Emotional Adjustment

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International Science Index Commenced in January 1999

Frequency: Monthly

Edition: International

author, title, abstract, keywords, journal title

200

Abstract Count: 52161

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Effects of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Gender on Academic and Personal-Emotional Adjustment in First Year University Students in Spain

Authors: M. F. Páramo, F. Cadaveira, M. S. Rodríguez Abstract: The first year at university is a critical period for personal-emotional and academic adjustment in emerging adults. Moreover, some studies show that alcohol consumption increases in young adults on transition to university. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption and gender on adjustment to university, understood as a multidimensional construct involving an array of demands. A sample of 300 first year students in Spain completed the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Examination of the data by analysis of variance revealed that adjustment to university was lower in the students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption than in the other students. Surprisingly, the personal-emotional adjustment of students with hazardous alcohol consumption was not lower than in the other students. Analysis of the gender effect revealed that levels of personal-emotional adjustment were higher in males than in females. This is our first study examining the influence of alcohol consumption on university adjustment. Future research should examine this relationship more closely, with the aim of designing public health strategies focused on limiting abusive consumption of alcohol in university students. Keywords: alcohol consumption, first year university students, gender, SACQ Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/49983

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199

Repercussions of Ritual Dances to Personal Adjustment: A Perspicacious Study Among School Children

Authors: Abdul Rahiman Kannam Kulam Abstract: Reflecting the concepts of the development of the whole child, it is claimed that, purposeful engagement in physical activities or exercise involved ritual dances has the potential to engender in young people, the purpose of the present study was to analyze school children and their personal adjustment based on Ritual dance participation. For the purpose, two thousand and three hundred school children of Kerala were analyzed. AISS manual of A.K.P Sinha and R.P Singh was used to collect the data for adjustments. The adjustment qualities classifies as excellent, good, average, unsatisfactory and very unsatisfactory. The total performance denotes the state of adjustment based on the classifications. Findings of the study were subjected to percentages and ‘t’ ratio. The study enlightened that, the emotional, social and overall adjustments are better than non-athletes. But the study elucidated that, there is no difference in educational adjustment of school athletes and non athletes among school children. Keywords: ritual dances, emotional adjustment, Poorakkali, Kolkkali, Margamkali Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/4038

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Lifelong Multiple Victimization among Native and Immigrant Women in Portugal: Prevalence and Emotional (Dis)Adjustment

Authors: Mariana Goncalves, Marlene Matos Abstract: Despite the scientific attention that it has received, the research on the victimization of women continues to neglect some factors that may enhance the risk of women to victimization. This study sought to identify the prevalence and the lifelong trajectories of multiply victimized women (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), the co-occurrence of different types of victimization, the contexts of occurrence and emotional adjustment and resilience. We used a convenience sample of 120 women multiply victimized, including 35 Portuguese natives and 85 immigrant women (e.g., Brazilian, African) who were recruited from support institutions and shelters. The results documented the similarities and differences concerning victimization between these groups and the intersectional factors that may elucidate vulnerability to victimization. There was a high co-occurrence of types of victimization, particularly in adulthood. The victimization reported occurred frequently in different contexts: familiar, workplace and helping institutions. A higher number of victimization experiences was related with more emotional symptomatology, less familiar cohesion and less social resources. The implications of the results are discussed. Keywords: multiple victimization, lifetime, natives, immigrants, prevalence, emotional adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/89701

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A Comparative Study of Adjustment Problems Faced by Freshmen and Senior Year Students

Authors: Shimony Agrawal Abstract: In this constantly changing world, adjustment is the most important feature of our personality. Adjustment refers to the capacity by which an individual tries to cope with inner tensions, needs, conflicts, frustration and is simultaneously able to bring coordination between his inner demands and those imposed by the outer world. Adjustment is ways of managing and coping with various demands and processes of life. Entering college is a turning point for college freshmen in their adulthood. The transition from school to college can be mentally as well as physically distressing. Students deal with a unique amount of stressors when they enter college. Initial months of college are full of nervousness and trying to fit in the new environment. Universities and colleges should make sure their students are well adjusted to the new environment by providing help whenever necessary. The main objective of the study was a comparative analysis of adjustment level with respect to overall adjustment level, gender and living environment. This research was conducted using the Adjustment Inventory for College Students (AICS). A total of 240 students were asked to fill this questionnaire. The data majority of the population scored poorly on Emotional Adjustment. Also, female students faced more adjustment problems as compared to male students. However, no significant change was noticed in living environment of the students. Keywords: adjustment problems, freshmen year, senior year, types of adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/85820

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A Study of Parental Acceptance: Avoidance Attitude and Adjustment of Urban and Rural Junior College Students

Authors: Ramesh K. Adsul, V. R. Shinde, S. S. Jadhav Abstract: The main aim of the present study was to explore the effect of various levels of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude on various areas of adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. It was hypothesized that 1. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental acceptance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 2. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental avoidance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 3. There would be no significant difference between urban and rural Junior College students on various areas of (home, health, social, and emotional) adjustment. The 847 students (427 boys and 420 girls) studying in 11th class of various Junior colleges in Sangli ,Satara and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra State, India were selected by random sampling method. Study was conducted by using two psychological tests namely 1. Family Relationship Inventory. 2.Bell’s Adjustment Inventory. One way ANOVA was employed to find out the effect of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude and adjustment in various areas of urban and rural junior college students. ‘t’ test was used to find out the difference between urban and rural students on various areas of adjustment. The results of the study indicate that (1) It is observed that three groups of parental acceptance attitude (PA) are significantly varied on home and social adjustment. It means that PA affects home and social adjustment of adolescents. High PA creates excellent adjustment and low PA creates poor adjustment in adolescents. (2) Study revealed that PV significantly affects adjustment of adolescents. High PV significantly creates poor adjustment in adolescents than average and low PV. (3) There is significant difference between urban and rural adolescents on adjustment. Urban adolescents have better adjustment than rural adolescents. Keywords: parental acceptance, avoidance attitude, adjustment, urban-rural student Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/9429

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Mental Health of Childless Couples: A Psychosocial Study

Authors: Digambar J. Darekar, Sharvari D. Darekar Abstract: Childlessness is a universal problem. It particularly affects the mental health of childless couple. It leads to anxiety, frustration, nervousness, depression, loneliness, helplessness, hopelessness, etc. After reviewing the literature, it is found that mental health of married couples is negatively related to childlessness. To understand emotional and psychological problems of a childless couple, researcher surveyed and interviewed 50 childless couples with the help of medical practitioner and gynecologist. Personal adjustment and mental health inventory and marital adjustment inventory along with semi-structured interview questionnaire was used. On the basis of responses from the subject, distinction is made between the problems of male subjects and female subjects and common problem separately. The researcher found that childlessness leads to the conflict between in-laws, harassment, hopelessness, feeling of emptiness and vacuumed, frustration, lack of hope and desire for life, restlessness, loss of sleep, ideas of committing suicide, increased emotional distance and disturbed marital life. The childlessness leads to sorrow for women and anger for men. Men turns towards addiction and women tend to avoid social contact and face problems of social adjustments. Childless couples are sufferers of personal and marital adjustment problems which in turn affect their mental health adversely. Keywords: childlessness, marital adjustments, mental health, social adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/55116

