ignition coil.

3

2

The ignition coil has two coils, the primary coil and the secondary coil, and their winding ratio is about 1:100. The actual connecting and cutting off of the primary current is handled by transistors in the igniter or by mechanical contacts in the distributor.

4

5 8

1 6

7

Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

Ignition coil circuit

1 Battery 5 Secondary coil

2 Ignition switch 6 Signal

3 Ignition coil 7 Transistor

4 Primary coil 8 Spark plug

Primary current and high voltage The magnitude of the secondary voltage generated in the ignition coil is proportional to the magnitude of the primary current. However, generally as the figure shows, the higher the engine speed, the lower the voltage generated. This is because the higher the engine speed, the less time there is for the primary current to build up and the value of this current decreases.

A B

Therefore, it is necessary to control the primary current to be constant from low speed to high speed. One method for this control is dwell angle control.

Secondary voltage generation Ne: Engine speed V: Secondary voltage

37

A Coil A

B Coil B

Spark Plugs

2 High Voltage Control Dwell angle control (1)

Distributor Rotation angle

The dwell angle expresses the primary coil energized duration proportion (magnitude) with the distributor rotation angle. When the speed is constant,

Dwell angle

Energized duration

Small

Short

Large

Long

ON

Large dwell angle = Long energized duration is the relationship. ON

Dwell angle control is to control the primary coil energized duration (dwell angle) according to the speed of the engine.

For example, if the coil resistance is 1 ohm, the primary current is 12 A (for 12 V).

Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

Dwell angle control (2) 12A

However, until the primary current reaches 12A, it is obstructed by the self-induction action, so some time (t) is required.

I

t T Primary current rise characteristic T: Time

I: Primary current

Dwell angle control (3) When the dwell angle is constant, as the engine speed reaches high speed, the energized duration becomes shorter, so the primary current decreases and the secondary voltage decreases too.

I1

H

I

Therefore, when the engine is rotating at high speed, if the start of the energized duration is made earlier to lengthen the energized duration, the decrease in the coil primary current can be prevented. In this manner, the energized duration proportion, in other words the dwell angle, is controlled to be the optimum value for the engine speed.

L

I2

ON

OFF

OFF

T T: Time

I: Primary current

Primary current and engine speed H: For high speed L: For low speed

38

Spark Plugs Chapter 3

Basics of Ignition

Study Tips How is the high voltage produced? When does the spark discharge occur?

3 Ignition Timing Ignition timing and combustion pressure Until the air-fuel mixture ignites and the combustion reaches the maximum pressure requires a certain time. (Ignition lag, flame propagation) Generally, the engine releases the maximum pressure when the maximum pressure due to combustion comes at the position where the crankshaft position is about 10 degrees after top dead center (ATDC10° CA), so the ignition timing is set ahead of that time by the duration of the flame propagation and the ignition lag.

Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

Furthermore, since the combustion speed until the maximum pressure is reached depends on the engine speed, the engine load, etc., it is necessary to control the ignition timing according to those factors.

A: Ignition

B: Ignition lag

C: Flame propagation

E: Maximum combustion pressure

D: Crankshaft angle

F: Combustion completion

P: Pressure

4 Ignition Order In multi-cylinder engines, in order to make the engine run smoothly, the cylinders are combusted in a specific order. Example of the ignition order for a 4-cycle multi-cylinder engine ■ 4 cylinders ■ 6 cylinders ■ 8 cylinders

39

4

3 2

1

Spark Plugs

Example of 4-cylinder engine ignition order

4 cylinders 1

a) 1-3-4-2

2

3

4

b) 1-2-4-3

Crankshaft position

Example of 6-cylinder engine ignition order

6 cylinders 3

2

1

4

5

6

a) 1-5-3-6-2-4

Chapter 3 Basics of Ignition

b) 1-4-2-6-3-5

Crankshaft position

Example of 8-cylinder engine ignition order

8

8 cylinders

7 6

4

5

a) 1-8-6-2-7-3-4-5

3

b) 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2

2 1 Crankshaft position

5 Comprehensive Test From the following statements about ignition, select the incorrect one. 1

The winding ratio between the comparatively thick primary coil and the comparatively thin secondary coil is about 1:100.

2

The primary coil energized duration expressed as the distributor rotation angle is called the dwell angle.

3

When the primary coil current is switched Off, mutual electromotive induction power is generated in the secondary coil.

4

As the engine speed increases, the secondary voltage falls.

5

As the engine speed increases, the primary current falls.

6

4-cylinder engines ignite the cylinders in order from No. 1 to No. 4. Answer on next page

40

IDENTIFYING T h e P L U G S DENSO C O N F I PLUGS G U R AT I O N S Needle to needle Iridium Plug (Example)

(Example)FK20HR11

Iridium Plug (Example)ZXE20HR13

FXE20HE11

Iridium Power is... ■With an Ultra-fine Iridium Alloy Center Electrode

0.55mm Dia. Iridium

0.55mm Dia. Iridium

0.7mm Dia.Platinum

0.7mm Dia.Platinum

●Used as a genuine Nissan TIIDA and NOTE part. FXE20HE11 is a 12mm Diameter x 26.5mm Length, and 14mm Hex new type

Employing a high melting point iridium alloy tip for the center electrode tip, a fine dia. of 0.4mm has been realized. This fine electrode has led to a lower spark voltage and a large increase in ignitability, which draws out even more output and accelerator response from the engine. (Melting Point: Iridium ; 2454°C,Platinum ; 1769° C)

Iridium Plug (Example)SK16R-P11・SK20R11

0.7mm Dia. Iridium Tip

New Triple Electrode Iridium Plug (Example)SK20BR11

0.7mm Dia. Iridium Tip Platinum Tip

Platinum Tip

● We developed the 0.7mm diameter ultra-fine iridium alloy electrode, the first the world. Ignitability and lifetime have been improved dramatically. SK16R-P11 comes standard with the Toyota Century.

Platinum Plug for DLI (+ -Discharge) (Example)PK20R-P11

● To prevent wear during plus (+) discharge, the size of the platinum has been increased.

U-Groove Plug (Example)W16EX-U

Side Electrodes

●During regular operation, it sparks with the main electrode, but when it becomes fouled, it sparks with the side electrodes to burn off the carbon - this plug is the optimum design for direct injection engines. It comes standard with the Toyota Crown's 3R direct injection engine (D-4).

Extended Platinum Plug (Example)PKJ20CR-L11

●By extending the spark position into the combustion chamber, the combustion efficiency is increased and fuel consumption and drivability are improved.

●With a U-Groove ground electrode, large ignition energy can be obtained, easily igniting even lean mixtures. ●Because it is fully projected (2.5mm insulator projection), carbon fouling is reduced, and smooth starting and acceleration performance are realized.

Dual Electrode Platinum Plug (Example)PK20TR11

●The parts of the center electrode facing the ground electrodes have been platinum tipped. ●The dual electrode construction results in a lower required voltage during the plus (+) discharge.

●The ground electrode of this revolutionary iridium plug features DENSO's very own technology and is needle-shaped, resulting in an unparalleled reduction in quenching action. ●Used in the Toyota Sienta and the Toyota Crown since 2003.

Platinum ZU Plug (Example)W31ES-ZU

(Example)KJ20CR11・KJ20CR-U11

(Example)KJ20CR-L11

Platinum Plug (Example)PK20R11

Platinum

Platinum Tip

●With a taper-cut ground electrode, quenching action is dramatically reduced, increasing ignitability. ●With a special platinum alloy in the center electrode (0.7mm dia.). The attached part is spot welded in three locations for a high degree of reliability.

●Platinum is used in both the center electrode and the ground electrode. ●By making the center electrode fine and by using a platinum tip, fuel consumption, drivability, and durability have been increased.

Single-Side Platinum Plug (Example)Q20PR-P11・K16PR-TP11

●Only the center electrode is platinum tipped, allowing the electrode to be made fine which increases fuel consumption, drivability, and durability. ●K16PR-TP11 has had the ground electrode taper cut, further increasing ignitability.

Extended Plugs (Example)J16AR-U11

●By using the 0.55mm diameter fine iridium center electrode and the platinum tipped ground electrode, lifetime has been improved. ●12mm Diameter x 26.5mm Length, and 14mm Hex new type ●Used as a genuine Nissan LAFESTA part.

Semi-Surface Gap Plug for Rotary Engines (Example)S29A

●Employing a semi-surface gap discharge, ignitability, fouling resistance, and durability have been increased. ●Reduced voltage loss using a 7 rib design.

Semi-Surface Gap Plug (Example) )J16AY

(Example)W20EKR-S11・W20EPR-S11

7mm 5mm

●Using a U-grooved ground electrode, a large ignition performance is obtained, allowing even lean mixtures to be ignited easily. ●The spark position is extended into the ignition chamber, improving combustion efficiency, fuel consumption, and drivability.

●For Mazda and Mitsubishi Vehicles. ●KJ20CR11 has no U-groove. KJ20CR-U11 has a U-groove.

5mm

● The ground electrode is taper cut and the center electrode is made finer, improving ignitability.

7mm

●Specifically for Daihatsu, there are two ground electrodes, ensuring durability.

Because these are specialty plugs, installation on any other than the specified vehicles is not possible

41

Answer: 6

●Using a semi-surface discharge, ignitability and fouling resistance are increased. ●W20EKR-S11 are for Honda vehicles, while W20EPR-S11are for Mitsubishi vehicles.

T h e P L U G S C O N F I G U R AT I O N S Semi-Surface Double Electrode Plug (Example)W20ETR-S11

Shrouded Semi-Surface Gap Double Electrode Plug (Example)K20DTR-S11・W20DTR-S11

Triple Electrode Plug (Example)K22PB・W20EPB

Small Hex Plug

ISO Compatible Small Hex Plug

(Example)Q16R-U11・Q16PR-U11

(Example)K16R-U11・K16PR-U11

ISO Type 53mm

●A double ground electrode with a 1mm gap is used. ●Using a short opposed-type dual ground electrode, excellent durability is obtained. ●Improved ignitability because it is fully projected. ●With the new addition of a supplementary gap, fouling resistance is improved. ●Used for Toyota and Daihatsu.

Small Plug for Small Cars (Example)XU22EPR-U

●In addition to a semi-surface gap construction, the end of the threaded portion has been extended into the combustion chamber, and a shroud has been attached to improve fouling resistance. ●Used for Daihatsu and Subaru.

Long Housing Plugs (Example)QL20PR-U・QL20TR-S

●Durability is increased with triple ground electrodes. ●For Audi, VW, Citroen, Fiat, Mercedes-Benz, Renault.

●By reducing the hex size (16mm), the plug has been made smaller.

TaperSeat Plug (Example)T16EPR-U

50.5mm

●This product is compatible with ISO standards. *Because the installed height (H) is 2.5mm shorter than with the Q type, be careful during installation.

Motorcycle Plugs (Example)X24GPR-U

(Example)X24EPR-U9

19mm

3mm

●By reducing the hex size (16mm), the plug has been made compatible with small cars. Thread size is 12mm.

●By making the middle cylinder longer, installation dimensions have been secured. ●Exclusively for Daihatsu. ●QL20TR-S has double ground electrodes and a semisurface gap resulting in improved anti-fouling properties.

●Solely for non-Japanese vehicles that do not have a gasket.

●Because the thread end has a 3mm shroud, and the reach is 22mm, it can be used only for the specified vehicles. ●For Honda

●12mm Diameter X 19mm Length

Motorcycle Plugs (Example)W27EMR-C

(Example)U27FER9

(Example)U31ETR

(Example)U27ESR-N

(Example)U20FSR-U

6.3mm 12.7mm

●Plug with a compact insulator head. ●For Suzuki and Honda.

Motorcycle Plugs (Example)Y27FER

●A 10mm Diameter X 19mm Length, half-threaded. ●With a wider gap of 0.9mm compared to conventional plugs (0.6 to 0.7mm), this plug has improved ignitability. ●For Honda

●With double ground electrodes, heat resistance is improved. ●For Kawasaki and Suzuki.

●10mm Diameter X 19mm Length, fully threaded. ●By making the projection 0.5mm greater, fouling resistance has been improved. ●For Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha.

●10mm Diameter X 12.7mm Length

Resistor Plug Reduces the amount of radio noise generated during ignition.

Reduced Radio Noise

Resistor

●Very Miniature Plug (8mm Diameter X 19mm Length, half-threaded). ●Cannot be used on any other than the specified vehicles. ●For Honda .

● By adding a 5kΩ resistor between the center electrode and the center electrode core, we have created a plug that has less radio noise during ignition. With the increasing number of electronic devices on vehicles, most new cars today come standard with resistor plugs.

42

Q1

What type of spark plug is the ?

A

This is a new generation of high-performance spark plug that uses the world’s smallest (*1) iridium center electrode that is a mere 0.4 mm in diameter.

■Tapered Cut The tip of the ground electrode has been cut to form a taper. This greatly improves firing performance by reducing quenching.

■U-Groove A U-groove has been cut inside the ground electrode to maintain the large volume of space required to form the nucleus of a flame. While still keeping the required voltage low, this technology enables excellent firing performance without increasing the spark gap.

■Ultra-fine 0.4 mm diameter iridium

electrode Use of a “new iridium alloy” that has a high melting point has enabled miniaturization of the center electrode. Required voltage has been lowered and firing performance improved. (All types): Japan (2877035, 2921524, 3000955), U.K. (2302367), U.S.A. (5977695, 6078129, 6093071, 6094000, 6262522), People's Republic of China (961022841), Republic of Korea (0292083)

■Highly corrosion-resistant

(*2)

bright nickel plating Bright nickel plating, as used in racing car spark plugs, is used in the housing to give the plug high resistance against corrosion. *1: As of Nov. 1999, this excludes flush type electrodes that do not protrude from the insulator. *2: Excluding some types

43

Why was the center electrode of the Q2 reduced to only 0.4 mm? To lower the required voltage and improve firing performance. The most advanced technology in the world has been employed to enable use of the world’s smallest(*) electrode, at 0.4 mm in diameter, in the .

A

The smaller the electrode the more concentrated the electric potential at the tip of the electrode and the stronger the electric field that affects required voltage and the lower the required voltage. As a result, combustion is good for all types of driving, the engine starts easily, and acceleration improves.

Electric field strength shown using FEM(*1) analysis

Normal spark plug(*2) Weak

Strength of electric field

Strong

The above shows the strength of electrical field in case certain voltage changes on normal spark plug and . The more electrical field strength is getting high, the more it becomes easy to fire with low voltage. *1 FEM (Finite Element Method analysis): General method to measure electrical field strength. *2 Normal spark plug mentioned in this brochure is resistor plug.

The electrode also has a quenching (cooling) effect (effect where the electrode takes away the heat of the spark as soon as firing occurs). Therefore, in a thick electrode the cooling effect is great and sometimes firing does not occur as shown in Figure 4 . The characteristics of this firing is called firing performance. To improve firing performance, the contact area between the electrode and the flame nucleus needs to be made reduced in size. Accordingly, the electrode was made as fine as possible in the I to improve firing performance.

Pattern from sparking to firing 1 Sparking

Sparks discharge on the part of the electrode where they can discharge most easily.

2 Generation of flame nucleus

Electric discharge energy activates part of mixed air and a small flame is produced.

3 Growth of flame nucleus

The flame grows even though energy is being absorbed in the ground electrode.

*: As of Nov. 1999, this excludes flush type electrodes that do not protrude from the insulator.

4 Firing

Growth of the live coal accelerates and finally, the flame spreads as explosive combustion.

44

How is the iridium tip of the Q3 welded to the electrode?

A

We use all-round laser welding to ensure a highly reliable joining.

The 0.4 mm iridium tip that generates the high performance of the is an alloy with a very high melting point. Therefore, ordinary resistance welding cannot be used because the iridium does not melt enough and an adequate weld strength cannot be guaranteed. “All-round laser welding”, which employs a high-energy laser, is used in the to melt and weld all around welding points. Because all area to be welded is completely melted, the welding point is extremely reliable, thus ensuring stable and quality response without changes in the electrode, even under heavy driving conditions.

All-round laser welding

45

What advantages does the U-groove in the Q4 ground electrode have?

A

Ignitability can be improved without increasing the required voltage. (The U-groove is original DENSO technology and a patent for it was acquired in 1975.)

To improve ignitability, it is important to allow the good growth of the flame nucleus (live coal) created in discharge. The usual way of ensuring this is increasing the spark gap, but this also increases the required voltage and thus places a great load on the ignition coil and plug cords.

Flame nucleus Spark gap (small)

Bad

Normal electrode

Spark gap (large)

The ground electrode, with its U-groove, maintains a large volume of space without altering the spark gap. Therefore, excellent firing ignitability is enabled even though the sparking required is kept low.

Spark gap (small)

Good

Ground electrode with U-groove

Spark gap (small)

46

What advantages does the tapered cut in the 5 ground electrode have?

Q

A

Ignitability is improved. Also, the heat and vibrations experienced by the electrodes at combustion are decreased, enabling an increase in driving performance.

As explained in the answer to Q2 , to improve ignitability, an important characteristic of spark plugs, it is important to minimize the portion of the electrode that comes in contact with the flame nucleus. Because the area of the ground electrode with tapered cut that comes into contact with the flame nucleus is small, the heat lost to the electrode is lessened and firing performance improves dramatically. Also, the surface area and weight of the ground electrode tip is reduced and so the load in terms of heat and vibrations is lessened. This means that the spark plug can cope with heavier driving conditions.

Tapered cut

47

What are the differences between and iridium spark plugs Q6 offered as genuine parts by car manufacturers?

A

They use iridium of the same quality in the tip but the purposes and specifications of the spark plugs differ.

The is a high performance spark plug. The iridium spark plugs offered as genuine parts by car manufacturers are long-life spark plugs. The center electrode in both is made from the new iridium alloy but the purpose of both are different. Therefore, the electrode diameter and ground electrode specifications also differ.

Iridium spark plugs provided as genuine parts Type

High performance type

Long life type

Appearance

Platinum tip

U-groove

Tapered cut

0.7 mm iridium tip

0.4 mm iridium tip

Electrode

Longevity

15,000 to 20,000 km

100,000 km

Type

IK20

SK20R11

DENSO precious metal spark plugs are classified into the four types shown in the following table according to the center electrode material and type. Type Electrode material

High performance type (φ 0.4)

Iridium alloy Platinum alloy

ZU plug (φ 0.7)

Long life type Iridium plug (φ 0.7) Platinum plug (φ 1.1)

The figures in parentheses represent the diameter of the center electrode.

48

Q7

What type of material is used to produce the electrode employed for Iridium is the same type of precious metal as platinum. It is characterized by its extremely high melting point and great strength.

A

Melting point (°C)

Strength (kgf/mm2)

Electrical resistance (μΩ・cm)

Hardness (HV,20° C)

Iridium

Platinum

Nickel

Gold

Silver

(Ir)

(Pt)

(Ni)

(Au)

(Ag)

2454

1769

1453

1063

960

112

14

68

13

13

5.3

10.6

6.8

2.3

1.6

240

40

160

25

26

Melting point The melting point of iridium is approximately 680°C higher than that of platinum and is difficult to melt even in the high temperatures produced by electrical discharges and combustion.

Strength

Iridium has high material strength compared to other materials and provides stable performance under heavier driving conditions.

Electrical resistance Because the electrical resistance is lower than platinum and the base material of electrodes, nickel, iridium is suitable for use in spark plug electrodes.

Hardness Iridium is harder than other materials and has great material strength.

49

?

Why can iridium now be used in Q8 electrodes? DENSO is now able to use iridium because of our technology in the field of precious metals, for which we are a world-leader and also because of our advanced laser welding technology.

A

As explained in the answer to Q7 , iridium is an extremely hard material. In the past, sintering material was generally cut and this meant high costs and restrictions on processing form and dimensions. Therefore, it could not be used as a material in spark plugs. However, our new precious metals technology has meant that we can now process iridium by drawing it in its melted form. This enables iridium to be processed in all dimensions and forms. Therefore, DENSO has moved quickly to use it as a material for use in spark plug electrodes.

Q9

In what other fields is iridium commonly used for?

A

Because of its high melting point and superb corrosion resistance, iridium is used widely in fields employing state-of-the-art technology such as the aerospace, medical, and motor vehicle industries.

■Components in aerospace industry ■Electrodes for equipment used in clinical medicine such as pacemakers and catheters ■Metal pots for growing crystals for electronic industries ■Automobile catalyzers ■Jewelry

50

Q10

Is the tip in the made of pure iridium?

A

We use a new iridium alloy developed at DENSO.

Iridium is characterized by a higher melting point than either nickel or platinum. Therefore, it wears very well when subject to electrical discharge. However, at high temperatures it oxidizes a little too much and so we are unable to use pure iridium for spark plug electrodes.

Melting point(° C)

Element

Oxidation resistance

3410

Tungsten (W)

Bad

2610

Molybdenum (Mo)

Bad

2454

Iridium (Ir)

Good

1769

Platinum (Pt)

Better

1453

Nickel (Nl)

Good

1063

Gold (Au)

Better

960

Silver (Ag)

Better (The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

DENSO studied many additives with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of iridium and has now developed a new iridium alloy (the alloy of iridium and rhodium) highly suitable for use in spark plug electrodes. This new product is covered by the following DENSO patents; JP2877035, GB2302367; and other patents pending in USA, Germany, Canada, Italy and South Korea. The following photographs compare the durability of the new iridium alloy and pure iridium when used in an engine under the same conditions. New DENSO iridium alloy

Test engine: 90 cc 4-cycle 1-cylinder

Pure iridium

Test conditions:Full X 9000rpm X 30h

Part of the pure iridium material was shed and corroded. The new DENSO iridium alloy showed no corrosion on the electrode and mainfained good condition.

51

me about the firing performance of Q11 Tell the .

A

Use of a ultra-fine 0.4 mm diameter iridium center electrode and a tapered cut and a U-groove in the ground electrode has enabled us to achieve previously unparalleled firing performance in the .

Ordinarily, the leaner the air mix the more difficult the firing. The greater the ignitability limits, that is the leaner the air mix in which a plug can spark, the better firing performance a plug is said to have. The following graph shows some examples of ignitability limits (*) for various spark plugs. *: Ignitability limits (Air/Fuel); 1)Lean limits to be able to fire 2)As this figure is getting higher, it will become easier to fire.

Good

Test engine: 1600 cc, 4-valve, 4-cylinder

18

(Lean)

(φ 0.4)

17



16

Air/Fuel

Platinum plug(φ 1.1)

15

Normal plug(φ 2.5)

Ignitability Limits



14

13

12

11

10

(Rich) 0.6

0.8

1.0

1. 2

1.4

1.6

spark plug gap (mm) (The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

Compared to normal spark plugs, with a spark gap of 0.8mm, the Ignitability limits is better by 2.5.

52

Tell me about the required voltage in the Q12 .

A

The required voltage is reduced by the use of the ultra-fine 0.4 mm diameter center electrode.

Recently, there has been a trend to increase the compression ratio to increase output in engines. This means that the required voltage of spark plugs tends to increase and high compression is required in highly tuned engines. When this occurs, the required voltage increases and, in the worst case, sparking ceases while the engine is running. Minimization of the electrode diameter is an effective way of avoiding this. (Refer to the answer for Q2 .) In the , the center electrode has a diameter of 0.4 mm. Because required voltage is kept low, this enables the to be used in high performance engines and for high response driving. The following graph gives examples of required voltage measurements for and normal spark plugs. Test engine: 660 cc, Carburetor, 3-cylinders

Normal spark plug

Required voltage

(kV)

25

20

15

10

Good

Full load driving

Fast acceleration

53

Idling

When started The required voltage in the than in normal plugs.

(The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

is between 3 and 5 kv less

What happens at idling when an is used? Owing to stable combustion, less variation in the idling revolutions is produced, hence there is less need for 'engine-breathing' during idling.

A

When an engine is idling, firing can become particularly bad. Because the has a low required voltage and high ignitability, sparking continues to work properly during idling. This stabilizes the idling revolution count and quietens the engine. The following graph gives some examples of idling revolution counts.

Engine: 1600cc 4-valve, 4-cylinder

Engine revolution count (rpm)

Q13

700

Variations (small)

650

Normal plug

Variations (large)

600 0

10

20

Time passed (seconds)

30

40

(The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

Whereas normal plugs have highly variable revolution counts, the maintains very smooth idling. Also, because combustion is good, the explosive energy raises the revolution count.

54

What happens to fuel consumption when Q14 is used?

A

In many cases, fuel consumption is improved.

When spark plugs are used, accidental fire and misfiring rarely occur under various driving conditions. Therefore, combustion is extremely good. In turn, a healthy engine can be maintained and fuel consumption is improved. In the idling examples given in the answer to Q13 , combustion improved and therefore the revolution count increased. However, if the engine’s idling revolution control is operated, control that returns an increased revolution count will be operated and the throttle constricted, thus improving fuel consumption during idling. The following graph is the comparison of fuel consumption during idling. Test engine: 1600 cc 4-valve 4-cylinder

Spark plug

Center electrode Good (mm) 0.53

Fuel consumption( /h) 0.54

0.55

0.56

0.57

φ0.4 Normal plugs

φ2.5 (The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

In many cases, fuel consumption will also improve for the same reason during actual running. The following graph is an example that shows an improved fuel consumption when a car is being driven at 60 km/h on flat ground. Test engine: 1600 cc 4-valve 4-cylinder

Spark plug

Center electrode Good (mm) 2.23

Fuel consumption( /h) 2.24

2.25

2.26

2.27

φ0.4 Normal plugs

φ2.5 (The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

55

Does engine performance improve when Q15 is used?

A

spark plugs enhances the performance of an engine. Acceleration is improved when compared against normal spark plugs.

The 0.4 mm iridium center electrode and the specially shaped ground electrode in an enable a superior ignitability and a lower required voltage than any seen in the past. Accordingly, there is less misfire in areas where required voltage is high, and less misfiring in areas where firing is difficult. No matter how heavy the conditions, high response driving is enabled. As a result, acceleration is better than when normal spark plugs are used. The following graph is an example of an acceleration test. Vehicle: 250 cc (2-cycle, water-cooled, V2 cylinders) Conditions: Fixed in sixth gear Flat out acceleration from 50 km/h using an automatic driving device

150

Speed (km/h)

Normal spark plug

Difference of 0.7 seconds 100

50

(The above is analyzed in DENSO.)

Time Vehicle: 250 cc (2-cycle, water-cooled, V2 cylinders) Conditions: Fixed in sixth gear Flat out acceleration from 50 km/h using an automatic driving device Running distance difference at 150km/h between ordinaly spark plug and

Spark plug

Center electrode diameter (mm)

.

Distance run (m) 790

800

Good 810

φ0.4

Normal spark plug

φ2.5 Difference of 6m

There was a difference of 0.7 seconds between and normal spark plugs in the time taken to reach 150 km/h. There was also a difference of 6 m in the distance covered to reach that speed. 56

Can spark plugs of other brand-names be Q16 substituted with ?

A

Our spark plugs are compatible with almost all spark plugs manufactured by other companies.

spark plugs can replace almost all spark plugs fitted as standard in Japanese and foreign cars. Check for the spark plug you are using in the following table and select the spark plug that corresponds to it. plugs are also compatible not only with standard spark plugs but also with high performance and racing spark plugs and can also be used in engines where the required heat range is high, such as in highly tuned engines. If the spark plug you are using is not in this table, select an from the following table which lists spark plugs by vehicle type.

to suit your car

            Comparative Spark Plug Table DENSO

NGK

IK16

K16PR- , K16R-U , KJ16C K16TR PK16 , PKJ16

BKR5 , ZFR5F, J PFR5 (except A.K) PZFR5

IK20

K20PR- , K20R-U , KJ20C K20TR PK20 , PKJ20

BKR6 , ZFR6F, J PFR6 (except A.K) PZFR6

IK22

K22

IRIWAY7, BKR7E

NGK RACING

TRUST

BLITZ

R6326-7, R6255-7

07 ISO

R6427-7

PFR7  (except A.K),PZFR7

IK24

K24

IRIWAY8 ,PFR8B

R6326-8, R6255-8

08 ISO

R6427-8

IK27

K27

IRIWAY9

R6326-9, R6255-9

09 ISO

R6427-9

IQ16

Q16PR- , Q16R-U PQ16

BCPR5 PFR5A,K

IQ20

Q20PR- , Q20R-U , QJ20C PQ20

BCPR6 PFR6A,K

IQ22

Q22

IRITOP7 ,BCPR7E  , PFR7A

R6337-7, R5400-7

07

R6105-7

IQ24

Q24

IRITOP8, BCPR8E

R6337-8, R5400-8

08

R6105-8

IQ27

Q27

IRITOP9

R6337-9, R5400-9

09

R6105-9

IW16

W16E P16

BPR5E PGR5

IW20

W20E P20

BPR6E PGR6

IW22

W22E P22

BPR7E PGR7

IXU22

XU22

DCPR7E

IXU24

XU24

IRIMAC8, DCPR8E

For normal engines, select a spark plug with the same heat range as a standard spark plug. For highly tuned engines, select one with the heat range that suits the tuning level.

57

What type of cars can current be fitted Q17 with ?

A

At present, spark plugs can be fitted into almost all Japanese and foreign cars.

There are 85 types of spark plugs (as of Aug. 2005).At least one of these 85 types will be able to be fitted into almost any car.

Does the engine need to be specially Q18 set when fitting ?

A

No. The plugs can just replace the ones you take out.

The spark plug itself has a low required voltage and high ignitability and is able to draw out the power of an engine. The superb performance of spark plugs is obtained merely by installing them in your vehicle. And, of course, there is no need for special tuning.

58

Q19

How do I select the correct heat-range when fitting to my vehicle?

A

In ordinary cars, use a spark plug with the same heat range as a normal spark plug. In highly tuned vehicles, select a heat range to suit the tuning level of the engine. (Ordinarily, the heat range of a highly tuned engine tends to be colder.)

Refer to the following table to compare the heat range of the spark plugs.

and other

DENSO

16

20

22

24

27

29

31

34

NGK

5

6

7

8

9

9.5

10

11

10,9

8,7

63,61

59

57

55

7, 6

5

4

3

CHAMPION 12,11 8

BOSCH

2

* The above heat range is extracted from other companies' brochure.

How would compare Q20 against high-performance spark plugs offered by other spark plug manufacturers?

A

The following table gives examples of high performance plugs marketed by other companies.

Manufacturer

Spark plug

DENSO

Center electrode diameter Center electrode material (mm)

Tapered cut

φ0.4

Iridium alloy

Yes

ZU spark plug

φ0.7

Platinum alloy

Yes

*1

Iriseries spark plug

φ0.6

Iridium alloy

Yes

*2

VX spark plug

φ0.8

Platinum alloy

Yes

Project Gold

φ2.0

Gold-palladium alloy

Yes

Blue Platinum

φ0.9

Platinum

Yes

NGK CHAMPION

*3

BOSCH

*4

*1: From NGK Iriseries Plug catalog *3: From the CHAMPION Project Gold catalog

*2: From the NGK catalog *4: From the BOSCH catalog

The use of an iridium alloy for the ultra-fine 0.4 mm diameter center electrode, a tapered cut, synonymous with high performance spark plugs, in the ground electrode, and DENSO’s original U-groove, make spark plugs high performance spark plugs. 59

Is there anything I need to be aware of Q 21 when fitting ?

A

As with normal spark plugs, install spark plugs using the correct procedure and appropriate torque.