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Self-Regulation and School Adjustment of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong

Authors: T. S. Terence Ma, Irene T. Ho Abstract: Conducting adequate assessment of the challenges students with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) face and the support they need is imperative for promoting their school adjustment. Students with ASD often show deficits in communication, social interaction, emotional regulation, and self-management in learning. While targeting these areas in intervention is often helpful, we argue that not enough attention has been paid to weak self-regulation being a key factor underlying their manifest difficulty in all these areas. Self-regulation refers to one’s ability to moderate their behavioral or affective responses without assistance from others. Especially for students with high functioning autism, who often show problems not so much in acquiring the needed skills but rather in applying those skills appropriately in everyday problem-solving, self-regulation becomes a key to successful adjustment in daily life. Therefore, a greater understanding of the construct of self-regulation, its relationship with other daily skills, and its role in school functioning for students with ASD would generate insights on how students’ school adjustment could be promoted more effectively. There were two focuses in this study. Firstly, we examined the extent to which self-regulation is a distinct construct that is differentiable from other daily skills and the most salient indicators of this construct. Then we tested a model of relationships between self-regulation and other daily school skills as well as their relative and combined effects on school adjustment. A total of 1,345 Grade1 to Grade 6 students with ASD attending mainstream schools in Hong Kong participated in the research. In the first stage of the study, teachers filled out a questionnaire consisting of 136 items assessing a wide range of student skills in social, emotional and learning areas. Results from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with 673 participants and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with another group of 672 participants showed that there were five distinct factors of school skills, namely (1) communication skills, (2) pro-social behavior, (3) emotional skills, (4) learning management, and (5) self-regulation. Five scales representing these skill dimensions were generated. In the second stage of the study, a model postulating the mediating role of self-regulation for the effects of the other four types of skills on school adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling (SEM). School adjustment was defined in terms of the extent to which the student is accepted well in school, with high engagement in school life and selfesteem as well as good interpersonal relationships. A 5-item scale was used to assess these aspects of school adjustment. Results showed that communication skills, pro-social behavior, emotional skills and learning management had significant effects on school adjustment only indirectly through self-regulation, and their total effects were found to be not high. The results indicate that support rendered to students with ASD focusing only on the training of well-defined skills is not adequate for promoting their inclusion in school. More attention should be paid to the training of self-management with an emphasis on the application of skills backed by self-regulation. Also, other non-skill factors are important in promoting inclusive education. Keywords: autism, assessment, factor analysis, self-regulation, school adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/90545

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Effects of Work Load and Surface Acting on Emotional Exhaustion and Work Satisfaction of Social Worker Students: Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Trait as Moderator

Authors: Chung-Kwei Wang, Kuo-Ying Lo Abstract: The study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuon' the adjustment of social worker students during their practicum. Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized by collective-oriented Chinese society for thousand years. Based on interview and literature review, we operationalized the concept as four factors, including ‘harmonious interaction’, ‘understanding and tolerance’, ‘empathetic communication’ and ‘rule abiding’. We administer the scale to 96 social worker senior students before their summer practicums begins and collect their response on emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work load, work satisfaction. We also ask their supervisors rated their performance on empathy, interpersonal relationships, performance on practicum and their Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results indicated that self-ratings of students on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are correlated with rating from their supervisors. Students who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku have better adjustment and higher ratings from their supervisor. Ren-qing Shi-ku also moderate effects of surface acting labor and work load on emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. However, Ren-qing Shi-ku seems more beneficial under low work load situations. The finding of this study suggested traditional social skill training might be very effective for social service providers in a collective-oriented culture. Keywords: emotion labor, ren-qing shi-ku, emotional exhaustion, work satisfaction and performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/28220

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A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim Abstract: This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor. Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/35129

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Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Ercan Yilmaz, Ali Murat Sünbül Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management. Keywords: teachers, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, education Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/43587

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Socio-Demographic Predictors of Divorce Adjustment in Pakistani Women

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Nida Zafar Abstract: The present research investigated socio-demographic predictors of divorce adjustment in Pakistani women. The sample comprised of 80 divorced women from different areas of Lahore. Self developed Socio-Demographic predictor scale and Divorce Adjustment Scale by (Fisher, 2001) was used for assessment. Analyses showed that working divorced women living with joint family system are more adjusted as compared to non-working divorced women living with joint family system. Women having one child are more adjusted as compared to women having more than one child. Findings highlight importance of presence of father for healthy development of adolescents. Adjustment of divorcee women was positively associated with income, social support from the family, having favorable attitudes toward marital dissolution prior to divorce, and being the partner who initiated the divorce. In addition, older women showed some evidence of poorer adjustment than did younger women. Findings highlight importance of support for divorce adjustment. Keywords: socio-demographic, adjustment, women, divorce Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/28156

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Resiliency, Peer and Parental Support as Determinants to Adolescents' Social Adjustment among Secondary Students in Ilorin, Kwara State

Authors: Titilola Adebowale Abstract: Some factors are responsible for the social adjustment among the adolescents. The study investigated resiliency, peer and parental support as factors that could determine social adjustment among adolescents in Ilorin, Kwara state. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A sample size of 300 SS1 & SS2 students from ten secondary schools, six public and four private schools were randomly selected within Ilorin Metropolis. Self-structured questionnaire that was validated and the reliability ensured was used to collect data from the respondents. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Regression Analysis. The findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between resiliency and social adjustment: r (298) = .402, p< 0.01, r2 = .162; that there was a positive relationship between peer support and social adjustment: r (298) = .570, p< 0.01, r2 = .325; that there was a positive relationship between parental support and social adjustment: r (298) = .451, p< 0.01, r2 = .203; also reveals significant joint contribution of the independent variables (resilience, peer support, parental support) to the prediction of social adjustment: F (3,296) = 55.587, P< 0.01. Various recommendations were given which includes the roles of government, agencies, individuals, parents, teachers, religious and marriage institutions. Keywords: resiliency, peer support, parental support, adolescents, social adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/92024

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Risk, Capital Buffers, and Bank Lending: The Adjustment of Euro Area Banks

Authors: Laurent Maurin, Mervi Toivanen Abstract: This paper estimates euro area banks’ internal target capital ratios and investigates whether banks’ adjustment to the targets have an impact on credit supply and holding of securities during the financial crisis in 2005-2011. Using data on listed banks and country-specific macro-variables a partial adjustment model is estimated in a panel context. The results indicate, firstly, that an increase in the riskiness of banks’ balance sheets influences positively on the target capital ratios. Secondly, the adjustment towards higher equilibrium capital ratios has a significant impact on banks’ assets. The impact is found to be more size-able on security holdings than on loans, thereby suggesting a pecking order. Keywords: Euro area, capital ratios, credit supply, partial adjustment model Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/10724

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280

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Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori Abstract: Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs. Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31352

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Determination of the Factors Affecting Adjustment Levels of First Class Students at Elementary School

Authors: Sibel Yoleri Abstract: In this research it is aimed to determine the adjustment of students who attend the first class at elementary school to school in terms of several variables. The study group of the research consists of 286 students (131 female, 155 male) who continue attending the first class of elementary school in 2013-2014 academic year, in the city center of Uşak. In the research, ‘Personal Information Form’ and ‘Walker-Mcconnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment’ have been used as data collection tools. In the analysis of data, the t-test has been applied in the independent groups to determine whether the sampling group students’ scores of school adjustment differ according to the sex variable or not. For the evaluation of data identified as not showing normal distribution, Mann Whitney U test has been applied for paired comparison, Kruskal Wallis H test has been used for multiple comparisons. In the research, all the statistical processes have been evaluated bidirectional and the level of significance has been accepted as .05. According to the results gathered from the research, a meaningful difference could not been identified in the level of students’ adjustment to school in terms of sex variable. At the end of the research, it is identified that the adjustment level of the students who have started school at the age of seven is higher than the ones who have started school at the age of five and the adjustment level of the students who have preschool education before the elementary school is higher than the ones who have not taken. Keywords: starting school, preschool education, school adjustment, Walker-Mcconnell Scale Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/18274

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Parental Rejection and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents: Does the Peer Rejection Mediate?