Notes for Installing and Removing

Spark Plugs

1 Use a spark plug wrench to suit the hexagonal part of the spark plug to ensure that no burring occurs. 2 When removing the spark plug, ensure that no fouling, such as oil on the outside of the plug, enters inside the engine. 3 When installing

spark plugs, clean the seat for the spark plug in the

engine, check the gasket,and then mount the plugs on their seats. 4 Place the plugs in vertically and

screw in by hand until tight.

5 Then, using a spark plug wrench, rotate for

between 1/4 and 1/2 of a turn (or between 1/5 and 1/4 of a turn when they are to be re-used).

6 Do not over-tighten spark plugs as this may damage the engine (in particular, aluminum engines) and cause fracturing of the thread.

Can the gap be Q22 adjusted? Can I use any spark plug cleaners ? with the

A

Do not adjust the spark plug gap. Use of a spark plug cleaner for short periods is acceptable if low pressure is used.

spark plugs use a ultra-fine 0.4 mm iridium center electrode and the spark gap is already set at the optimum distance. If the electrode is damaged by gap adjustment or cleaning, the spark plugs will not perform to their best. 60

LINEUP On Sale Spring 2005

IKH series IKH16. IKH20. IKH22 IKH24. IKH27

IK series (

●For Subaru 3 Liter, Nissan, Peugeot, Citroen, and Yamaha Marine. 50.5 mm

IQ16. IQ20. IQ22. IQ24. IQ27. IQ31. IQ34

● Mainly used for cars. ISO type.

● Mainly used for cars.

●14mm dia. X 19mm length type.

●14mm dia. X 19mm length type.

●IK22 and above are for tuned engines, with a spark gap of 0.8mm.

●IQ22 and above are for tuned engines, with a spark gap of 0.8mm.

53 mm

IW series IW16. IW20. IW22. IW24. IW27. IW29. IW31. IW34 ●14mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded type. ●IW16 to 22 are focused on ignitability with a 1.5mm projection, whereas IW24 to 34 are focused on heat resistance with a projection of -1.5mm.

●IK□L is extended type (spark position 5mm)

●The spark position of IW24 to 34 is projected 0.5mm compared to normal (1.0 → 1.5mm).

● IK□ G equips a sus (stainless steel) Gasket

26.5 mm

19 mm

IWM series IWM24. IWM27. IWM31

IWF16

( IWF20 ) IWF16. IWF20. IWF22. IWF24. IWF27

●The Iridium Power version of the IWM01-□ Iridium Racing plugs. ●Sold as street-use plugs for 2-cycle 250cc sports bikes. ●For Honda NSR250, Yamaha TZ250R, Suzuki RGV250γ (Gamma), Aprilia RS250, KTM260, 300, and 380 ('99 and later).

19 mm

19 mm

On Sale 2004 IWF series Summer ITV series

●This type has a gasket face height shortened by approximately 10mm from the IW Type.

19 mm

IQ series

Summer 2005

IK16G IK16. IK20. IK22. IK16L. IK20L. ( IK20G) IK16G. IK20G. IK22G. IK24. IK27. IK31. IK34

●14mm dia. X 26.5mm length long reach type

● Iridium Tough VKH16, VKH20, and VKH22 are also on sale at the same time.

IK16L IK20L ) On Sale

12.7 mm

ITV16. ITV20. ITV22. ITV24. ITV27

●14mm dia. X 12.7mm length short reach type.

●14mm dia.. X 25.0mm length tapered seat, long reach type.

●IWF27 utilizes the heat resistance of the iridium electrode to extend the spark position 0.5mm (1.0 → 1.5mm)

●For the Ford Focus, Mondeo, Escape; Chevrolet Blazer and Mazda Tribute.

●Harnessing the low required voltage of the 0.4mm dia. iridium, the gap is wider than in standard types (0.7 →0.8mm). ignitability is increased even further.

50 mm

On Sale 2004 ITL series Summer

( ITL16 ITL20 )

ITL16. ITL20

●14mm diameter X 25.0mm length tapered seat, long reach type. ●Designed so that the head of the plug is 6mm higher than in the ITV

56 mm

●For the Chrysler PT Cruiser and Voyager

25 mm

25 mm

●Can also be used for water cooled kart engines.

IT series IT16. IT20. IT22. IT24. IT27

17.5 mm

ITF series ITF16. ITF20. ITF22. ITF24. ITF27

IXU series IXU22. IXU24. IXU27

IX series IX22. IX24. IX27

●14mm dia. X 17.5mm length tapered seat type.

●14mm dia. X 11.2mm length tapered seat type.

●12mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded type.

●12mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded type.

●For use with GM, Ford, Citroen, Jaguar, Peugeot, Volvo, MercedesBenz, Lancia, Renault, Audi, and Mazda.

●For use with GM and Ford.

●The insulator is fully projected (1.5mm), creating a wide heat range and greater ignitability.

●Using the high heat resistance of the iridium electrode, the spark position is projected 0.4mm more than in standard types. (1.6 → 2.0mm)

●16mm Hex ●For use with small cars and imported motorcycles such as Ducati.

11.2 mm

19 mm

● Harnessing the low required voltage of the 0.4mm dia. iridium the gap is wider than in the standard types (0.7 →0.8mm). A further increase in ignitability.

19 mm

●18mm Hex 16mm

61

18mm

IX-B series IX22B. IX24B. IX27B

IXG series IXG24. IXG27

●12mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded type.

IU series IU20. IU22. IU24. IU27. IU31

●The Iridium Power versions of the 2mm shroud type plugs (X24/27GPU) used by Honda.

●Compared to the IX type, the insulator projection is extended 0.9mm (0.6 → 1.5mm), resulting in a wider heat range.

●Applicable to Honda CB400SS, XR400RR, CL400/RS, XLR250R, CBX250S, FTR250, CBX400F, XR250R.

19 mm

22 mm

IU24A. IU27A. IU31A ●10mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded slant ground electrode type.

●Harnessing the low required voltage of the 0.4mm iridium center electrode, the spark gap is wider than in normal type. A further increase in ignitability.

●18mm Hex 19 mm

(IU20)

●10mm dia. X 19mm length fully threaded type.

●Applicable to CB400SS. An expansion of applications is planned.

●The spark position is projected 0.8mm more than the IX type. (2.0 → 2.8mm)

IU-A series

On Sale Summer 2004

●For motorcycles such as Yamaha and Kawasaki, also for Ferarri, Maserati, and Alfa Romeo.

●Harnessing the low required voltage of the 0.4mm dia. iridium, the gap is wider than in normal type (0.7 → 0.9mm). ignitability is greatly increased. ●By making this a single electrode, the spark location is stabilized compared to in normal types (double ground electrode), securing an ideal combustion condition.

19 mm

Slant Electrode

IUH series IUH24. IUH27

IUF series IUF22. IUF24. IUF14-UB

●10mm dia. X 19mm length half-threaded type.

●10mm dia. X 12.7mm length short reach type.

●Using the high heat resistance of the iridium electrode, the spark position is extended 0.4mm compared to standard types (1.6 → 2.0mm)

●Using the high heat resistance of the iridium, the spark position is extended 0.4mm compared to standard types (1.6 → 2.0mm)

●For Honda

●Harnessing the low required voltage of the 0.4mm dia. iridium, the spark gap is wider than in normal types (0.7 → 0.8mm).

6.3 mm 19 mm

12.7 mm

IUF-A series IUF27A. IUF31A

IY series IY24. IY27. IY31

●10mm dia. X 12.7mm length short type.

●8mm diameter X 19mm length tapered seat, half thread type.

●Ideal for Gorilla/ Monkey Racing

●The world's first 8mm thread diameter iridium plug

●The ground electrode has a slant shape, reducing the thermal stress on it.

● Can be used with Honda Smart Dio ('04-), VFR400, RVF400, Kitaco Monkey Head, and NR750.

19 mm

12.7 mm

12.7 mm Slant Electrode

8mm

62

S P E C I F I C AT I O N S RESISTOR

No.

Terminal shape Ground electrode height Spark position

PROJECTION

GAP

HEX

REACH

DIA.

TYPE

JIS

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I01

0 42511 05301 4

067700-8700

0 42511 02301 7

100676-3380

JIS

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I02

0 42511 05302 1

067700-8710

0 42511 02302 4

100676-3390

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I13

0 42511 05313 7

067700-8480

0 42511 02313 0

100676-3480

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I14

0 42511 05314 4

067700-8490

0 42511 02314 7

100676-3490

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I15

0 42511 05315 1

067700-8500

0 42511 02315 4

100676-3500

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I23

0 42511 05323 6

067700-9230

0 42511 02323 9

100676-3520

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I24

0 42511 05324 3

067700-9600

0 42511 02324 6

100676-3830

ISO

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I03

0 42511 05303 8

067700-8680

0 42511 02303 1

100676-3360

ISO

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I04

0 42511 05304 5

067700-8690

0 42511 02304 8

100676-3370

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I10

0 42511 05310 6

067700-8430

0 42511 02310 9

100676-3450

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I11

0 42511 05311 3

067700-8460

0 42511 02311 6

100676-3460

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I12

0 42511 05312 0

067700-8470

0 42511 02312 3

100676-3470

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I21

0 42511 05321 2

067700-9220

0 42511 02321 5

100676-3510

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I22

0 42511 05322 9

067700-9590

0 42511 02322 2

100676-3600

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.2

S

5

I51

0 42511 05351 9

267700-5610

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.2

S

5

I52

0 42511 05352 6

267700-5620

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2

S

5

I48

0 42511 05348 9

267700-5660

0 42511 02348 2

100676-5350

ISO,EXTENDED

14

19

16 1.1 2.5 5.0 7.8 RC

5

I57

0 42511 05357 1

267700-5120

14

19

SPEC

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

New New New New

New New

New New

63

IQ16 IQ20 IQ22 IQ24 IQ27 IQ31 IQ34 IK16 IK20 IK22 IK24 IK27 IK31 IK34 IK16G IK20G IK22G IK16L IK20L IKH16 IKH20 IKH22 IKH24 IKH27 IW16 IW20 IW22 IW24 IW27 IW29 IW31 IW34 IWM24 IWM27 IWM31 IWF16 IWF20 IWF22 IWF24 IWF27 ITV16 ITV20 ITV22 ITV24 ITV27 ITL16 ITL20 IT16 IT20 IT22 IT24 IT27 ITF16 ITF20 ITF22 ITF24 ITF27 IXU22 IXU24 IXU27 IX22 IX24 IX27

ISO,EXTENDED

ONE PC BOX

2pcs BLISTER PACK

BARCODE

DENSO P/N

BARCODE

DENSO P/N

(kΩ)

16 1.1 2.5 5.0 7.8 RC

5

I58

0 42511 05358 8

267700-5130

Long Reach26.5mm

14 26.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I43

0 42511 05343 4

267700-3660

0 42511 02343 7

100676-5160

Long Reach26.5mm

14 26.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I44

0 42511 05344 1

267700-3670

0 42511 02344 4

100676-5140

Long Reach26.5mm

14 26.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I45

0 42511 05345 8

267700-2650

0 42511 02345 1

100676-5170

Long Reach26.5mm

14 26.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I46

0 42511 05346 5

267700-4280

0 42511 02346 8

100676-5180

Long Reach26.5mm

14 26.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I47

0 42511 05347 2

267700 4290

0 42511 02347 5

100676-5190

14

19 20.6 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I05

0 42511 05305 2

067700-8650

0 42511 02305 5

100676-3400

14

19 20.6 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I06

0 42511 05306 9

067700-8660

0 42511 02306 2

100676-3410

14

19 20.6 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2 RC

5

I07

0 42511 05307 6

067700-8670

0 42511 02307 9

100676-3420

14

19 20.6 0.7 -0.5 1.5 3.6 RC

5

I16

0 42511 05316 8

067700-8890

14

19 20.6 0.7 -0.5 1.5 3.6 RC

5

I17

0 42511 05317 5

067700-8900

14

19 20.6 0.7 -0.5 1.5 3.6 RC

5

I18

0 42511 05318 2

067700-8910

14

19 20.6 0.7 -0.5 1.5 3.6 RC

5

I19

0 42511 05319 9

067700-8920

14

19 20.6 0.7 -0.5 1.5 3.6 RC

5

I20

0 42511 05320 5

067700-8930

INSULATOR COMPACT

14

19 20.6 0.8 -1.5 0.5 2.7

S

5

I91

0 42511 05391 5

267700-2890

INSULATOR COMPACT

14

19 20.6 0.8 -1.5 0.5 2.7

S

5

I92

0 42511 05392 2

267700-2900

INSULATOR COMPACT

14

19 20.6 0.8 -1.5 0.5 2.7

S

5

I93

0 42511 05393 9

267700-2910

14 12.7 20.6 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2

R

5

I59

0 42511 05359 5

267700-5000

14 12.7 20.6 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2

R

5

I78

0 42511 05378 6

267700-5010

14 12.7 20.6 0.8 -0.5 1.5 3.7

R

5

I79

0 42511 05379 3

067700-9410

14 12.7 20.6 0.8 -0.5 1.5 3.7

R

5

I80

0 42511 05380 9

067700-9420

14 12.7 20.6 0.8 -0.5 1.5 3.7

R

5

I81

0 42511 05381 6

067700-9430

Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I38

0 42511 05338 0

267700-3700

Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I39

0 42511 05339 7

267700-3710

Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2 RC

5

I40

0 42511 05340 3

267700-2500

Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I41

0 42511 05341 0

267700-2510

Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I42

0 42511 05342 7

267700-2520

Longer Insulator Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I49

0 42511 05349 6

267700-4980

Longer Insulator Long Reach(Taper Seat)

14

25

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I50

0 42511 05350 2

267700-4990

TAPER SEAT

14 17.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I25

0 42511 05325 0

267700-0610

0 42511 02325 3

100676-3610

TAPER SEAT

14 17.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I26

0 42511 05326 7

267700-0620

0 42511 02326 0

100676-3620

TAPER SEAT

14 17.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2 RC

5

I27

0 42511 05327 4

267700-0630

0 42511 02327 7

100676-3630

TAPER SEAT

14 17.5 16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I28

0 42511 05328 1

267700-0640

0 42511 02328 4

100676-3640

TAPER SEAT

14 17.5 16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I29

0 42511 05329 8

267700-0650

0 42511 02329 1

100676-3650

TAPER SEAT

14 11.2 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I30

0 42511 05330 4

267700-0660

0 42511 02330 7

100676-3660

TAPER SEAT

14 11.2 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

I31

0 42511 05331 1

267700-0670

0 42511 02331 4

100676-3670

TAPER SEAT

14 11.2 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2 RC

5

I32

0 42511 05332 8

267700-0680

0 42511 02332 1

100676-3680

TAPER SEAT

14 11.2 16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I33

0 42511 05333 5

267700-0690

0 42511 02333 8

100676-3690

TAPER SEAT

14 11.2 16 0.8 -0.5 1.0 3.2 RC

5

I34

0 42511 05334 2

267700-0700

0 42511 02334 5

100676-3700

12

19

16 0.9 1.3 2.8 5.0 RC

5

I08

0 42511 05308 3

067700-8721

0 42511 02308 6

100676-3430

12

19

16 0.9 1.3 2.8 5.0 RC

5

I09

0 42511 05309 0

067700-8731

0 42511 02309 3

100676-3440

12

19

16 0.9 1.3 2.8 5.0 RC

5

I37

0 42511 05337 3

067700-8601

0 42511 02337 6

100676-3820

12

19

18 0.8 0.6 2.0 4.1

R

5

I71

0 42511 05371 7

067700-9350

12

19

18 0.8 0.6 2.0 4.1

R

5

I72

0 42511 05372 4

067700-9360

12

19

18 0.8 0.6 2.0 4.1

R

5

I73

0 42511 05373 1

067700-9370

RESISTOR

No.

Terminal shape Ground electrode height Spark position

PROJECTION

GAP

HEX

REACH

DIA.

TYPE

12

19

18 0.9 1.5 2.8 5.0

R

5

I75

0 42511 05375 5

067700-9380

12

19

18 0.9 1.5 2.8 5.0

R

5

I76

0 42511 05376 2

067700-9390

12

19

18 0.9 1.5 2.8 5.0

R

5

I77

0 42511 05377 9

067700-9400

SHROUD

12

22

18 0.7 0.7 2.0 4.1

R

5

I94

0 42511 05394 6

267700-2920

SHROUD

12

22

18 0.7 0.7 2.0 4.1

R

5

I95

0 42511 05395 3

267700-2930

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 0.7 2.6

R

5

I60

0 42511 05360 1

267700-5020

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 0.7 2.6

R

5

I61

0 42511 05361 8

067700-9260

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 0.7 2.6

R

5

I62

0 42511 05362 5

067700-9270

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 0.7 2.6

R

5

I63

0 42511 05363 2

067700-9280

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 0.7 2.6

R

5

I64

0 42511 05364 9

067700-9290

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 1.0 2.9

R

5

I65

0 42511 05365 6

067700-9300

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 1.0 2.9

R

5

I66

0 42511 05366 3

067700-9310

10

19

16 0.9 -0.5 1.0 2.9

R

5

I67

0 42511 05367 0

067700-9320

HALF THREAD

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 3.9

R

5

I68

0 42511 05368 7

067700-9330

HALF THREAD

10

19

SPEC

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

IX22B IX24B IX27B IXG24 IXG27 New IU20 IU22 IU24 IU27 IU31 IU24A IU27A IU31A IUH24 IUH27 IUF22 IUF24 IUF27A IUF31A IY24 IY27 IY31

ONE PC BOX BARCODE

DENSO P/N

2pcs BLISTER PACK BARCODE

DENSO P/N

(kΩ)

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 3.9

R

5

I69

0 42511 05369 4

067700-9340

10 12.7 16 0.8 0.6 2.0 3.8

R

5

I83

0 42511 05383 0

067700-9480

10 12.7 16 0.8 0.6 2.0 3.8

R

5

I84

0 42511 05384 7

067700-9490

10 12.7 16 0.9 -0.5 1.0 2.9

R

5

I85

0 42511 05385 4

067700-9700

10 12.7 16 0.9 -0.5 1.0 2.9

R

5

I86

0 42511 05386 1

067700-9710

HALF THREAD

8

19

13 0.7 0.6 1.4 2.9

R

5 I100

0 42511 05400 4

267700-4490

HALF THREAD

8

19

13 0.7 0.6 1.4 2.9

R

5 I101

0 42511 05401 1

267700-4500

HALF THREAD

8

19

13 0.7 -0.5 0.5 2.0

R

5 I102

0 42511 05402 8

267700-4510

φ 0.4mm IRIDIUM PLUG(OEM TYPE) RESISTOR

No.

Terminal shape Ground electrode height Spark position

PROJECTION

GAP

HEX

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

I35

0 42511 05335 9

067700-9550

14

19

16 1.1 0.5 2.0 4.7

S

5

I36

0 42511 05336 6

067700-9520

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V28

0 42511 05628 2

267700-1840

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V15

0 42511 05615 2

267700-1850

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V29

0 42511 05629 9

267700-1860

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V16

0 42511 05616 9

267700-1870

14

19

16 1.1 0.5 2.0 4.7

S

5

V30

0 42511 05630 5

267700-2050

14

19

16 1.1 3.0 5.0 7.7

S

5

V33

0 42511 05633 6

267700-1970

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.5 5.7

S

5

-

067700-9740

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.5 6.0

S

5

-

067700-8620

14

19 20.6 1.3 2.5 4.0 6.9

S

5

-

267700-1640

12

19

18 0.9 1.5 2.8 5.0

T

5

V34

0 42511 05634 3

067700-9830

12

19

18 0.9 1.5 2.8 5.0

T

5

V14

0 42511 05614 5

067700-9720

12

19

16 0.8 1.3 2.8 4.9

S

5

-

267700-5170

SPEC

REACH

DIA.

TYPE

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

IK24C11 ISO IK27C11 ISO VK16PR-Z11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VK20PR-Z11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VK22PR-Z11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VK24PR-Z11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VK27PR-Z11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VKJ20RZ-M11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT SVK20RZ8 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT SVK20RZ11 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VW16R-A13 Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VX20BC Ground Elec. Pt. VX22BC Ground Elec. Pt. IXU22C・ No U-Groove IU27D IUH24D HALF THREAD IUH27D HALF THREAD VUH24D HALF THREAD,Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VUH27D HALF THREAD,Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT New VUH27ES HALF THREAD,Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT,SUS GASKET VNH24Z HALF THREAD,Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT VNH27Z HALF THREAD,Ground Elec. Pt.&TAPERCUT IUF14-UB

IRIDIUM ONE PC BOX BARCODE

DENSO P/N

IRIDIUM 2pcs BLISTER PACK BARCODE

DENSO P/N

(kΩ)

10

19

16 0.9 0.5 1.8 3.8

T

5

I90

0 42511 05390 8

267700-0850

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

R

5

I87

0 42511 05387 8

067700-9560

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

R

5

I88

0 42511 05388 5

067700-9570

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

T

5

V26

0 42511 05626 8

267700-2010

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

T

5

V27

0 42511 05627 5

267700-1931

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

T

5

-

267700-4770

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

S

5

V32

0 42511 05632 9

267700-2060

10

19

16 0.9 0.6 2.0 4.0

S

5

V31

0 42511 05631 2

267700-2070

10 12.7 16 0.7 0.6 1.6 3.3

S

5

I89

0 42511 05389 2

267700-0540

New …………………………Anything shown with this is a product that is “On Sale in 2004∼2005” Spark gap …………………For example, for a 1.1mm gap, it is set at the range between 1.0 and 1.1mm. Insulator projection ………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the end of the insulator. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Spark position ……………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the center electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Ground electrode height …This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the ground electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Terminal shape ……………S;Solid R;Removable RC;Crimped T;Threaded 64

DENSO Spark Plugs Package Lineup MARKET TYPE

PLATINUM

IRIDIUM

General

65

Japan

Asia/Europe

USA

What type of spark plug is the ?

This new plug from DENSO uses the world’s smallest center electrode*1, a ultra-fine 0.4mm dia. iridium alloy electrode that provides high performance. In addition, the plug has a platinum on the ground electrode, ensuring the long life of a platinum plug. Platinum ground electrode Platinum taken from proven platinum plug technology has been added to the ground electrode. The long life of a platinum plug is assured by greatly reducing electrode wear.

Ultra-fine 0.4mm dia. iridium electrode Use of a “iridium alloy” that has a high melting point has enabled miniaturization of the center electrode. Required voltage has been lowered and ignitability improved.

Highly corrosion-resistant bright nickel plating Bright nickel plating, as used in racing car spark plugs, is used in the housing to give the plug high resistance against corrosion.

360°laser welding The union of the iridium is made highly reliable by “360°laser welding”, preventing failure in even the severe conditions.

Built-in high reliability resistor The resistor specification is similar to all types. However, a high reliability monolithic resistor is built in. This shuts out noise to all other electrical equipment.

*1: As of Aug. 2005, this excludes flush type electrodes that do not protrude from the insulator.

66

What makes the ignitability of so good?

The quenching effect of the plug is reduced by using the ultra-fine 0.4mm dia. center electrode. The electrode also has a quenching (cooling) effect (effect where the electrode takes away the heat of the spark as soon as firing occurs). Therefore, in a thick electrode the cooling effect is large and sometimes firing does not occur as shown in Figure 4. The characteristics of this firing is called ignitability. To improve ignitability, the contact area between the electrode and the flame kernel needs to be made reduced in size. Accordingly, the electrode was made as fine as possible in the to improve ignitability.

Pattern from sparking to firing 1 Sparking

2 Generation of flame kernel

3 Growth of flame kernel

4 Firing

Sparks discharge on the part of the electrode where they can discharge most easily.

Electric discharge energy activates part of mixed air and a small flame is produced.

The flame grows even though energy is being absorbed in the ground electrode.

Growth of the flame accelerates and finally, the flame spreads as explosive combustion.

Effect of ultra-fine iridium electrode

•Rapid growth of flame kernel Less cooling

•Cylinder compression ratio 0.4MPa/DIV Average waveform for 256 cycle

0.4

Flame kernel

Flame kernel

More cooling

1600cc 4cyl 1200rpm-60KPa

Normal spark plug TDC

67

Normal spark plug 2.5

How does the superior ignitability of influence combustion?

The flame is rapidly spread for quick combustion in comparison to a normal spark plug. By decreasing the cooling effect of the center electrode has on the growth of the flame kernel, forms a stronger flame kernel for ensuring ignition. The result is faster spread of combustion, more stability and improved engine performance in comparison to normal spark plugs. A combustion chamber observation device has been used to show in the photographs below the spread of combustion for and a normal spark plug.

Time (mS)

0

Normal spark plug

Normal spark plug

Normal spark plug

1 2 3 4

150 Much variance

Flame area (mm2)

Little variance

Normal spark plug

200

100 50

0

1

2 Time (mS)

3

4 1

mS = 1000 sec

Clearly the result is a much faster spread of combustion with . With , combustion has spread throughout nearly the entire combustion chamber within 4/1000 seconds of discharge. The normal spark plug has only spread half as much in that time. The regular plug also fails to spread the flame in some occurrences. The same combustion results occur in an actual engine, becoming a good reason to choose the high performance of 0.4mm iridium center electrode plugs. 68

How is the iridium tip of the welded to the electrode?

We use 360°laser welding to ensure a highly reliable joining. The 0.4mm iridium tip that generates the high performance of the is an alloy with a very high melting point. Therefore, ordinary resistance welding cannot be used because the iridium does not melt enough and an adequate weld strength cannot be guaranteed. “360°laser welding”, which employs a high-energy laser, is used in the to melt and weld all around welding points. Because all area to be welded is completely melted, the welding point is extremely reliable, thus ensuring stable and quality response without changes in the electrode, even under heavy driving conditions.

360° laser welding

69

What is the difference between and

?

The , with its 0.4mm iridium center electrode and U-groove + tapered cut ground electrode, is a high performance plug providing ultimate running results. The , with its 0.4mm iridium center electrode and platinum ground electrode, is a high performance plug with an emphasis on longer life. The ground electrode of the has a tapered cut and a U-shaped groove on its underside, reducing the quenching effect during flame formation and providing exceptional ignitability. The ground electrode of the has a platinum at the discharge point, suppressing electrode wear at discharge and providing the working life of a platinum plug.

U-groove

Platinum

Tapered cut

0.4mm iridium

0.4mm iridium

What patented technologies are used with ? The 0.4mm ultra-fine iridium center electrode used in is original technology from DENSO covered by the following patents. ■Material composition of iridium By adding a small amount of rhodium to the primary iridium material, resistance to oxidation is increased and corrosion in the high temperature combustion environment is suppressed. Japan Patent 2877035, UK Patent 2302367, US Patents 6094000, 6262522, People’s Republic of China Patent 961022841, Republic of Korea Patent 0292083.

■Manufacture of iridium

■Welding of iridium “360°laser welding” melts the entire circumference of the part with a high energy laser to maintain a fit state even under harsh running conditions. Japan Patent 2921524, US Patent 6078129.

360°laser welding

Rather than using the usual sintering method, a melting method enables manufacture in any shape and dimension. Japan Patent 3000955, US Patent 5977695.

70

What type of material is used to produce the electrode employed for ?

A precious metal similar to platinum, iridium, a member of the platinum group with the atomic number 77, is extremely strong and has an unusually high melting point.

Melting point (℃)

Strength (kgf/mm2)

Electrical resistance

Iridium

Platinum

Nickel

Gold

Silver

(Ir)

(Pt)

(Ni)

(Au)

(Ag)

2454

1769

1453

1063

960

112

14

68

13

13

5.3

10.6

6.8

2.3

1.6

240

40

160

25

26

(µΩ cm)

Hardness (HV, 20℃)

Melting The melting point of iridium is approximately 680℃ higher than point that of platinum and is difficult to melt even in the high temperatures produced by electrical discharges and combustion.

Melting points of various metals Melting point (℃)

2500 Strength Iridium has high material strength compared to other materials and provides stable performance under heavier driving conditions.

Element

Iridium

2000 Platinum

Electrical Because the electrical resistance is lower than resistance platinum and the base material of electrodes, nickel, iridium is suitable for use in spark plug electrodes.

1500 Nickel

1000 Hardness Iridium is harder than other materials and has great material strength.

71

500

Gold Silver

Why can iridium now be used in electrodes?

DENSO is now able to use iridium because of our technology in the field of precious metals, for which we are a world-leader and also because of our advanced laser welding technology. As explained in the answer to , iridium is an extremely hard material. In the past, sintering material was generally cut and this meant high costs and restrictions on processing form and dimensions. Therefore, it could not be used as a material in spark plugs. However, our new precious metals technology has meant that we can now process iridium by drawing it in its melted form. This enables iridium to be processed in all dimensions and forms. Therefore, DENSO has moved quickly to use it as a material for use in spark plug electrodes.

In what other fields is iridium commonly used for?

Because of its high melting point and superb corrosion resistance, iridium is used widely in fields employing state-of-the-art technology such as the aerospace, medical, and motor vehicle industries. ■ Components in aerospace industry ■ Electrodes for equipment used in clinical medicine such as pacemakers and catheters ■ Metal pots for growing crystals for electronic industries ■ Automobile catalyzers ■ Jewelry 72

Is the tip in the made of pure iridium?

We use a new iridium alloy developed at DENSO. Iridium is characterized by a higher melting point than either nickel or platinum. Therefore, it wears very well when subject to electrical discharge. However, at high temperatures it oxidizes a little too much and so we are unable to use pure iridium for spark plug electrodes.

Melting point(℃)

Element

Oxidation resistance

3410 2610 2454 1769 1453 1063 960

Tungsten (W) Molybdenum (Mo) Iridium (Ir) Platinum (Pt) Nickel (Nl) Gold (Au) Silver (Ag)

Bad Bad Good Better Good Better Better

DENSO studied many additives with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of iridium and has now developed a new iridium alloy (the alloy of iridium and rhodium) highly suitable for use in spark plug electrodes. Patents for this iridium alloy have been secured in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, People’s Republic of China and Republic of Korea. (Japan Patents 2877035, 3000955, 2921524. UK Patent 2302367. US Patents 6094000, 6262522, 5977695, 6078129. People’s Republic of China Patent 961022841. Republic of Korea Patent 0292083.) The following photographs compare the durability of the new iridium alloy and pure iridium when used in an engine under the same conditions. New DENSO iridium alloy

Test engine: 90 cc 4-cycle 1-cylinder

Pure iridium

Test conditions: Full X 9000rpm X 30h

Part of the pure iridium material was shed and corroded. The new DENSO iridium alloy showed no corrosion on the electrode and mainfained good condition. 73

Tell me about the ignitability of the .

Use of a ultra-fine 0.4mm dia. iridium center electrode has enabled us to achieve previously unparalleled ignitability in the . Ordinarily, the leaner the air mix the more difficult the ignition. The greater the ignitability limits, that is the leaner the air mix in which a plug can spark, the better ignitability a plug is said to have.

The following graph shows some examples of ignitability limits for various spark plugs.

Test engine: 1600 cc, 4-valve, 4-cylinder

Platinum plug ( 1.1) Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

17

Good

16

(Lean)

Ignitability Limits (Air/Fuel)

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

Spark plug gap (mm)

With spark gap set to 0.8mm, the air-fuel mixture ignitability limit for is 2.0 points higher than a normal spark plug. This high ignitability improves idling stability and acceleration performance through correct firing even under running conditions that easily cause poor igniting performance at idling or acceleration.