Authors: Sultan Shujja, Farah Malik Abstract: The study examined the mediating role of peer rejection in direct relationship of parental rejection and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Researchers used self-report measures e.g., Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), Children Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (PARQ), and Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) to assess perception of parent-peer rejection, psychological adjustment among adolescents (14-18 years). Findings revealed that peer rejection did not mediate the parental rejection and psychological adjustment whereas parental rejection emerged as strong predictor when demographic variables were statistically controlled. On average, girls were psychologically less adjusted than that of boys. Despite of equal perception of peer rejection, girls more anxiously anticipated peer rejection than did the boys. It is suggested that peer influence on adolescents, specifically girls, should not be underestimated. Keywords: peer relationships, parental perception, psychological adjustment, applied psychology Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/27204

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Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani Abstract: Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed. Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/17161

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The Role of Counselling Psychology on Expatriate Adjustment in East Asia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Panagiotis Platanitis Abstract: Purpose: This research paper seeks to review the empirical studies in the field of expatriate adjustment in East Asia in order to produce a thematic understanding of the current adjustment challenges, thus enabling practitioners to enrich their knowledge. Background: Learning to live, work, and function in a country and culture vastly different from that of one’s upbringing can pose some unique challenges in terms of adaptation and adjustment. This has led to a growing body of research about the adjustment of expatriate workers. Adjustment itself has been posited as a three-dimensional construct; work adjustment, interaction adjustment and general or cultural adjustment. Methodology: This qualitative systematic review has been conducted on all identified peer-reviewed empirical studies related to expatriate adjustment in East Asia. Five electronic databases (PsychInfo, Emerald, Scopus, EBSCO and JSTOR) were searched to December 2015. Out of 625 identified records, thorough evaluation for eligibility resulted in 15 relevant studies being subjected to data analysis. The quality of the identified research was assessed according to the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields. The data were analysed by means of thematic synthesis for systematic reviews of qualitative research. Findings: Data analysis revealed five key themes. The themes developed were: (1) personality traits (2) types of adjustment, (3) language, (4) culture and (5) coping strategies. Types of adjustment included subthemes such as: Interaction, general, work, psychological, sociocultural and cross-cultural adjustment. Conclusion: The present review supported previous literature on the different themes of adjustment and it takes the focus from work and general adjustment to the psychological challenges and it introduces the psychological adjustment. It also gives a different perspective about the use of cross-cultural training and the coping strategies expatriates use when they are abroad. This review helps counselling psychologists to understand the importance of a multicultural approach when working with expatriates and also to be aware of what expatriates might face when working and living in East Asia. Keywords: adjustment, counselling psychology, East Asia, expatriates Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/52561

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Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria Abstract: The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB. Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/11785

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A Challenge of the 3 Millenium: The Emotional Intelligence Development

Authors: Florentina Hahaianu, Mihaela Negrescu Abstract: The analysis of the positive and negative effects of technology use and abuse in Generation Z comes as a necessity in order to understand their ever-changing emotional development needs. The article quantitatively analyzes the findings of a sociological questionnaire on a group of students in social sciences. It aimed to identify the changes generated by the use of digital resources in the emotional intelligence development. Among the outcomes of our study we include a predilection for IT related activities – be they social, learning, entertainment, etc. which undermines the manifestation of emotional intelligence, especially the reluctance to face-to-face interaction. In this context, the issue of emotional intelligence development comes into focus as a solution to compensate for the undesirable effects that contact with technology has on this generation. Keywords: digital resources, emotional intelligence, generation Z, students Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/92373

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The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Alfalah Tasneem, Abdallah Bataineh, Falah Jannat, Alfalah Salsabeel Abstract: The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards. Keywords: emotional intelligence, higher education, job performance, job satisfaction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/48079

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Reimagining Writing as a Healing Art: A Case Study on Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Shawnrece Campbell Abstract: Emotional intelligence as an essential job skill is growing in popularity among human resource professionals and hiring managers. Companies value those who have high emotional intelligence because of their personal competences (selfawareness, self-regulation, motivation) and social competences (empathy, social skills). In implementing any training system to teach emotional intelligence, the best methodologies for acquiring and/or improving these competences should be taken into consideration. This study focuses on how students perceived the art of writing as a tool for self-improvement. During this session, participants will engage in a brief activity designed to help students develop emotional intelligence. As a part of the discussion, participants will learn the results of a junior-level literary seminar conducted to better understand students’ thoughts and views about the effectiveness of writing as a tool for emotional healing. An analysis of qualitative textual data is presented. The outcomes indicated that students found using writing as a tool for emotional intelligence development as highly effective. The findings also revealed that students have positive perceptions of using writing as a self-healing art that leads to increased emotional intelligence and believe that writing courses of this nature enhance students’ appreciation of the value of the liberal arts. Keywords: emotional intelligence quotient, healing, soft skills, writing Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/90204

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33

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Effects of Work Stress and Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Social Wisdom on Emotional Exhaustion, Work Satisfaction and Well-Being of Insurance Workers

Authors: Wang Chung-Kwei, Lo Kuo Ying Abstract: This study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuo’ on the adjustment of insurance workers. Rationale: Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized and practiced by collective-oriented Chinese for thousand years. The concept of‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’includes values, beliefs and behavior rituals, which helps Chinese to cope with interpersonal conflicts in a sophisticated and closely tied collective society. Based on interview and literature review, we found out Chinese still emphasized the importance of ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’. The concepts contains five factors, including ‘proper emotion display’, ‘social ritual abiding’, ‘ make empathetic concession’, ‘harmonious and proper behavior’ and ‘tolerance for the interest of the whole’. We developed an indigenous ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’scale based on interview data and a survey on social worker students. Research methods: We conduct a dyad survey between 294 insurance worker and their supervisors. Insurance workers’ response on ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku,emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work stress and load, work satisfaction and well-being were collected. We also ask their supervisors to rate these workers ‘empathy, social rule abiding, work performance, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results: Students’self-ratings on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are positively correlated with rating from their supervisors on all above indexes. Workers who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku score also have lower work stress and emotion exhaustion, higher work satisfaction and well-being, more emotion deep acting. They also have higher work performance, social rule abiding, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance rating from their supervisor. The finding of this study suggested Ren-qing Shi-ku is an effective indicator on insurance workers ‘adjustment. Since Ren-qing Shi-ku is trainable, we suggested that Ren-qing Shi-ku training might be beneficial to service industry in a collective-oriented culture. Keywords: work stress, Ren-qing Shi-ku, emotional exhaustion, work satisfaction, well-being Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/28536

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Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Emotional Contagion

Authors: Andres Pinilla Palacios, Ricardo Tamayo Abstract: Emotional contagion is characterized as an automatic tendency to synchronize behaviors that facilitate emotional convergence among humans. It might thus play a pivotal role to understand the dynamics of key social interactions. However, a few research has investigated its potential mechanisms. We suggest two complementary but independent processes that may underlie emotional contagion. The efficient contagion hypothesis, based on fast and implicit bottom-up processes, modulated by familiarity and spread of activation in the emotional associative networks of memory. Secondly, the emotional contrast hypothesis, based on slow and explicit top-down processes guided by deliberated appraisal and hypothesis-testing. In order to assess these two hypotheses, an experiment with 39 participants was conducted. In the first phase, participants were induced (between-groups) to an emotional state (positive, neutral or negative) using a standardized video taken from the FilmStim database. In the second phase, participants classified and rated (within-subject) the emotional state of 15 faces (5 for each emotional state) taken from the POFA database. In the third phase, all participants were returned to a baseline emotional state using the same neutral video used in the first phase. In a fourth phase, participants classified and rated a new set of 15 faces. The accuracy in the identification and rating of emotions was partially explained by the efficient contagion hypothesis, but the speed with which these judgments were made was partially explained by the emotional contrast hypothesis. However, results are ambiguous, so a follow-up experiment is proposed in which emotional expressions and activation of the sympathetic system will be measured using EMG and EDA respectively. Keywords: electromyography, emotional contagion, emotional valence, identification of emotions, imitation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/66671

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The Role of Context in Interpreting Emotional Body Language in Robots

Authors: Jekaterina Novikova, Leon Watts Abstract: In the emerging world of human-robot interaction, people and robots will interact socially in real-world situations. This paper presents the results of an experimental study probing the interaction between situational context and emotional body language in robots. 34 people rated video clips of robots performing expressive behaviours in different situational contexts both for emotional expressivity on Valence-Arousal-Dominance dimensions and by selecting a specific emotional term from a list of suggestions. Results showed that a contextual information enhanced a recognition of emotional body language of a robot, although it did not override emotional signals provided by robot expressions. Results are discussed in terms of design guidelines on how an emotional body language of a robot can be used by roboticists developing social robots. Keywords: social robotics, non-verbal communication, situational context, artificial emotions, body language Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/20696

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A Case Study of Decision Making and Adjustment Behaviour of Visually Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Bincy Mathew, B. William Dharma Raja Abstract: Successful decision making in a social setting depends on the ability to understand the intentions, emotions and beliefs of others. Children live and grow in the social world. Individuals think to satisfy their curiosity and mush of their social thought is practical, to attain their goal. Children’s thought about their social world influences how they behave towards it. The main purpose of this paper is to review the influence of decision making on adjustment behaviour of visually challenged adolescents. The sample was purposively selected to study the cases of two of the visually challenged adolescents from a Special School, in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The authors appraised the observed behaviour of adjustment in these children. It may be concluded that the social cognitive ability of decision making is at least, to certain extent, influences adjustment behaviour of visually challenged adolescents. Adjustment behaviour attempts to maintain a child’s level of physiological and psychological equilibrium and it is directed towards tension reduction. It involves a state of harmonious relationship existing between the individual and one’s environment so that adjustment is a matter of interaction between the capacities of the individual and the demands of the environment. The study also found that music induces a receptive mood that generally enhances cognitive processing and every decision that the child makes has its brunt on the behaviour. It is solely based on the case study carried out by the authors. Keywords: social cognition, decision making, adjustment behaviour, adolescents Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/67122

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A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India

Authors: Nitin Joseph Abstract: Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life. Keywords: emotional intelligence, medical students, perceived stress, socio demographic variables Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/4102

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The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Performance

Authors: Omar Al Ali Abstract: The current study was aimed to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and leader's performance. Data were collected from 260 senior managers from UAE. The results showed that there are significant relationships between emotional intelligence and leadership performance as measured by the annual internal evaluations of each participant (r = .42, p < .01). Data from regression analysis revealed that both variables namely emotional intelligence (beta = .31, p < .01), and cognitive ability (beta = .29, p < .01), predicted leadership competencies, and together explained 26% of its variance. Data suggests that EI and cognitive ability are significantly correlated with leadership performance. In depth implications of the present findings for human resource development theory and practice are discussed. Keywords: emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, leadership, performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/37605

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Relation Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting: The Moderating Effect of Children´s Temperament

Authors: Ester Ato, Maria Angeles Fernández-Vilar, Maria Dolores Galián Abstract: The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control, marital adjustment and parenting practices in a sample of 345 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that a higher level of marital conflict has been associated with less effective and less positive parenting, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s effortful control exert to this relation. To measure marital adjustment, parenting practices and children’s temperament, parents were given the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). The results confirmed that higher marital satisfaction predicted more positive parenting practices, whereas lower marital adjustment scores predicted less parenting support and control. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a moderation model that revealed the moderating role of effortful control in the relation between marital adjustment and parenting. Concretely, higher marital satisfaction predicts higher parenting communication and involvement, but only in children with low levels of effortful control. Therefore, a difficult temperament interferes in a less negative way in the family system when parents are satisfied and united. And a better self-regulated child predicts more effective parenting practice regardless of the parents´ marital satisfaction. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, difficult children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, in order to take into account the marital adjustment and parenting practices of their parents, and to be able to design adequate family interventions and prevent future pathologizing patterns. Keywords: effortful control, marital adjustment, parenting, moderation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/25118

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Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Young Doctors of Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Khalid, Talha Aftab, Fareeha Zafar Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment at workplace in the doctors; age ranging from 25 to 32 years. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been considered as important issue in terms of high quality services and superior performance. This paper presents a field survey conducted in 9 different public sector hospitals which operate in Punjab, Pakistan. 250 questionnaires were distributed out of which 180 returned back were showing 72% response rate, confirming the significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. Keywords: emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, young doctors Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/5669

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Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence in a Middle Eastern Population

Authors: Said S. Aldhafri, Marwa N. Alrajhi Abstract: This study examines gender differences in emotional intelligence levels in the Sultanate of Oman, an Arabic country in the Middle East. As a collective culture, the Omani culture rears children differently based on the Islamic beliefs and the Arabic culture. Gender differences across the different dimensions of emotional intelligence are possible within this collective culture. Emotional intelligences reflect the ability to understand and act upon one’s and others’ emotions. The sample of the study consisted of 338 (50.6% were females) adults from different regions in Oman. The participants completed a 25-item emotional intelligence scale, using 5-point Likert type responses. The results showed that the total scores of the scale as well as the scores from the five dimensions (self management, self motivation, social skills, empathy, and self-awareness) all have good reliability coefficients. Using independent sample t-tests, the findings show that female adults scored higher than male adults. The differences were all statistically significant across the five dimensions of emotional intelligence. The findings are discussed from a cultural perspective and applications for the development of emotional intelligence skills are outlined. Keywords: emotional intelligence, gender, Arab, Oman Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/26999

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Measurement Errors and Misclassifications in Covariates in Logistic Regression: Bayesian Adjustment of Main and Interaction Effects and the Sample Size Implications