74

Tell me about the required voltage in the .

The ultra-fine 0.4mm center electrode lowers the required voltage by several kV. Recently, there has been a trend to increase the compression ratio to increase output in engines. This means that the required voltage of spark plugs tends to increase and high compression is required in highly tuned engines. When this occurs, the required voltage increases and, in the worst case, sparking ceases while the engine is running. Minimization of the electrode diameter is an effective way of avoiding this. In the , the center electrode has a diameter of 0.4mm. Because required voltage is kept low, this enables the to be used in high performance engines and for high response driving. The following graph gives examples of required voltage measurements for and normal spark plugs.

Required voltage (kV)

25

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

20

15

10

Good Full load driving

Fast acceleration

75

Idling

When started

for

The required voltage is reduced by 3~5kV as compared to normal spark plugs.

What happens at emission when an is used?

Emissions become cleaner because the combustion conditions are made stable.

Installing plugs eliminates misfires and misspark in all running conditions, resulting in greatly improved combustion. This in turn makes emissions much cleaner.

Vehicle: 2000cc 4cyl 4-cycle Operating condition: 11 modes 5.0

5.2

5.4

5.6

5.8

6.0

Emissions (g/km)

5.17

CO

11% improvement

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

5.80 0.40

0.42

0.44

0.46

0.48

0.50

Emissions (g/km)

0.422

HC

13% improvement

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

0.486 0.20

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30

Emissions (g/km)

0.221

NOx

18% improvement

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

0.270

76

What happens to fuel consumption when is used?

In many cases, fuel consumption is improved.

When plugs are installed, combustion dramatically improves because misfires and misspark are eliminated for all running conditions. This improves fuel consumption since favorable engine performance is maintained even when minimum required fuel is being used. The following plug performance is an example of improved fuel consumption at fixed 60km/h running. Vehicle: 2000cc 4cyl 4-cycle

Fuel Consumption (km/l) 15.2

15.4

15.6

15.8

15.760

Platinum plug ( 1.1)

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

77

15.646

15.231

16.0

3.5% improvement over normal spark plugs

Does engine performance improve when is used?

enhances the performance of an engine. Acceleration is improved when compared against normal spark plugs. The 0.4mm iridium center electrode and the specially shaped ground electrode in an enable a superior ignitability and a lower required voltage than any seen in the past. Accordingly, there is less misfire in areas where required voltage is high, and less misfiring in areas where firing is difficult. No matter how heavy the conditions, high response driving is enabled. As a result, acceleration is better than when normal spark plugs are used. The following graph is an example of an acceleration test.

Vehicle: 2000cc 4cyl 4-cycle Operating condition: Creep (2nd) > Full Open (100km/h)

Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

12.58

Vehicle speed (km/h)

0 to 100

12.66 9.28

0 to 80

9.30 6.32

0 to 60

6.34 3.32

0 to 40

3.34 1.02

0 to 20

1.06 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Time passed (seconds)

There was a difference of 0.08 seconds between and normal spark plugs in the time taken to reach 100km/h.

78

How does the compare to the 0.6mm iridium plugs, platinum plugs and normal spark plugs?

The than

provides better performance 0.6mm iridium plugs, platinum plugs and normal spark plugs.

combines an excellent balance of output, stain resistance, work life, starting power and acceleration.

Output 10 8

( 0.4) Platinum plug ( 1.1) Normal spark plug ( 2.5)

6 4

Acceleration 2

Startability

Performance of other plugs as measured against

79

Anti-fouling characteristics

Life time DENSO Data Comparison with value of 10.

Can spark plugs of other brand-names be substituted with ?

Our spark plugs are compatible with almost all spark plugs manufactured by other companies. can replace almost all spark plugs fitted as standard in Japanese and foreign cars. Check for the spark plug you are using in the following table and select the that corresponds to it. are also compatible not only with standard spark plugs but also with high performance and racing spark plugs and can also be used in engines where the required heat range is high, such as in highly tuned engines. If the spark plug you are using is not in this table, select an suit your car from the following table which lists spark plugs by vehicle type.

to

Comparative spark plug table DENSO

VK□□

IK□□

NGK

K□□PR, K□□R-U, KJ□□C,

BKR□, ZFR□, PFR□,

K□□TR, PK□□, PKJ□□, SK□□,

IRIWAY□, PZFR□,

SKJ□□

IFR□, IZFR□

VQ□□

IQ□□

Q□□PR, Q□□R-U, PQ□□, QJ□□

BCPR□, ZFR□A, IRITOP□

VW□□

IW□□

W□□E, P□□, S□□

BPR□E, IGR□, GR□

VXU□□

IXU□□

XU□□EP-U, XU□□EPR-U

DCPR□E, DCP□E, IRIMAC□, KR□AI/BI, PKR/IKR□A

VK20Y VK□G

IK□G

K20PR-U, PK20PR-P8

BKR6E, PFR6B

SK22PR-M11S, PK22PR-L11S,

IFR7G11KS, PFR7G11S

SK20PR-L9S, K20PR-U9S

VKA□□

SK□□BGR, PK□□GR

BKR□EKUC/D, ZFR□D/E/G, BKR□EP8

VKB□□

SK□□BR

IZFR□B/C, PZFR□B/C

VKH□□

IKH□□

K□□HPR-U, K□□HR-U, SK□□HR

ILZFR□, ILFR□, PLFR□, LFR□

VT□□

IT□□

T□□EP-U, T□□EPR-U, PT□□EPR

BPR□EFS, ITR□□, PTR□, TR□

For normal engines, select a spark plug with the same heat range as a standard spark plug. For highly tuned engines, select one with the heat range that suits the tuning level.

80

Does the engine need to be specially set when fitting ?

No. The plugs can just replace the ones you take out. The itself has a low required voltage and high ignitability and is able to draw out the power of an engine. The superb performance of is obtained merely by installing them in your vehicle. And, of course, there is no need for special tuning.

How do I select the correct heat-range when fitting to my vehicle?

In ordinary cars, use a spark plug with the same heat range as a normal spark plug. In highly tuned vehicles, select a heat range to suit the tuning level of the engine. (Ordinarily, the heat range of a highly tuned engine tends to be colder.) Refer to the following table to compare the heat range of the and other spark plugs.

DENSO

16

20

22

24

27

29

31

32

34

35

NGK

5

6

7

8

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

57

55

53

CHAMPION 12, 11 10, 9 8, 7 BOSCH

81

8

7, 6

5

6, 4, 59 63, 61 4

3

2

How does the compare to iridium plugs from other makers?

With its 0.4mm dia. iridium center electrode, the world’s smallest, offers better acceleration and starting than any plugs. The addition of the platinum on the ground electrode results in high performance and long life not seen in the product lines.

Manufacturer

Center electrode Spark plug diameter (mm)

Center electrode material

Ground electrode specifications

0.4

Iridium alloy (Rhodium added)

Platinum attached No tapered cut

0.4

Iridium alloy (Rhodium added)

Tapered cut U-groove

0.6

Iridium sintering material (Yttria added)

Tapered cut

0.6

Iridium sintering material (Yttria added)

Tapered cut

0.6

Iridium sintering Platinum material attached (Yttria added) No tapered cut

High performance + Long life

DENSO

(’00.6

~)

Ultra-high performance

(’98.5

~)

High performance

Iriseries (’97.4

~)

High performance

NGK

Iridium IX (’00.4

~)

Iridium MAX

DENSO research July 2003

82

Can be used to replace plugs with 2, 3 or 4 ground electrodes?

of

Yes. The reason is that the 0.4mm center electrode lowers the required voltage compared to 2, 3 and 4 electrode plugs and provides superior ignitability.

Required voltage decreases as the electrode gets thinner because the electric field strength affecting required voltage becomes stronger. As shown in the following diagram modeling each electrode shape, requires less voltage than the 2 electrode plug.

2 electrode plug Normal spark plug

Plug

Electrode model

Ground electrode Center electrode

Required voltage

Plate and Needle

Needle and Arc

Lower

Plate and Plate

Higher

< Ignitability> Cooling effect from the electrode decreases and ignitability increases to the extent that the contact area between the flame kernel and electrodes is smaller. Due to its 0.4mm center electrode, has less contact area between the flame kernel and electrodes and better ignitability than 2 electrode plugs.

2 electrode plug More cooling Less cooling

83

Is there anything I need to be aware of when fitting ?

As with normal spark plugs, install using the correct procedure and appropriate torque. Recommended Torque and Tightening Angle for DENSO plugs. 1 Use the correct wrench for the hex on the plug, and be careful not to damage the insulator. 2 When changing, make sure that the oil, etc. on the outside of the plug does not enter the engine interior. 3 When putting the plugs in, clean the engine side of the flange, and put in the plugs after making sure the gasket is in the flange. 4 Make sure the plugs are vertical, 5 Then, use a plug wrench to tighten them accurately to the and tighten them by hand until torque or rotation angle showed in the chart below. they cannot be tightened any further.

If a thread lubricant such as grease is coated on the thread, tightening to the recommended torque is tightening too much; this has been linked to seal leakage. Do not use a thread lubricant. Tightening more than the tightening angles and torques shown on the right could result in damage to the engine and furthermore could result in the plug coming off at the thread. (※1)IUH27ES, U24FER9S

Thread Size

Applicable Models

Recommended Torque

Recommended Tightening Angle New Plug

Previously Used

8-10N・m

About 1 turn

About 1/12 turn

Types other than the ones shown below

10-15N・m

About 1/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M10

UFE, IUH, VUH, VNH Types

10-15N・m

About 2/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M10

Stainless Gasket Type(※1)

10-15N・m

About 3/4 turn

About 1/12 turn

M12

All Types

15-20N・m

About 1/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14

Types other than the ones shown below

20-30N・m

About 1/2 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14

Stainless Gasket Type(※2)

20-30N・m

About 2/3 turn

About 1/12 turn

M18

All Types

30-40N・m

About 1/4 turn

About 1/12 turn

M14 Taper seat All Types

20-30N・m

About 1/16 turn

About 1/16 turn

M8

All Types

M10

(※2)PK22PR-L11S, SK22PR-M11S, IK16G, IK20G, IK22G, VK16G, VK20G, VK22G, K20PR-U9S, SK20PR-L9S SKJ20DR-M11S, KJ20DR-M11S, K20PR-L11S

84

Can the

gap be adjusted? Can I use any spark plug cleaners with the ?

Do not adjust the spark plug gap. Use of a spark plug cleaner for short periods is acceptable if low pressure is used.

use a ultra-fine 0.4mm iridium center electrode and the spark gap is already set at the optimum distance. If the electrode is damaged by gap adjustment or cleaning, the spark plugs will not perform to their best.

85

What plugs are in the lineup?

VQ series

VK series

VQ16 • VQ20 • VQ22

VK16 • VK20 • VK22 VK16G • VK20G VK22G • VK20Y

•Used primarily for cars •JIS type small plug •Installation screw ø14 X L19 gap VQ22 can be used for •0.8mm tune-ups

•Used primarily for cars •ISO type small plug •Installation screw ø14 X L19 •Stainless gasket (VK16G∼VK22G)

VKA series

VKB series

VKA16 • VKA20

VKB16 • VKB20

with •Compatible SK16/20BGR11/PK20GR8 •Shroud type •22mm thread length •For Toyota D4 •For Mitsubishi GDI

•Compatible with SK16/20BR11 •19mm thread length •For Toyota D4 •For Mitsubishi GDI

VKH series

VW series

VKH16 • VKH20 • VKH22 VKH20Y

VW16 • VW20 • VW22

Peugeot, Citroën, Nissan, •Subaru, Renault, Mitsubishi, Mercedes Benz,

•Used primarily for cars •Installation screw ø14 X L19 II, Sunny, Familia, BMW, Audi, •Mark etc.

Toyota, Isuzu, etc.



Thread length is 26.5mm.

VT series

VXU series

VT16 • VT20

VXU22 • VXU24

•Mercedes Benz, Mazda, Ford, etc.

•Used for small cars •Installation screw ø12 X L19 full projection (1.5mm) •Insulator provides wider heat value range and improves ignitability



Wagon R, Mira, Preo, Minica, Laputa, etc.

86

S P E C I F I C AT I O N S RESISTOR

No.

Terminal shape Ground electrode height Spark position

PROJECTION

GAP

HEX

JIS

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V01

0 42511 05601 5

267700-0740

0 42511 02601 8

100676-3740

JIS

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V02

0 42511 05602 2

267700-0750

0 42511 02602 5

100676-3750

SPEC

REACH

DIA.

TYPE

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

VQ16 VQ20 VQ22 VK16 VK20 VK22 new VK16G new VK20G new VK22G VK20Y VKA16 VKA20 VKB16 VKB20 VKH16 VKH20 VKH22 VKH20Y VW16 VW20 VW22 VT16 VT20 VXU22 VXU24

ONE PC BOX

2pcs BLISTER PACK

BARCODE

DENSO P/N

BARCODE

DENSO P/N

(kΩ)

JIS

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4 RC

5

V13

0 42511 05613 8

267700-0760

0 42511 02613 1

100676-3760

ISO

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V03

0 42511 05603 9

267700-0710

0 42511 02603 2

100676-3710

ISO

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V04

0 42511 05604 6

267700-0720

0 42511 02604 9

100676-3720

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4 RC

5

V10

0 42511 05610 7

267700-0730

0 42511 02610 0

100676-3730

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V40

0 42511 05640 4

267700-5610

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7

S

5

V41

0 42511 05641 1

267700-5620

ISO,SUS GASKET

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4

S

5

V36

0 42511 05636 7

267700-5670

0 42511 02636 0

100676-5340

ISO

14

19

16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4 RC

5

V20

0 42511 05620 6

267700-3720

0 42511 02620 9

100676-3950

NEW 3 ELECTRODE SHROUD

14

22

16 1.1 2.5 4.0 6.5 RC

5

V22

0 42511 05622 0

267700-5030

0 42511 02622 3

100676-5360

NEW 3 ELECTRODE SHROUD

14

22

16 1.1 2.5 4.0 6.5 RC

5

V23

0 42511 05623 7

267700-5040

0 42511 02623 0

100676-5370

NEW 3 ELECTRODE

14

19

16 1.1 2.5 4.0 6.5 RC

5

V24

0 42511 05624 4

267700-5050

0 42511 02624 7

100676-5380

NEW 3 ELECTRODE

14

19

16 1.1 2.5 4.0 6.5 RC

5

V25

0 42511 05625 1

267700-5060

0 42511 02625 4

100676-5390

Long Reach

14 26.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V17

0 42511 05617 6

267700-3680

0 42511 02617 9

100676-5250

Long Reach

14 26.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.7 RC

5

V18

0 42511 05618 3

267700-3690

0 42511 02618 6

100676-5150

Long Reach

14 26.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4 RC

5

V19

0 42511 05619 0

267700-2680

0 42511 02619 3

100676-5270

Long Reach

14 26.5 16 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.4 RC

5

V39

0 42511 05639 8

267700-4540

0 42511 02639 1

100676-5260

14

19 20.6 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

V05

0 42511 05605 3

267700-0770

0 42511 02605 6

100676-3770

14

19 20.6 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

V06

0 42511 05606 0

267700-0780

0 42511 02606 3

100676-3780

14

19 20.6 0.8 1.5 3.0 5.2 RC

5

V07

0 42511 05607 7

267700-0790

0 42511 02607 0

100676-3790

14 17.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

V21

0 42511 05621 3

267700-2810

0 42511 02621 6

100676-5280

14 17.5 16 1.1 1.5 3.0 5.5 RC

5

V38

0 42511 05638 1

267700-4480

0 42511 02638 4

100676-5290

12

19

16 0.9 1.3 2.8 5.0 RC

5

V08

0 42511 05608 4

267700-0800

0 42511 02608 7

100676-3800

12

19

16 0.9 1.3 2.8 5.0 RC

5

V09

0 42511 05609 1

267700-0810

0 42511 02609 4

100676-3810

New

…………………………Anything shown with this is a product that is “On Sale in 2004∼2005” Spark gap …………………For example, for a 1.1mm gap, it is set at the range between 1.0 and 1.1mm. Insulator projection ………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the end of the insulator. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Spark position ……………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the center electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Ground electrode height …This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the ground electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Terminal shape ……………S;Solid R;Removable RC;Crimped T;Threaded

Realizing High Performance and Superior Durability with the 25 Top Types *1!! Type

Size Screw Diameter Thread Reach

GAP (mm)

Heat Range 16

20





1.1 0.8







● ●

0.8

VQ

14

19

16

VK (ISO)

14

19

16

VK-G (ISO)

14

19

16

VK-Y (ISO) VKA VKB

14

19

16

1.1 0.8

14

22

16

1.1





14

19

16





VKH

14

26.5

16

1.1 0.8



VKH-Y

14

26.5

16

1.1 0.8

● ●

1.1 0.8

22

24



Cedric, Bluebird, Saab, Mercedes Benz, and others



Camry, Vitz, Wingroad, Inspire, Capella, and others



Honda Subaru Turbo, and others Toyota D4 Engine, Mitsubishi GDI, and others



0.8

Applicable Vehicles (*2)

Subaru, Peugeot, Citroen, Nissan, Renault, Mitsubishi, Mercedes Benz, Toyota, and Isuzu Subaru Turbo, and others



1.1





Mark II, Sunny, Familia,BMW Audi, and others

16

1.1





Mercedes Benz, Mazda, Ford

19

16

0.9

19

16

0.8



19

20.6

0.8



VW

14

19

20.6

VT

14

17.5 (taper seat)

VXU VK20T VW20T

12 14 14

*1 25 types of Iridium Tough and 2 types of Iridium Plus

87

Hex Size





Wagon R, Mira, Pleo, Minica, and Laputa For Taxi (Iridium Plus)

*2 Always confirm your selection using the Model Quick Chart

Next Generation High Performance Plugs for Taxi Improved Mileage

Less fuel consumption with a 0.4mm diameter center electrode.