Authors: Shahadut Hossain Abstract: Measurement errors in continuous covariates and/or misclassifications in categorical covariates are common in epidemiological studies. Regression analysis ignoring such mismeasurements seriously biases the estimated main and interaction effects of covariates on the outcome of interest. Thus, adjustments for such mismeasurements are necessary. In this research, we propose a Bayesian parametric framework for eliminating deleterious impacts of covariate mismeasurements in logistic regression. The proposed adjustment method is unified and thus can be applied to any generalized linear and non-linear regression models. Furthermore, adjustment for covariate mismeasurements requires validation data usually in the form of either gold standard measurements or replicates of the mismeasured covariates on a subset of the study population. Initial investigation shows that adequacy of such adjustment depends on the sizes of main and validation samples, especially when prevalences of the categorical covariates are low. Thus, we investigate the impact of main and validation sample sizes on the adjusted estimates, and provide a general guideline about these sample sizes based on simulation studies. Keywords: measurement errors, misclassification, mismeasurement, validation sample, Bayesian adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/5349

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Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Academic Success among Third Year College Students of PIT

Authors: Sonia Arradaza-Pajaron Abstract: College students are expected to engage in an on-the-job training or internship for completion of a course requirement prior to graduation. In this scenario, they are exposed to the real world of work outside their training institution. To find out their readiness both emotionally and academically, this study has been conducted. A descriptive-correlational research design was employed and random sampling technique method was utilized among 265 randomly selected third year college students of PIT, SY 2014-15. A questionnaire on Emotional Intelligence (bearing the four components namely; emotional literacy, emotional quotient competence, values and beliefs and emotional quotient outcomes) was fielded to the respondents and GWA was extracted from the school automate. Data collected were statistically treated using percentage, weighted mean and Pearson-r for correlation. Results revealed that respondents’ emotional intelligence level is moderately high while their academic performance is good. A high significant relationship was found between the EI component; Emotional Literacy and their academic performance while only significant relationship was found between Emotional Quotient Outcomes and their academic performance. Therefore, if EI influences academic performance significantly when correlated, a possibility that their OJT performance can also be affected either positively or negatively. Thus, EI can be considered predictor of their academic and academic-related performance. Based on the result, it is then recommended that the institution would try to look deeply into the consideration of embedding emotional intelligence as part of the (especially on Emotional Literacy and Emotional Quotient Outcomes of the students) college curriculum. It can be done if the school shall have an effective Emotional Intelligence framework or program manned by qualified and competent teachers, guidance counselors in different colleges in its implementation. Keywords: academic performance, emotional intelligence, college students, academic success Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/29579

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Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances in News Reporters Covering Traumatic Events

Authors: Misbah Shahzadi Abstract: The present study was conducted to identify the emotional and behavioral disturbances among the News Reporters covering Traumatic events. In the present study, a sample of 50 News Reporters belonging to the national and the local news agencies were selected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad who had covered any traumatic event in the past one year. Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) and Impact of Event Scale interpretations were used to assess a variety of emotional and behavioral patterns of News Reporters. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional and behavioral reactions exhibited by individuals like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression, hyperarousal and avoidance behavior whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that there is no significant gender difference in the News Reporters in manifestations of behavioral and emotional disturbances. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the News Reporters who cover traumatic events. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions/disturbances after trauma, which can be helpful for identifying problematic areas for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these News Reporters. Keywords: behavioural disturbance, emotional disturbance, news reporters, traumatic events Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/32975

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The Developmental Model of Self-Efficacy Emotional Intelligence and Social Maturity among High School Boys and Girls

Authors: Shrikant Chavan, Vikas Minchekar Abstract: The present study examined the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of High school boys and girls. Furthermore, study aimed at to foster the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students. The study was conducted on 100 high school students, out of which 50 boys and 50 girls were selected through simple random sampling method from the Sangli city of Maharashtra state, India. The age range of the sample is 14 to 16 years. Self-efficacy scale developed by Jesusalem Schwarzer, Emotional intelligence scale developed by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar and social maturity scale developed by Rao were administered to the sample. Data was analyzed using mean, SD and ‘t’ test further Karl Pearson’s product moment, correlation of coefficient was used to know the correlation between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and social maturity. Results revealed that boys and girls did not differ significantly in their self-efficacy and social maturity. Further, the analysis revealed that girls are having high emotional intelligence compared to boys, which is significant at 0.01 level. It is also found that there is a significant and positive correlation between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and social maturity and emotional intelligence and social maturity. Some developmental strategies to strengthen the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students are suggested in the study. Keywords: self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, social maturity, developmental model and high school students Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/60787

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Maternal Deprivation as Predictor of Academic Performance and Psychosocial Adjustment of Primary School Pupils in Abeokuta Metropolis

Authors: Abayomi Olatoke Adejobi Abstract: The study investigated maternal deprivation as predictor of academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of primary school pupils in Abeokuta metropolis. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred public primary school pupils were randomly selected as subjects for the study. The instruments used for data collection were Index of Family Relations (IFR) by Hudson, modified version of Psychosocial Adjustment Scale (PAS) by O’ bailey and Academic records of the pupils from Cumulative Records Folder (CRF). The data collected were statistically treated and the three hypotheses were tested using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Confident statistical methods at 0.05 alpha level. The results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of children who suffered maternal deprivation and those who did not (t – 5.61; df = 198; P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between psychosocial adjustment of children and maternal deprivation (r = 0.37, df = 10; P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in academic performance of boys and girls who suffered maternal deprivation (t = 0.32; df = 109; P > 0.05). Based on the results some recommendations were made. Keywords: maternal deprivation, psychosocial adjustment, academic performance, primary school pupils Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/10960

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Teachers’ Personal and Professional Characteristics: How They Relate to Teacher-Student Relationships and Students’ Behavior

Authors: Maria Poulou Abstract: The study investigated how teachers’ self-rated Emotional Intelligence (EI), competence in implementing Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills and teaching efficacy relate to teacher-student relationships and students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 98 elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece. They completed the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS), the Teacher SEL Beliefs Scale, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), the Student-Teacher Relationships Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for 617 of their students, aged 6-11 years old. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an exploratory model of the variables. It was demonstrated that teachers’ emotional intelligence, SEL beliefs and teaching efficacy were significantly related to teacher-student relationships, but they were not related to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Rather, teachers’ perceptions of teacher-students relationships were significantly related to these difficulties. These findings and their implications for research and practice are discussed. Keywords: emotional intelligence, social and emotional learning, teacher-student relationships, teaching efficacy Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/43363

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Adjusting Mind and Heart to Ovarian Cancer: Correlational Study on Italian Women

Authors: Chiara Cosentino, Carlo Pruneti, Carla Merisio, Domenico Sgromo Abstract: Introduction – Psychoneuroimmunology as approach clearly showed how psychological features can influence health through specific physiological pathways linked to the stress reaction. This can be true also in cancer, in its latter conceptualization seen as a chronic disease. Therefore, it is still not clear how the psychological features can combine with a physiological specific path, for a better adjustment to cancer. The aim of this study is identifying how in Italian survivors, perceived social support, body image, coping and quality of life correlate with or influence Heart Rate Variability (HRV), the physiological parameter that can mirror a condition of chronic stress or a good relaxing capability. Method - The study had an exploratory transversal design. The final sample was made of 38 ovarian cancer survivors aged from 29 to 80 (M= 56,08; SD=12,76) following a program for Ovarian Cancer at the Oncological Clinic, University Hospital of Parma, Italy. Participants were asked to fill: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS); Derridford Appearance Scale-59 (DAS-59); Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC); Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC). For each participant was recorded Short-Term HRV (5 minutes) using emWavePro. Results– Data showed many interesting correlations within the psychological features. EORTC scores have a significant correlation with DAS59 (r =-.327 p Keywords: cancer survivors, heart rate variability, ovarian cancer, psychophysiological adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/74208