Even during idling, when it is easy for ignition to degrade, Iridium Plus reduces mis-sparking and stabilizes idling speed. This results in a quieter engine and improved fuel consumption.

R

Fuel Consumption Comparison

1 57 . 60 Platinum Plug

1 5.646

(1.1mm Diameter)

Normal Plug

1 52 . 31

(2.5mm Diameter)

Econo mical

*Vehicle: 2000cc, 6 cyl., 4-cycle Driving conditions: 60km/h on flat ground

0     15.2     15.4     15.6     15.8 Mileage(km/L) *The data shown is from internal studies. Also, the "Regular Plug" referred to here is a DENSO product.

Improved Acceleration

Through steady ignitability, acceleration performance is greatly improved.

Iridium Plus, through its 0.4mm diameter iridium center electrode, has realized high ignition performance and low spark voltage at levels heretofore unseen. Because of this, there is less non-firing under high spark voltage conditions and fewer misfires under conditions where ignition is difficult, permitting operation with a high level of response under a variety of conditions. As a result, acceleration has been improved. ■Acceleration comparison 150 Speed (km/h)

100 0.23 sec. difference 0.70 sec. difference

50

*The data shown is from internal studies. Also, the "Regular Plug" and "Platinum Plug" referred to here are DENSO products.

Platinum Plug Regular Plug

0

*Vehicle: 250cc (2 cycle water cooled, V2 cylinders) Conditions: Locked in 6th gear, starting at 50km/h on an automatic test device and accelerating at full throttle.

T ime

Excellent Durability

Realizing astounding life and durability with platinum ground electrodes.

By welding a platinum tip to the ground electrode, wear has been controlled to a significant extent in the Iridium Plus. In addition to acceleration performance, the life and durability of this plug has been increased to that of a platinum plug. ■Durability Comparison

This product, the first in the world, uses an ultra-thin 0.4mm iridium alloy center electrode.

A larger center electrode means a greater cooling effect and poorer ignitability. On the other hand, the 0.4mm diameter iridium center electrodes have an extremely small cooling effect, reducing non-firing and realizing assured ignitability, the basic function of a spark plug.

Platinum Tipped Ground Electrode 0.4mm Diameter Ultra-Fine Iridium Alloy Center Electrode 0.4mm IRIDIUM

Iridium Plus (Model: VK20T)

2.5mm Diameter Center Electrode

Normal Plug (Model: K16R-U11)

Also, because taxis use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel, a large electrode increases the required voltage, and because this places a larger load on high tension cords and coils, it affects the life of the vehicle. With its ultra-thin 0.4mm center electrode that keeps the required voltage low, it can be said that the Iridium Plus, is a car-friendly spark plug.

Platinum Tip

Using a platinum-tipped ground electrode to realize high-performance operation and long life.

A platinum tip was used, which has a long history of use in platinum plugs. By significantly controlling electrode wear, we've achieved a level of durability equal to that of platinum plugs.

High Strength Insulator

Using a high-strength insulator specially designed for taxis.

By using a high-strength ceramic insulator for LPG engines, a 20% increase in strength was achieved over conventional insulators.

Recommended time before replacement (X10,000km)

World's Smallest Diameter

10

10

*From taxi monitoring test results. Exhaust volume was for the most part 2000cc. *Durability will differ depending on the driving conditions. *The service lifetime of Iridium Plus will depend on operating conditions and the vehicle it is installed on. (Service lifetime may become shorter depending on the vehicleユs ignition system.) *Recommended time before replacement is not something that must be followed to guarantee quality.

10

5

2 0

Platinum Plug

Regular Plug

*The data shown is from internal studies. Also, the "Regular Plug" and "Platinum Plug" referred to here are DENSO products.

Designated part numbers and the associated vehicle models Make

Vehicle

CC

Engine

From

Till

OEM Plug Genuine Part No.

QTY

Toyota Crown/ Majesta

2000 1G-GP(LPG)

91.10 01.2

90919-01180

VK20T

6

Toyota Crown/ Majesta

2000 3Y-PE(LPG)

89.8

90919-01147

VW20T

4

Toyota Crown Comfort

2000 1G-GPE(LPG) 95.12

90919-01180

VK20T

6

Toyota Crown Comfort

2000 3Y-PE(LPG)

95.12

90919-01147

VW20T

4

Toyota Corona

1800 2Y-PU(LPG)

82.10 01.11 90919-01143

VW20T

4

Toyota Comfort

2000 3Y-PE(LPG)

95.12

90919-01147

VW20T

4

Toyota Probox

1500 1NZ-FNE(CNG) 03.4

90919-01190

VK20T

4

Mark II; Chaser; Toyota   Cresta

2000 3Y-P/-PU(LPG) 86.8

95.12 90919-01143

VW20T

4

Nissan Crew

2000 NA20P(LPG)

93.7

   ―

VW20T

4

Nissan Cedric; Gloria

2000 RB20P(LPG)

89.6

   ―

VK20T

6

Nissan Cedric; Gloria

2000 NA20P(LPG)

91.6

   ―

VW20T

4

Nissan Bluebird

1800 Z18P(LPG)

79.2

01.8

   ―

VW20T

8

Mazda Custom Cab

2000 FE(LPG)

89.6

96.1

FE82 18 110

VW20T

4

Mazda Luce; Cosmo

2000 FE(LPG)

86.9

96.1

FE82 18 110

VW20T

4

Galant Sigma; Mitsubishi   Eterna Sigma

1800 4G93(LPG)

96.1

MS851738

VK20T

4

Mitsubishi Debonair

3000 6G72(LPG)

92.10

MS851473

VW20T

6

The above are excerpted from the catalog. Please refer to Master Catalog for details.

88

Unbeatable spark technology fine-tuned for racing

ircuit is On the ct makes where i erence the diff

World's smallest 0.4mm-diameter center electrode* *As of May 2004

The power of the 0.4mm-diameter center electrode harnessed for racing

▲Yoichi Ui

▲Denso Sard Supra GT

Reliability and Durability Borne Out by Race Results and Trusted by Riders like Azuma, Ui, and Matsudo It's the age of iridium electrodes. Discover more acceleration with 0.4mm DENSO Racing Plugs. DENSO would like you to try the 0.4mm experience a ride like never before.

Improved Acceleration

advantage. Use

Unbeatable acceleration performance on the circuit.

With an ultra-fine, 0.4mm diameter center electrode, Iridium Racing plugs are the realization of superb ignition performance and spark voltage at unparalleled levels. Misfires have been controlled and will allow you to have steadily high levels of response and increased acceleration. 14.0

13.950

100

50

13.9 

Regular Racing Plug (0.8mm electrode)

Regular race plug (0.8mm electrode)

13.985

0   5   10  15   20   25   30 *The data shown is from internal studies. Also, the "Regular Racing Plug" referred to here is a DENSO product. Time (s) Vehicle: 250cc (2-cycle water cooled, 2 cylinder)  Conditions: R/L 50km/h, then accelerating for 27 seconds at full throttle (locked in 6th gear)

89

in Stores 2004

More power with an ideal combustion cycle.

Through superb ignition performance and spark voltage, non-firing and misfires under a variety of conditions has been greatly reduced. As a result, combustion conditions have improved dramatically, increasing engine output. Horsepower (PS)

Speed (km/h)

Plug

Improved Output

35

Time to reach 100km/h(s)

150

and

55 Types in All Some Plugs

Output(ps)[at 120km/h]

30

Plug

33       

34

1.3% More!

25

33.92

20 15

Regular Racing Plug (0.8mm electrode)

10 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Speed (km/h)

Regular Racing Plug (0.8mm electrode)

33.49

*The data shown is from internal studies. Also, the "Regular Racing Plug" referred to here is a DENSO product.

Vehicle: 250cc (2 cycle water cooled, 2 cylinder)  Conditions: WOT 60 to 120km/h (locked in 4th gear)

0.4mm Dia. Iridium, only at DENSO! Specification Includes Terminal

0.8mm All-Platinum Ground Electrode

Included with the plug comes with a terminal nut compatible to the Nology HotWire and most plug cords around the world. Please remove for vehicle types that do not require terminals. (There are also types with fixed terminals. Refer to the Cross Reference Chart on P22. ) (IRE01/ IW01 specify crimping, while IWM01/ IK01/ IK02/ IQ01/ IQ02/ IA01/ IAE01 are solid terminals.)

Compared to the nickel alloy used in conventional spark plugs, the high melting point of platinum will reduce such problems as ground electrode melting and wear. Also, the 0.8mm platinum alloy is welded on and gapped without any bending, reducing residual stress and increasing durability.

Spark Cleaning Pocket Between the center electrode and the insulator, a small pocket has been opened around the tip clearance. When there is carbon fouling or deposition, this part will discharge and burn off the carbon, restoring electrical resistance. This technology is patented by DENSO (Japan Patent No. 2727558)

Housing End Face Chamfer To improve the tolerance to abnormal combustion conditions, the housing end face chamfer has been enlarged. Be covered for slight inaccuracies in tuning. Also, because the exhaust of residual gas and the flow of new gas have been facilitated, its self-cleaning performance has been improved, making this a carbon fouling resistant design.

Contains a Highly Reliable Resister 5kΩ

Bright Nickel

All plugs specify a resistor, and contain a highly reliable monolithic-type resistor that blocks noise that may affect electronic devices. (IW06 has no resistor.)

Silicone Oil Coating

Highly Corrosion Resistant, Bright Nickel Plating

Insulators for Racing

Using a bright nickel plating on the housing, a high level of corrosion resistance has been realized. Also, because the amount on the threads is low, the damage to the female thread in the cylinder is reduced.

Using a new, stronger insulator developed repeating numerous race trials, strength has been increased by about 20%.

During the start of the race, non-starting from carbon fouling and carbon deposits can be fatal. To stop this, the insulator has been coated with a silicone coating. Using the water repellency of silicone, the insulator surface is isolated from moisture and carbon, preventing a decrease in resistance.

0.4mm Dia. Ultra-Fine Iridium Center Electrode 0.4mm IRIDIUM

360° Laser Welding The process used to join the iridium tip is a highly reliable "360° Laser Welding *1" process that is able to withstand various kinds of driving conditions.

The center electrode tip is able to be made fine using a new iridium alloy with a high melting point. The required voltage is reduced, and ignitability is improved greatly. This new iridium alloy's material composition, manufacturing method *1, and welding method *2 have been patented. *1 The addition of rhodium to improve high temperature oxidation resistance: Japan Patent 2877035, UK Patent 2302367, People's Republic of China Patent 961022841, Republic of Korea Patent 0292083, U.S.A. Patent 6094000/6262522 *2 Using a melting method instead of the conventional sintering method. Japan Patent 3000955, U.S.A. Patent 5977695

360° Laser Welding

*1 This "360° Laser Welding" method has been patented in the U.S.A. and Japan (Japan Patent No.: 2921524, U.S.A. Patent No.: 6078129)

How To Choose a Racing Plug Warning: On choosing the right racing plug

Overall Shape 1 ●

2 ●

○Generally, electrodes that project into the combustion chamber have better ignitability and have better performance. However, because of more exposure to high temperature combustion gases and because ground electrode becomes longer, heat resistance and durability decrease. The higher the level of tuning, the greater the need is to use a less projecting type. ○As the level of tuning is increased, so does the need for a higher heat range.

3 ●

4 ●

5 ●

6 ●

7 ●

8 ●

9 ● 27.6 mm

50 mm

51 mm

66 mm

56 mm

47.3 mm

50.5 mm

10 ●

50.5 mm

C ■

D ■

E ■

TYPE (HEAT RANGE□)

Identifying

(Stamped into the Center of the Housing)

Variety

I:Iridium

R:Surface Gap

Thread Intermediate Number Size (Overall Size) U:10mm XU:12mm RE:14mm RL:14mm RT:14mm W:14mm WM:14mm K:14mm Q:14mm A:14mm AE:14mm KH:14mm

Intermediate Number (Electrode Shape)

1:Oblique ground electrode or surface gap plug

2:Flat ground electrode 3:Oblique ground electrode and resistor-less plug

Heat Range 24 27 29 31 32 34 35

(Exception) IRE01 has a flat ground electrode.

IU01-□ RU01-□※ IXU01-□ IRE01-□ IW01-□ IW06-□ IWM01-□ IK01-□ IK02-□ IQ01-□ IQ02-□ IA01-□ IAE01-□ IKH01-□ IRL01-□ IRT01-□

62 mm

62 mm

ale On S mer Sum04 20

ale On S mer Sum04 20

19 mm

For Detonation Counters

B ■

12 ●

27.6 mm

53 mm 22 mm

Electrode Shape ■ A

11 ●

26.5 mm

TYPE U-E U-E(SURFACE) XU-E ROTARY ENGINE W-E W-E(NON=RESISTOR) W-EM ISO(SLANT ELECT.) ISO(STRAIGHT ELECT.) SLANT ELECT. STRAIGHT ELECT. FOR DETONATION COUNTER

FOR W/OUT DETONATION COUNTER K-LONG REACH ROTARY ENGINE RX8 ROTARY ENGINE RX8

FIGURE CROSS REFERENCE ELECTRODE A 1 ■ ● C 1 ■ ● A 2 ■ ● B 3 ■ ● A 4 ■ ● A 4 ■ ● A 5 ■ ● A 6 ■ ● B 6 ■ ● A 7 ■ ● B 7 ■ ● A 8 ■ ● A 9 ■ ● A 10 ■ ● A 11 ■ ● A 12 ■ ●

R0373A, R0379A, R016 R0045J, R0045Q R216, R2525 R6725 R6385P, R7376, R6918B B-EGP, R4630A R5184, R6179AP R7116, R7117 R7279, R7118, R7119 R7236, R7237 R7238, R7239 R7282A, R6120A R7282, R6120 R7438 R7440A-L

R7440B-T ※RU01-□ are surface gap plugs, not ones with iridium center electrode and all-platinum ground electrodes.

Iridium Racing is ideal for racing and tuned-up engines; please choose one based on the heat range of the standard plug or Iridium Power plugs used currently that is suited to your level of tuning.

90

PROJECTION

Spark position

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

No.

GAP

(mm)

RESISTOR

HEX

(mm)

Terminal shape

REACH

(mm)

SPEC

Ground electrode height

DIA.

TYPE

S

5

R01

0 42511 05701 2

267700-1310

S

5

R02

0 42511 05702 9

267700-1320

S

5

R03

0 42511 05703 6

267700-1330

S

5

R42

0 42511 05742 5

267700-1340

S

5

R04

0 42511 05704 3

267700-1360

S

5

R05

0 42511 05705 0

267700-1370

S

5

R06

0 42511 05706 7

267700-1380

S

5

R49

0 42511 05749 4

267700-4450

S

5

R50

0 42511 05750 0

267700-4460

S

5

R51

0 42511 05751 7

267700-4470

S

5

R07

0 42511 05707 4

267700-1410

S

5

R08

0 42511 05708 1

267700-1420

S

5

R09

0 42511 05709 8

267700-1430

S

5

R43

0 42511 05743 2

267700-1440

S

5

R10

0 42511 05710 4

267700-1460

S

5

R11

0 42511 05711 1

267700-1470

S

5

R12

0 42511 05712 8

267700-1480

RC

5

R13

0 42511 05713 5

267700-1110

RC

5

R14

0 42511 05714 2

267700-1120

RC

5

R15

0 42511 05715 9

267700-1130

RC

5

R16

0 42511 05716 6

267700-1140

RC

5

R17

0 42511 05717 3

267700-1150

RC

5

R18

0 42511 05718 0

267700-1160

S

0

R44

0 42511 05744 9

067600-1810

S

0

R45

0 42511 05745 6

067600-1820

S

0

R46

0 42511 05746 3

067600-1830

RC

5

R19

0 42511 05719 7

267700-1520

RC

5

R20

0 42511 05720 3

267700-1530

RC

5

R21

0 42511 05721 0

267700-1540

RC

5

R22

0 42511 05722 7

267700-1550

RC

5

R41

0 42511 05741 8

267700-1560

S

5

R54

0 42511 05754 8

267700-4820

S

5

R55

0 42511 05755 5

267700-4830

S

5

R52

0 42511 05752 4

267700-4840

S

5

R53

0 42511 05753 1

267700-4850

S

5

R23

0 42511 05723 4

267700-1260

S

5

R24

0 42511 05724 1

267700-1270

S

5

R25

0 42511 05725 8

267700-1280

S

5

R47

0 42511 05747 0

267700-2940

S

5

R48

0 42511 05748 7

267700-2950

S

5

R26

0 42511 05726 5

267700-1210

S

5

R27

0 42511 05727 2

267700-1220

S

5

R28

0 42511 05728 9

267700-1230

S

5

R29

0 42511 05729 6

267700-1240

R

5

R30

0 42511 05730 2

267700-1060

R

5

R31

0 42511 05731 9

267700-1070

R

5

R32

0 42511 05732 6

267700-1080

R

5

R33

0 42511 05733 3

267700-1090

R

5

R34

0 42511 05734 0

267700-1010

R

5

R35

0 42511 05735 7

267700-1020

R

5

R36

0 42511 05736 4

267700-1030

R

5

R37

0 42511 05737 1

267700-1040

R

5

R38

0 42511 05738 8

267700-1570

R

5

R39

0 42511 05739 5

267700-1580

R

5

R40

0 42511 05740 1

267700-1590

(mm)

IK01-24 ISO(SLANT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IK01-27 ISO(SLANT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IK01-31 ISO(SLANT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IK01-34 ISO(SLANT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IK02-24 ISO(STRAIGHT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IK02-27 ISO(STRAIGHT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IK02-31 ISO(STRAIGHT ELEC.) 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IKH01-24 LONG REACH 14 26.5 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IKH01-27 LONG REACH 14 26.5 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IKH01-31 LONG REACH 14 26.5 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IQ01-24 SLANT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IQ01-27 SLANT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IQ01-31 SLANT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IQ01-34 SLANT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -1.0 0.5 2.0 IQ02-24 STRAIGHT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IQ02-27 STRAIGHT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IQ02-31 STRAIGHT ELEC. 14 19 16 0.7 -2.3 -0.8 0.7 IW01-24 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW01-27 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW01-29 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW01-31 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW01-32 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW01-34 W-E 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW06-27 W-E NON RESISTOR 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW06-31 W-E NON RESISTOR 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IW06-34 W-E NON RESISTOR 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IRE01-27 ROTARY ENGINE 14 21.5 20.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.7 0.8 IRE01-31 ROTARY ENGINE 14 21.5 20.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.7 0.8 IRE01-32 ROTARY ENGINE 14 21.5 20.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.7 0.8 IRE01-34 ROTARY ENGINE 14 21.5 20.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.7 0.8 IRE01-35 ROTARY ENGINE 14 21.5 20.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.7 0.8 New IRL01-27 ROTARY RX8(LEADING) 14 21 20.6 1.1 -2.5 -0.5 1.6 New IRL01-31 ROTARY RX8(LEADING) 14 21 20.6 1.1 -2.5 -0.5 1.6 New IRT01-31 ROTARY RX8(TRAILING) 14 19 20.6 1.1 -2.5 -0.5 1.6 New IRT01-34 ROTARY RX8(TRAILING) 14 19 20.6 1.1 -2.5 -0.5 1.6 IA01-31 WITH DETONATION COUNTER 14 22 16 0.6 -1.0 0.5 1.9 IA01-32 WITH DETONATION COUNTER 14 22 16 0.6 -1.0 0.5 1.9 IA01-34 WITH DETONATION COUNTER 14 22 16 0.6 -1.0 0.5 1.9 IAE01-32 W/OUT DETONATION COUNTER 14 19 16 0.6 -1.3 0.5 2.1 IAE01-34 W/OUT DETONATION COUNTER 14 19 16 0.6 -1.3 0.5 2.1 IWM01-29 W-EM 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IWM01-31 W-EM 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IWM01-32 W-EM 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IWM01-34 W-EM 14 19 20.6 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.6 IXU01-24 XU-E 12 19 16 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.4 IXU01-27 XU-E 12 19 16 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.4 IXU01-31 XU-E 12 19 16 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.4 IXU01-34 XU-E 12 19 16 0.6 -1.5 0.0 1.4 IU01-24 U-E 10 19 16 0.6 -1.8 -0.3 1.2 IU01-27 U-E 10 19 16 0.6 -1.8 -0.3 1.2 IU01-31 U-E 10 19 16 0.6 -1.8 -0.3 1.2 IU01-34 U-E 10 19 16 0.6 -1.8 -0.3 1.2 *RU01-27 U-E(SURFACE) 10 19 16 1.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0 *RU01-31 U-E(SURFACE) 10 19 16 1.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0 *RU01-34 U-E(SURFACE) 10 19 16 1.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0 New …………………………………Anything shown with this is a product that is “On Sale in 2004∼2005”

ONE PC BOX BARCODE

DENSO P/N

(kΩ)

*……………………………………These plugs do not have iridium electrodes. Spark gap ………………………For example, for a 1.1mm gap, it is set at the range between 1.0 and 1.1mm. Insulator projection ……………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the end of the insulator. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Spark position …………………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the center electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Ground electrode height ………This is the distance from the end of the housing to the tip of the ground electrode. The + direction is the direction of the piston. Terminal shape …………………S;Solid R;Removable RC;Crimped T;Threaded

91

NGK DIA. REACH HEX (mm)

(mm)

(mm)

14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8

19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 22 22 22 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 26.5 26.5 12.7 12.7 21.5 21.5 21.5 21 19 19 19 21 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 12.7 19

20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 18 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 12.7

RESISTOR

R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

R R R R

R R

R R R

FIGURE

TYPE

BP-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E B-E SEMISURFACE B-E SEMISURFACE B-E COMPACT B-E COMPACT B-E COMPACT B-E COMPACT B-E COMPACT B-E COMPACT B-E BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BC-E COMPACT BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E ISO BK-E SEMISURFACE BK-E SEMISURFACE BCP-E BCP-E BCP-E BC-E BC-E BC-E BC-E BC-E BC-E BC-E BC-E SEMISURFACE BC-E SEMISURFACE LFR LFR B-H B-H ROTARY ROTARY ROTARY,SURFACE ROTARY RX-8(L) ROTARY RX-8(T) D-E D-E D-Z DC-E SEMISURFACE DC-E DC-E SEMISURFACE C-E C-E C-E C-E SEMISURFACE C-E SEMISURFACE C-E SEMISURFACE C-EH HALF THREAD C-H E-EH SEMISURFACE

R4304A-□ B□EGP B□EGV R4118S-□ R4630A-□ R6252K-□ R6918B-□ R6918C-□ R6021E-□ R6385-□P R7376(Ir) R5649-□ R6712-□ R5184-□ R5300A-□ R5300N-□ R5540F-□ R6179A-□P R6179C-□PA R7376B(Ir) R6120A-□ R7282A-□(Ir) R6120-□ R6120C-□ R6120M-□ R7282-□(Ir) R7282C-□(Ir) R7282M-□(Ir) R6888A-□ R7112-□ R7113-□ R7433-□(ir) R7114-□ R7115-□ R7116-□ R7117-□ R7118-□ R7119-□ R7434-□(Ir) R7279-□(Ir) R6601-□ R6711-□ R7435-□(Ir) R7232-□ R7233-□ R7234-□ R7235-□ R7236-□ R7237-□ R7238-□ R7239-□ R7436-□(Ir) R5883-□ R6690-□ R7437-□(Ir) R7438-□(Ir) R5525-□ R5530-□ R6725-□ R7420-□(Ir) T813J-N13 R7440A-□L(Ir) R7440B-□T(Ir) R216-□ R217-□ R2188-□ R2349-□ R2525-□ R2430-□ R016-□ R017-□ R0373A-□(Ir) R0045G-□ R0045J-□ R0045Q-□ R0379A-10(Ir) R0161-□ R847-□

FIGURE

IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW01/IW06-□(Note1)

4 ■ D ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ D ● 4 ■ D ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ D ● 4 ■ A ● 4 ■ A ●

IWM01-□

5 ■ A ●

IWM01-□

5 ■ A ●

IA01-□ IA01-□ IAE01-□ IAE01-□(Note2) IAE01-□(Note2) IAE01-□ IAE01-□(Note2) IAE01-□(Note2)

8 ■ A ● 8 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 9 ■ A ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ D ● 6 ■ A ● 6 ■ A ● 6 ■ B ● 6 ■ B ● 6 ■ A ● 6 ■ B ●

IW□ IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW□ IW□ IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW01/IW06-□(Note1) IW□

1 ●

2 ●

50 mm

51 mm

4 ●

IK□ IK□ IK□ IK□ IK□ IK□ IK01-□ IK01-□ IK02-□ IK02-□ IK01-□ IK02-□

3 ●

5 ●

56 mm

66 mm

6 ●

47.3 mm

7 ●

8 ●

50.5 mm

9 ● 27.6 mm

27.6 mm

22 mm

19 mm

53 mm

For Detonation Counters

IQ□ IQ□ IQ□ IQ□ IQ□ IQ01-□ IQ01-□ IQ02-□ IQ02-□ IQ01-□

IKH□ IKH01-□ IWF□ IRE01-□ IRE01-□

IX□(Note3)

IXU01-□(Note3)

2 ■ A ●

IU01-□

1 ■ A ● 1 ■ E ● 1 ■ A ●

RU01-□ RU01-□ IU01-□

11 ●

50.5 mm

12 ●

62 mm

62 mm

21 mm

19 mm

26.5 mm

3 ■ B ● 3 ■ B ● 11 ■ A ● 12 ■ A ● 2 ■ A ● 2■ 2■ D ,● A ●

IU01-□

10 ●

10 ■ D ● 10 ■ A ● D ― ■

IRL01-□ IRT01-□ IXU01-□(Note3) IXU01-□(Note3)

IU□A

IUF□(A) IY□

7 ■ D ● 7 ■ D ● 7 ■ D ● 7 ■ D ● 7 ■ D ● 7 ■ A ● 7 ■ A ● 7 ■ B ● 7 ■ B ● 7 ■ A ●

A ■

B ■

D ■

E ■

C ■

1 ■ C ● 1 ■ C ● 1 ■ A ● D ,―■ E ―■ D ― ■

(Note 1) IW06 is a non resistor type (Note 2) Remove the gasket with nippers before use (Note 3) IX□B and IX□ is different from IXU01-□ only in the hex size (18mm or 16mm), and are otherwise interchangeable in terms of installation. (□)show the heat range.

92

These are chassis dynamo test results comparing a Vitz 1300 using Iridium With the normal plugs, the output is 98.2PS, while torque is 14.8 kgf; when

69.5

70

Internal Data

70.5

71

71.5

72

72.5

72

72.7682

70.9184

Test 2

Power plugs and another which uses regular plugs are shown below.

CO( 2 g/km) Test 1

Will output and torque increase if I use Iridium Power plugs?

72.1660 70.9778

this was changed to the Iridium Power plugs, the output was 99.3PS, while torque was 15.2 kgf. (This is approximately a 1.5% improvement in output.) 30

100

25

80

20

60

18

19.1

Internal Data

19.2

19.3

19.4

19.5 19.4606

19.1110 19.4241

10

Horsepower (Ir) Power (Regular) Horsepower (Ir) Power (Regular)

0

19

19.0967

Test 2

20

(kgm)

Test 1

120

40

Fuel Consumption (km/L) 18.9

Internal data

5

45

90

0 180 km/h

135

I have a 4AG engine NA tuned, with a Solex 44 dia. carburetor installed, giving a 200PS output. Which plug is good for a car such as this? DENSO has Iridium Power and Iridium Racing to meet the

Will my exhaust emissions be cleaner if I put on Iridium Power plugs?

needs of tuned and racing engines. For the engine described in the question, the right plug should be around Iridium Power IK (IQ) 22, 24, or 27. Here is an introduction

Improved combustion efficiency will clean your exhaust emission! Fuel consumption will improve too!

to using the different types of the Iridium Series on racing

With the superior ignitability of ultra-thin electrodes

engines.

(0.4mm), combustion efficiency will be improved.

●Iridium Power:NA Tuned (Short distance racing), Turbo tuned

◎Cleaner Exhaust Emissions

where a regular turbine has been tuned to increase the boost.

CO and CO2 levels will decrease in the "EURO III" emissions test to be implemented in the future.

the slant ground electrode type. If your car is turbo tuned

◎Improved Mileage

where the turbine has been replaced and the boost pressure is

A great bonus for long-distance drivers.

above 1.2 to 1.3kg/cm2, an Iridium Racing 01 type is needed.

Even for those who are concerned about the environment, we recommend Iridium Power. ■Iridium Plug Motorcycle Emissions Comparison Test Test Vehicle

●Iridium Racing (01 Type):The 01 Type is usually called

:CBR250

Also, if a NA tuned engine with comparatively high vibration (4 cylinders) is to be raced over long distances, switching to this type can increase the reliability of the ground electrodes. ●Iridium Racing (02 Type):The 02 type (flat ground type) is appropriate for higher output engines than the 01

Test Conditions:EURO

type, but because the spark position is withdrawn compared

Test Equipment:MEXA-7400, CVS 7100

to the 01 type, only consider this plug for racing applications.

Tested Plugs

:U24FER9 (Ni Plug) Gap: 0.85 :IUH24 (Ir Plug) Gap: 0.85

EURO III Test Pattern

Internal Data

140

Is there a standard for differentiating the uses of Iridium Power and Iridium Racing?