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Emotional Intelligence: Key to Job Satisfaction - A Case Study

Authors: Arpita Sabath, Jytoika Samuel Abstract: Emotional Intelligence is conceptualized as a confluence of learned abilities resulting in wise behavior, high achievement and mental health. This case study is done on IT Sector employees of CAREERNET consultancy at Bangalore. Thus the present study intends to find out the difference in different dimensions of El and Js Scales among male and female employees and the existing relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction for the beginner age group of employees (25 yrs - 40 yrs) in order to enhance the employees productivity level in the present scenario of recession in employment. It is observed that all promotions and increment are achieved at these 25 yrs - 40 yrs age group employees. Therefore, the sample is selected randomly and grouped. Survey method with the administration of Emotional Intelligence Scale and opinionScedule is used. The findings of the study has revealed that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance excellence. The study is concluded with a remark that the relevance of this study should be followed by the administrative body of IT sectors to motivate them and to get more productive work from their employees Keywords: emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, organisational behavior, IT sector Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/11378

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Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: From Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis Abstract: Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score. Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/93594

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Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: From Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis Abstract: Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score. Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/93595

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Investigating the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teachers in Ilam Province

Authors: Ali Heyrani, Maryam Saidyousefi Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers in Ilam province. The research method is descriptive correlational. The study participants were of 170 physical education teachers (90 males, 80 females) with an age range of 20 to 50 years, who were selected randomly. The instruments for data collection were Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Bar-on (1997) to assess the Emotional Intelligence teachers and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire to measure their Self-Efficacy. The questionnaires used in the interior are reliable and valid. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and inferential tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression) at a significance level of P < 0/ 05 were used. The Results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between totall emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of teachers, so the more emotional intelligence of physical education teachers the better the extent of Self-Efficacy. Also, the results arising from regression analysis gradually showed that among components of emotional intelligence, three components, the General Mood, Adaptability, and Interpersonal Communication to Self-Efficacy are of a significant positive relationship and are able to predict the Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers. It seems the application of this study s results can help to education authorities to promote the level of teachers’ emotional intelligence and therefore the improvement of their Self-Efficacy and success in learners’ teaching and training. Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, physical education teachers, Ilam province Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/14905

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Career Decision-Making Difficulty and Emotional Quotient: Basis for a Career Guidance Intervention for City College of Angeles

Authors: Rhenan D. Estacio Abstract: This research presents the career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of one hundred fifty (150) college students of City College of Angeles, Academic Year 2016-2017. Independent sample T-test and Pearson r correlation were done to shifter and non-shifter in terms of their career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. A significant positive correlation revealed (r=.302) on career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. Also, a significant negative correlation revealed (r=-.329) on career decision making difficulty and a moderating variable which is age. The finding significantly shows that emotional quotient was associated and adds a significant incremental variance with career decision making difficulty. Moreover, age shows a moderating effect on career decision making difficulty by having a significant decline and increment on variables. Furthermore, categorization of career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of said participants are described in this study. In addition, career guidance interventions were suggested based on the results of this study. Keywords: career, decision-making, difficulty, emotional, quotient Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/80983

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The Association between Facebook Emotional Dependency with Psychological Well-Being in Eudaimonic Approach among Adolescents 13-16 Years Old

Authors: Somayyeh Naeemi, Ezhar Tamam Abstract: In most of the countries, Facebook allocated high rank of usage among other social network sites. Several studies have examined the effect of Facebook intensity on individuals’ psychological well-being. However, few studies have investigated its effect on eudaimonic well-being. The current study explored how emotional dependency to Facebook relates to psychological well-being in terms of eudaimonic well-being. The number of 402 adolescents 13-16 years old who studied in upper secondary school in Malaysia participated in this study. It was expected to find out a negative association between emotional dependency to Facebook and time spent on Facebook and psychological well-being. It also was examined the moderation effects of self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The results by Structural Equation Modeling revealed that emotional dependency to Facebook has a negative effect on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Surprisingly self-efficacy did not have moderation effect on the relationship between emotional dependency to Facebook and psychological well-being. Lastly, the emotional dependency to Facebook and not the time spent on Facebook lessen adolescents’ psychological well-being, suggesting the value of investigating Facebook usage among college students in future studies. Keywords: emotional dependency to facebook, psychological well-being, eudaimonic well-being, self-efficacy, adolescent Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31387

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Discussion about Frequent Adjustment of Urban Master Planning in China: A Case Study of Changshou District, Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin Abstract: Since the reform and opening, the urbanization process of China has entered a rapid development period. In recent years, the authors participated in some projects of urban master planning in China and found a phenomenon that the rapid urbanization area of China is experiencing frequent adjustment process of urban master planning. This phenomenon is not the natural process of urbanization development. It may be caused by different government roles from different levels. Through the methods of investigation, data comparison and case study, this paper aims to explore the reason why the rapid urbanization area is experiencing frequent adjustment of master planning and give some solution strategies. Firstly, taking Changshou district of Chongqing city as an example, this paper wants to introduce the phenomenon about frequent adjustment process in China. And then, discuss distinct roles in the process between national government, provincial government and local government of China. At last, put forward preliminary solutions strategies for this area in China from the aspects of land use, intergovernmental cooperation and so on. Keywords: urban master planning, frequent adjustment, urbanization development, problems and strategies, China Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/55927

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English Language Performance and Emotional Intelligence of Senior High School Students of Pit-Laboratory High School

Authors: Sonia Arradaza-Pajaron Abstract: English as a second language is widely spoken in the Philippines. In fact, it is used as a medium of instruction in school. However, Filipino students, in general, are still not proficient in the use of the language. Since it plays a very crucial role in the learning and comprehension of some subjects in the school where important key concepts and in English, it is imperative to look into other factors that may affect such concern. This study may post an answer to the said concern because it aimed to investigate the association between a psychological construct, known as emotional intelligence, and the English language performance of the 55 senior high school students. The study utilized a descriptive correlational method to determine the significant relationship of variables with preliminary data, like GPA in English subject as baseline information of their performance. Results revealed that the respondents had an average GPA in the English subject; however, improving from their first-year high school level to the fourth year. Their English performance resulted to an above average level with a notable higher performance in the speaking test than in the written. Further, a strong correlation between English performance and emotional intelligence was manifested. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that students with higher emotional intelligence their English language performance is expected to be the same. It can be said further that when students’ emotional intelligence (EI components) is facilitated well through various classroom activities, a better English performance would just be spontaneous among them. Keywords: English language performance, emotional intelligence, EI components, emotional literacy, emotional quotient competence, emotional quotient outcomes, values and beliefs Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/32583

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154

Emotional Stroop Task, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Personality Assessment in Sexually Abused Children