120 100

Iridium Racing uses a platinum tip for the ground electrode and

80

a high strength fine insulator for racing. Also, there is a silicone

Speed (km/h) 60

coating on the insulator giving it an increased resistance to

40

carbon fouling. However, because of the withdrawn spark

20

position, the Iridium Power has the high ignitability of the two.

0

Instead, because of the "extension" in engine revolution felt by

Time

Regular Plug U24FER9 CO(g/km) 24.5

Test 1 Test 2

93

24.6

Iridium Power IUH24 Internal Data

24.7

24.8

24.9

25

25.1

25.2

25.0523 24.7491

24.7826

25.1569

many at high revolutions, it is popular with customers who race. Choose "Iridium Power" for response and "Iridium Racing" for high revolutions. Iridium Racing is particularly popular on the circuit scene. (In the '03 Motegi 7 Hour Open, it was found that 45% of the vehicles used Iridium Racing※) ※DENSO findings

I drive a GT-R tuned to 850HP. Would it be okay to install 0.4mm dia. Iridium Power series plugs?

Can I replace my double, triple, or quadruple electrode plugs to Iridium Power or Iridium Tough? This is possible. The reason: because of the 0.4mm center electrode

The DENSO Iridium Series have the world's thinnest 0.4mm iridium

in Iridium Power and Iridium Tough plugs, they have a lower spark

center electrodes, but because the durability of the iridium alloy

voltage compared to double, triple, and quadruple electrode plugs.

developed by DENSO is higher that even platinum, which has in the

Please refer to the Standard Resistor Model Quick Chart.

past been said to be the most durable, it can be said that it's the best

■Spark Voltage

plug for tuned engines. Specifically, it has the following advantages:

The thinner the electrode is, the stronger the electrical field is. Because

[1] Iridium alloy has a melting point and hardness above that of platinum, even

the electrical field affects spark voltage, a thinner electrode lowers spark

turbo, with its high combustion temperature, can be used with confidence.

voltage. If each type of electrode shape is modeled as shown below,

Also, even when used with powerful ignition systems such as MSD and

Iridium Tough has a lower voltage than double electrode plugs.

MDI, these plugs are even more reliable than platinum racing plugs.

Double electrode plug

[2] The issue for high boost engines is that misfiring that occurs at high revolutions. The fine electrodes of the Iridium series require a lower voltage, allowing the energy generated by the coil to be sparked

Regular Plug

Plug

without losses. It can be said the 0.4mm dia. DENSO Iridium Power series are a strong ally of tuned high-boost turbo systems.

Electrode model

Ground

Center

Plate and needle Needle and sphere

Plate and plate

Spark voltage Low

High

What is the optimum heat range for a tuned up Golf4 GTI 1.8L Turbo?

■Ignitability

(Tuning: Turbine Changed, High Volume Injector Installed,

The more the contact area between the flame kernel and the electrode is

and ROM Adjusted to give an output of 200PS from 150PS.)

minimized, the smaller the cooling action from the electrodes and the better

It's difficult to give a heat range based on going from 150PS to 200PS alone, and it's best if you judge the condition of your current plugs and

ignitability is. Because of the 0.4mm center electrode, the contact area between the flame kernel and the electrode is small, resulting in excellent ignitability. Double electrode plug

judge for yourself, but as a general rule, for boost pressures between 1.0 and 1.2kg/cm2, an IK24 should be sufficient. During the winter, #22

Large cooling effect

should improve starting and low speed feel. The heat range is different Small cooling effect

depending on how the engine has been tuned and how it's used; using an increase in heat range of 1 or 2 as a starting point, decide on a heat range, always looking at the condition of your current plugs.

I have Rover Mini AT ('90). Since changing to Iridium Power, the idling rotation in neutral went up 400rpm from the previous plugs (1000rpm before the change, 1400rpm since). Before the change, going from neutral to drive was 550rpm, but now it goes below 550rpm and stalls. The revolutions increase smoothly and acceleration is good during driving. Why is this?

Can an Iridium Power be installed on an RX-7(SA22C Turbo Model)? In the rotary engines in some old Mazda's on the T (Trailing) side there is a plug, the terminal nut for which must be removed. In others, the removal of the T side plug terminal nut is necessary as in the Cosmo (HB22S). DENSO has Iridium Racing plugs for rotary engines, with a

Frequently for older vehicles, the ignition system has

variety of heat ranges from #27 to #35. Iridium Racing

degraded, and it is sometimes not possible to see the full

Plugs for Rotary Engines come standard with terminal

effect of Iridium Power. In this case, the spark gap should

nuts.

be adjusted from 1.1mm to 0.8mm. Also, in the VK series, there is the VK20Y plug where the gap has been preset to 0.8mm.

How is the compatibility with trial vehicles. The "IW series" is well suited for most trial vehicles. Though these vehicles frequently use a low heat range, the heat ranges available for Iridium Power starts with IW16, so choose one that matches the type of driving you do. Better accelerator response and torque can be expected with Iridium Power, which has excellent ignitability. Recently, the space to install plugs in trial vehicles has shrunk, and there is a demand for miniature plugs. In these cases try the IK types. However, the space between the plug cord and the insulator will require waterproofing.

94

How does the engine respond to changed settings? We sometimes hear that "Iridium Power is too sensitive to setting changes." However, the flip side to sensitivity is that "the response to setting chages is fast and easier," and during races, we hear that it makes setting changes easier. If Iridium Power is used, it should become possible to draw out more performance from your vehicle.

I installed Iridium Power plugs on to my 2-wheel vehicle. Sometimes when I start it, there is a loud, explosive "pop." With regular plugs this did not happen. Why is the reason for this? A loud explosive "pop" pop sound can have the following two causes: (1) An afterfiring muffler (2) Backfiring due to blowback from the carburetor If it is the same vehicle and these symptoms were not there before changing to the new plugs, the reason for this is (1) afterfiring. The causes of afterfiring are:

What is the difference in the life of an iridium plug used under 2-cycle conditions and one used under 4-cycle conditions? In 4-cycle engines, a spark is produced for every 2 revolutions of the crankshaft, resulting in explosion and combustion in the engine. In 2-cycle engines, a spark is produced for each revolution of the crankshaft, resulting in explosion and engine combustion in the engine. This simple comparison may lead you to conclude that 2-cycle engines simply have twice the wear; however wear is made up of not only wear from sparking, but also wear from high temperatures (oxidation). Thus, the amount of wear depends on the driving conditions of the vehicle, how the rotations of the engine are applied (that is, how the shift is used), and whether the resulting combustion temperature is high or low. 2-cycle engines have a higher level of electrode wear. This electrode wear is estimated at approximately 1.5 to 2 times that of 4-cycle engines, and plug life

(1) An abnormally elevated intake pressure, the combustion becomes unsteady (during engine brake) (2) A problem with an ignition device (improper ignition timing, misfiring) (3) The fuel-air mixture is too rich (problem with the carburetor, too much choke) (4) The valve timing is off If the problem is during starting, (2), (3), or (4) are thought to be the reason. A specific example for (2) is "ignition timing that is off" and specific examples for (3) include "a dirty air cleaner" and "pulling the choke too much." We often hear that Iridium plugs improve ignitability so much that people "don't have to pull the choke to start the engine." If you are pulling the choke to full, try pulling it to the "halfwayモ point and see if this solves the problem.

is also shorter with 2-cycle engines. Iridium has a high melting point; however, it will undergo wear from sparking and wear from high temperatures (oxidation). To our knowledge, 2-cycle engines are only found in 2-wheel

What kind of vehicles are surface gap plugs used for?

vehicles, our recommended value in this catalog for lifetime is 3000 to 5000km. (This value is based on a variety of conditions, and, racing use may require even more frequent replacement.) From the above, it is recommended that plugs for 2-cycle engines be replaced about every 3000km. However, the condition of wear depends on operating conditions and the typical engine rpms, so it is also possible to take out the plugs occasionally to confirm the amount of electrode wear and judge when the best time is to replace the plug.

These are plugs developed for racing, and there are many people who use these plugs in the All-Japan Road Race Championship JSB1000 class and in drag racing. Because the ground electrode is gone, there are the following advantages and disadvantages. ■Advantages [1] When the engine is tuned so that the compression ratio is increased, these can avoid interference with the piston. [2] Because there are no excess projections into the combustion chamber, the combustion efficiency at high revolutions is improved.

I ride a BMW R100RS ('92) motorcycle. I bought Iridium plugs (IW20, as specified in the charts) and installed them, but whenever I stop at the stop light, my engine stalls. Is this a defect with the plug? Or does this mean that my motorcycle is unsuited to Iridium Power? How can I get them to work? Because Iridium Power plugs have an ultra-thin center electrode, they

[3] Difficulties due to the ground electrode can be prevented. ■Disadvantages [1] The ignitability becomes worse, and thus feeling and response at low and mid-revolutions deteriorates. (2) The engine characteristics become peaky; because of this, in the popular ST600 class, where conditions are severe, there are many people who use plugs with ground electrodes.

will spark even at low voltages (i.e. they have low voltage requirements), and we are proud to say they have excellent compatibility with older cars with weaker electrical systems. However, in general, some older vehicles (not only the BMW motorcycle in this question) appear to have a degraded ignition systems from age, resulting in sufficient voltage not being available from the coil. For improved ignitability, the low heat range Iridium Power plugs have a spark gap of 1.1mm, and in vehicles with a significantly weakened electrical system, this may result in symptoms such as "rough idling" and "lack of power." Adjusting the spark to between 0.8 and 1.0mm should solve this problem. However, because the center electrode is extremely thin, please have this adjustment done by a professional mechanic.

95

Is it true that installation on Ducati watercooled 4-valve engines is not possible? Since the 996R, the interior of the Testastretta (narrow head) engine's plug holes have been very narrowly machined, and with regular plug wrenches, the socket OD hits the wall and thus the plugs cannot be fully tightened. (Not possible with a 21.5mm OD) In this case, a thin-wall plug wrench is required. [We recommend the "NB3-16SP (nepros)" or the "B3A-16SP" by KTC.]

The plugs of racing karts are susceptible to carbon fouling, but how does Iridium Power do in this case?

Are plugs such as VUH27D and VK24PRZ11 for Honda vehicles available as Iridium Tough plugs? Will they last 100,000km? Also, can Iridium Power be substituted here?

We frequently hear that Iridium Power is resistant to carbon fouling compared to plugs from other companies. However, there is no way that they are a 100%

Plugs for 2-wheel vehicles with a "V" in the part number have a platinum tip

solution, and it's good to know these techniques to prevent carbon fouling.

welded to the ground electrode, the same as in 4-wheel vehicles. They have

[1] When rolling in the race, close the carburetor's low

more durability than Iridium Power, but do last 100,000km. Thus we do not

needle or pinch the fuel pipe with your hand to prevent

offer them as Iridium Tough products. You can choose the Iridium Power

excess fuel from entering the engine.

plug for those vehicle types with a compatible Iridium Power plug shown in

[2] By pumping the accelerator during rolling, a rich fuel air

the Model Chart; however, please understand that it will be not as durable.

mixture goes into the engine, making it easier for carbon fouling to occur. Operate the accelerator gently. [3] If carbon fouling happens while running with the throttle fully open, this could mean that the heat range is too low or that the fuel mix is to rich. Consult with a kart shop to find the optimum setting.

I'm using Iridium Power. If there is carbon fouling, can I use a brass brush to clean the plugs? Because Iridium Power's center electrode has a fine 0.4mm diameter, there is a chance that this electrode could be bent by a brass brush. If

How is the compatibility with plug cords such as Nology? There are no particular issues with compatibility. In fact, there are some cord manufactures who sell products "especially for iridium plugs."

you having the plug cleaned, a sandblaster-type plug cleaner found in maintenance shops is preferable. If this is the case, keep the air pressure low and clean the plug for as short a time period as possible. Also, one trick would be to dissolve the carbon with an engine conditioner or a similar chemical agent. (Parts cleaners will not dissolve carbon). After applying it, take a nylon brush (don't use a

When changing plugs, is there any need to change the settings? For normal vehicles, there is no need to change the settings. It is advisable to reset vehicles with modified exhaust

wire brush) and scrub it off, wash it well, and dry it off. Repeat this procedure three or four times to remove any carbon. DENSO has confirmed that this does not return the performance of the plugs to 100%, so please use this as a stopgap measure.

systems, though in most cases adjusting the air screw is sufficient. (Except for racing carburetors such as FCRs)

The vehicle seems to be running worse now that I've installed them? In most cases there is a problem with the vehicle. Scooters are

Is there a way to tell them apart when replacing them? This can be done by confirming the level of wear (the gap width) on the ground electrode. DENSO's Iridium electrodes are different from conventional products in that their center electrodes hardly wear, and because of this it is better to check for wear on the ground electrode .

often run for long periods of time without maintenance, and it is common to see them with richer fuel-air mixtures from dirty air cleaners. Our investigations have found that these vehicles tend to be susceptible to carbon fouling, and when replacing plugs also remember to inspect and clean the air cleaner. The effectiveness of the change should become even more apparent. Also for rough idling and problems starting, sometimes reducing

The terminal on the end of the plug is frequently unnecessary on motorcycle, so why is this included with all types?

the plug gap by 0.1 to 0.2mm will solve the problem.

Iridium Power comes standard with a plug terminal (not including combined types). This is because some of the other companies' plug cords require a terminal, and at DENSO we decide our product specifications keeping in mind every customer.

96

97

98

DENSO PLUGS site English version opened Introduction of the IRIDIUM POWER series PR space

This site mainly provides product and race support information.

Updated information

Basic plug information and Q&A Appropriate information retrieval Movie

Master brochure data download

A lot of plug information is contained

Basic plug information and Q&A are provided.

http://www.globaldenso.com/PLUG/ Printed in Japan 100% recycled paper

10018C-006 5X-5A

Loading...

Ignition coil - DENSO Global

WGP250 : LCR Casey Stoner Super GT : DENSO SARD SUPRA Andre Couto Ronnie Quintarelli Formula1 : PANASONIC TOYOTA RACING Ralf Schumacher http://www...

33MB Sizes 2 Downloads 27 Views

Recommend Documents

Presentation - DENSO Global
Employees within and outside Japan work according to the same grading system. They are fairly evaluated and trained on t

Spark Plugs - DENSO Global
Negli ultimi anni si è assistito in Europa a un aumento del numero di veicoli che hanno effettuato la conversione dalla

Annual Report 2016 - DENSO Global
other investors, and would appreciate understanding for the efforts the Company is making in aiming to ..... Assuredly l

PDF Download ( all pages ) - DENSO Global
When selecting an appropriate type of spark plug, check the vehicle manual, the maintenance manual and the application t

เครือข่ายทั่วโลก: ยุโรป | เกี่ยวกับเรา | เว็บไซต์เด็นโซ่ไทย - DENSO Global
โรงงานผลิตและบริษัทจัดจำหน่ายของกลุ่มบริษัทเด็นโซ่ในยุโรป. ... เครือข่ายทั่วโลก. เด็นโซ่จะยังคงเร่งขยายการบริหารจัดการ ท

IGNITION COILS
M271.956. Mercedes-Benz. E Class. E200 (W212). 09. M271.820/860. 3 Pin. IC043. Citroen. C-Crosser. 2.0. 10. Citroen. C-C

denso - Auto Klimat
mecánica). > Aceite de compresor: ND-8. Compresor ES. > Compresor de espiral de accionamiento eléctrico; caudal variab

Lambda Sensors - Denso
Do not put grease on the Sensor nose. > Avoid the use of leaded fuel. > Avoid the use of fuel additives. Lambda Sensors

Coil gun
Oct 31, 2014 - Bayangkan dengan motor listrik, rata-rata lebih 90% energi listrik berhasil diubah menjadi energi kinetik

Starters & Alternators - Denso
Oct 30, 2014 - mundo, DENSO es un líder global en el desarrollo y fabricación de ... El conduct junto con un imán ent