Authors: Rabia Iftikhar, Iqra Tariq Abstract: The current study examined the parental acceptance-rejection and personality assessment of sexually abused children. A sample of 50 control (25 girls and 25 boys) and 50 abused (25 girls and 25 boys) were drawn through the process of purposive sampling (N = 100). The sample consisted of school going children between the ages of 8-16. The sample was taken from non-governmental schools and NGO. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire and Emotional STROOP task, were used to explore the relationship between the variables. The results showed that girls showed greater parental rejection than boys, were less psychologically and emotionally adjusted than boys. The results also showed that boys were high on psychological abuse while girls were high on physical and sexual abuse. The results of STROOP showed that sexually abused children showed more reaction time than non-abused children. Keywords: abused, adjustment, Pakistani, stroop Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/52169

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The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles Abstract: Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development. Keywords: black students, social class, homophily, psychological adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31585

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152

Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being

Authors: Huan Zhang, Darius K. S Chan Abstract: Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace. Keywords: perceived supervisory emotional labor, surface acting, well-being Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/24950

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151

One Plus One is More than Two: Why Nurse Recruiters Need to Use Various Multivariate Techniques to Understand the Limitations of the Concept of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Austyn Snowden Abstract: Aim: To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Background: Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Design: Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to TEIQue-SF using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Method: First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Keywords: emotional intelligence, rasch analysis, factor analysis, nurse recruiters Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/28174

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Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work

Authors: Nidhi S. Bisht Abstract: The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences. Keywords: emotional exhaustion, India, microfinance institutions (MFIs), work-home interference Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/55443

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149

The Moderating Effect of Organizational Commitment in the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Work Outcomes

Authors: Ali Muhammad Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the moderating of effect of organizational commitment in the relationship between emotional intelligence and work outcomes. The study presents a new model to explain the mechanism through which emotional intelligence influences work outcomes. The model includes emotional intelligence as an independent variable, organizational commitment as a moderating variable, and work performance, job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to leave as dependent variables. A sample of 208 employees working in eight Kuwaiti business organizations (from industrial, banking, service, and financial sectors) were surveyed, and data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that emotional intelligence is positively associated with organizational commitment and that the positive effect of emotional intelligence on job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior is moderated by organizational commitment. The results of the current study are discussed and are compared to the results of previous studies in this area. Finally, the directions for future research are suggested. Keywords: emotional intelligence, organizational commitment, job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/63026

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Stress Perception, Social Supports and Family Function among Military Inpatients with Adjustment Disorders in Taiwan

Authors: Huey-Fang Sun, Wei-Kai Weng, Mei-Kuang Chao, Hui-Shan Hsu, Tsai-Yin Shih Abstract: Psycho-social stress is important for mental illness and the presence of emotional and behavioral symptoms to an identifiable event is the central feature of adjustment disorders. However, whether patients with adjustment disorders have been raised in family with poor family functions and social supports and have higher stress perception than their peer group when they both experienced a similar stressful environment remains unknown. The specific aims of the study are to investigate the correlation among the family function, social supports and the level of stress perception and to test the hypothesis that military patients with adjustment disorders would have lower family function, lower social supports and higher stress perception than their healthy colleagues recruited in the same cohort for military services given their common exposure to similar stressful environments. Methods: The study was conducted in four hospitals of northern part of Taiwan from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017 and a matched case-control study design was used. The inclusion criteria for potential patient participants were psychiatric inpatients that serviced in military during the study period and met the diagnosis of adjustment disorders. Patients who had been admitted to psychiatric ward before or had illiteracy problem were excluded. A healthy military control sample matched by the same military service unit, gender, and recruited cohort was invited to participate the study as well. Totally 74 participants (37 patients and 37 controls) completed the consent forms and filled out the research questionnaires. Questionnaires used in the study included Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) as a measure of stress perception; Family APGAR as a measure of family function, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) as a measure of social supports. Pearson correlation analysis and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. Results: The analysis results showed that PSS level significantly negatively correlated with three social support subscales (family subscale, r= -.37, P < .05; friend subscale, r= -.38, P < .05; significant other subscale, r= -.39, P < .05). A negative correlation between PSS level and Family APGAR only reached a borderline significant level (P= .06). The t-test results for PSS scores, Family APGAR levels, and three subscale scores of MSPSS between patient and control participants were all significantly different (P < .001, P < .05, P < .05, P < .05, P < .05, respectively) and the patient participants had higher stress perception scores, lower social supports and lower family function scores than the healthy control participants. Conclusions: Our study suggested that family function and social supports were negatively correlated with patients’ subjective stress perception. Military patients with adjustment disorders tended to have higher stress perception and lower family function and social supports than those military peers who remained healthy and still provided services in their military units. Keywords: adjustment disorders, family function, social support, stress perception Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/80217

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The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology

Authors: Elina Asriyan, Lusine Stepanyan Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration. Keywords: empathy, decentration, emotional decentration, egocentricity Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/19104

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Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation to the Stressors of Life among King Saud University Students

Authors: Abdullah Ahmed Alzahrani Abstract: The aim of current study is to identify more life stressors, and the dimensions of emotional intelligence prevalent from the point of view of male and female students at King Saud University. Also, it comes to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and the nature of life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. The Study tries to identify the differences in emotional intelligence and life stressors for students of King Saud University, which attributed to sex, age, grade point average, and the type of study scientific, literary The study sample consisted of 426 male and female students at King Saud University. The results shows that there are significant differences between emotional intelligence and life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. It turns out that there are differences in emotional intelligence between males and females in favor of females; While there are no differences in both the type of study and age. Finally, the study shows that there are differences of stressors in a lifetime for the age group between 19-25; While there are no differences in both type the type of study. Keywords: emotional intelligence, life stressors, gender, students Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/20851

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The Psychological Effect of Emotional Demands and Discrimination, and the Role of Job Resources among Asian Immigrant Microbusiness Owners

Authors: Il-Ho Kim, Samuel Noh, Kwame McKenzie, Cyu-Chul Choi Abstract: Many members of immigrant minorities choose to operate microbusinesses that involve emotionally taxing interactions with customers and discriminatory exposures in the workplace. This study investigated the psychological risks of emotional demands and discrimination as well as the buffering roles of two types of job resources (job autonomy and job security) among immigrant microbusiness owners (MBOs). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 550 Korean immigrant MBOs, aged 30 to 70, living in Toronto and its surrounding areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between March and November 2013. Results showed that emotional suppression and discrimination were positively associated with depressive symptoms. However, the direct effect of positive emotional demands was insignificant. For job resources, the beneficial effect of job security on depressive symptom was apparent, but the effect of job autonomy was trivial. Regarding the moderating effect, job security buffered the psychological harm of both emotional suppression and workplace discrimination. Although job autonomy buffered the link between discrimination and depressive symptoms, the buffering effect of job autonomy on the emotional suppression-depression link was insignificant. This study’s finding implies that emotional demands and workplace discrimination seem to be important factors in contributing to occupational psychological problems, but the psychological impact can differ according to the types of emotional demands and job resources among immigrant MBOs. Keywords: immigrant microbusiness owners, emotional demands, discrimination, job resources, depression Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/79255

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144

General Mood and Emotional Regulation as Predictors of Bullying Behaviors among Adolescent Males: Basis for a Proposed Bullying Intervention Program

Authors: Angelyn Del Mundo Abstract: Bullying cases are a proliferating issue that schools need to address. This calls for a challenge in providing effective measures to reduce bullying. The study aimed to determine which among the socio-emotional aspects of adolescent males could predict bullying. The respondents of the study were the grades 10 and 11 level and the selection of the respondents was based on the names listed by the teachers and guidance counselors through the Student Nomination Questionnaire. The Bullying Survey Questionnaire Checklist was answered by the respondents to be able to identify their most observed bullying behavior. On the other hand, the level of their mental ability was measured through the use of Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, while their socio-emotional aspects was is classified into 2 contexts: emotional intelligence and personality traits which were determined with the use of Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i:YV) and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory-Children (FFPI-C). Results indicated that majority of the respondents have average level of mental ability and socio-emotional aspects. However, many students have low to markedly low level interpersonal scale. Furthermore, general mood and emotional regulation were found as predictors of bullying behaviors. These findings became the basis for a proposed bullying intervention program. Keywords: bullying, emotional intelligence, mental ability, personality traits Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/46558

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The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara Abstract: The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health. Keywords: emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/11374

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Moving on or Deciding to Let Go: The Effects of Emotional and Decisional Forgiveness on Intentional Forgetting

Authors: Saima Noreen, Malcolm D. MacLeod Abstract: Different types of forgiveness (emotional and decisional) have been shown to have differential effects on incidental forgetting of information related to a prior transgression. The present study explored the extent to which emotional and decisional forgiveness also influenced intentional forgetting; that is, the extent to which forgetting occurs following an explicit instruction to forget. Using the List-Method Directed Forgetting (LMDF) paradigm, 236 participants were presented with a hypothetical transgression and then assigned to an emotional forgiveness, a decisional forgiveness, or a no-forgiveness manipulation. Participants were then presented with two-word lists each comprising transgressionrelevant and transgression-irrelevant words. Following the presentation of the first list, participants were told to either remember or forget the previously learned list of words. Participants in the emotional forgiveness condition were found to remember fewer relevant and more irrelevant transgression-related words, while the opposite was true for both decisional forgiveness and no-forgiveness conditions. Furthermore, when directed to forget words in List 1, participants in the decisional and no-forgiveness conditions were less able to forget relevant transgression-related words in comparison to participants in the emotional forgiveness condition. This study suggests that emotional forgiveness plays a pivotal role in the intentional forgetting of transgression-related information. The potential implications of these findings for coping with unpleasant incidents will be considered. Keywords: decisional forgiveness, directed forgetting, emotional forgiveness, executive control, forgiveness Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/77198

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141

Peculiarities of Comprehending the Subjective Well-Being by Student with High and Low Level of Emotional Intelligent

Authors: Veronika Pivkina, Alla Kim, Khon Nataliya Abstract: Actuality of the present study is defined first of all the role of subjective well-being problem in modern psychology and the comprehending of subjective well-being by current students. Purpose of this research is to educe peculiarities of comprehending of subjective well-being by students with various levels of emotional intelligent. Methods of research are adapted Russian-Language questionnaire of K. Riff 'The scales of psychological well-being'; emotional intelligent questionnaire of D. V. Lusin. The research involved 72 student from different universities and disciplines aged between 18 and 24. Analyzing the results of the studies, it can be concluded that the understanding of happiness in different groups of students with high and low levels of overall emotional intelligence is different, as well as differentiated by gender. Students with higher level of happiness possess more capacity and higher need to control their emotions, to cause and maintain the desired emotions and control something undesirable. Keywords: subjective well-being, emotional intelligent, psychology of comprehending, students Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/1396

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Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: from Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Eleni Katsouli, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis Abstract: The piano sonatas of Beethoven represent part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The aims of this research were to further explore this intangibility by placing emphasis on defining emotional normative ratings for the "Waldstein" (Op. 53) and "Tempest" (Op. 31) Sonatas of Beethoven. To this end, a musicological analysis was conducted on these particular sonatas and referential patterns in these works of Beethoven were defined. Appropriate interactive questionnaires were designed in order to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts. Based on these ratings, it is possible for emotional annotations for these same referential patterns to be created and integrated into the music score. Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/89504

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Important Factors for Successful Solution of Emotional Situations: Empirical Study on Young People

Authors: R. Lekaviciene, D. Antiniene Abstract: Attempts to split the construct of emotional intelligence (EI) into separate components – ability to understand own and others’ emotions and ability to control own and others’ emotions may be meaningful more theoretically than practically. In real life, a personality encounters various emotional situations that require exhibition of complex EI to solve them. Emotional situation solution tests enable measurement of such undivided EI. The object of the present study is to determine sociodemographic and other factors that are important for emotional situation solutions. The study involved 1,430 participants from various regions of Lithuania. The age of participants varied from 17 years to 27 years. Emotional social and interpersonal situation scale EI-DARL-V2 was used. Each situation had two mandatory answering formats: The first format contained assignments associated with hypothetical theoretical knowledge of how the situation should be solved, while the second format included the question of how the participant would personally resolve the given situation in reality. A questionnaire that contained various sociodemographic data of subjects was also presented. Factors, statistically significant for emotional situation solution, have been determined: gender, family structure, the subject’s relation with his or her mother, mother’s occupation, subjectively assessed financial situation of the family, level of education of the subjects and his or her parents, academic achievement, etc. The best solvers of emotional situations are women with high academic achievements. According to their chosen study profile/acquired profession, they are related to the fields in social sciences and humanities. The worst solvers of emotional situations are men raised in foster homes. They are/were bad students and mostly choose blue-collar professions. Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional situations, solution of situation, young people Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/72488

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The Effect of Relationship Marketing on Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction without Service Providers' Emotional Intelligence: The Case of the Insurance Industry in Ghana

Authors: Frank Frimpong Opuni, Michael Mba Allan, Kwame Adu-Gyamfi, Michael Sarkodie Baffoe Abstract: This paper assesses the effect of relationship marketing on service quality and customer satisfaction from the perspective of the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the insurance industry in Ghana. A descriptive quantitative research technique was employed. A random sample of 384 each of customers and service providers in 3 insurance firms in Accra were used as the source of data. According to findings, emotional intelligence makes a strong positive effect on relationship marketing at 5% significance level, r (283) = .817, p = .000. Though relationship marketing makes a strong positive effect on service quality (r = .767, p < .05) and customer satisfaction (r = .647, p < .05), this effect becomes insignificant (p > .05) when the effect of emotional intelligence on relationship marketing is controlled for. It is therefore recommended that insurance firms give priority to equipping their relationship employees with emotional intelligence to maximise service quality and customer satisfaction. Keywords: relationship marketing, service quality, customer satisfaction, emotional intelligence Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/52190

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News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks

Authors: Gemma Garcia Lopez Abstract: The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool. Keywords: emotional analysis of newspapers hooks, emotions on Facebook, newspaper hooks on Facebook, news publication on Facebook Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/90463

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[Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

Authors: Leslie Beale Abstract: Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients. Keywords: health promotion, emotional health, patients with chronic disease, patient-centered care Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/75505

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Relationship Between Family Factors and Tendency to Addiction

Authors: Farzaneh Golshekoh Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to addiction in high school female students in Ahwaz. The sample consisted of 250 students who were selected by cluster random sampling from among all high school female students in Ahvaz. Measuring tools were Iranian tendency towards addiction (IAPS), responsibility California Psychological Inventory (CPI), emotional family atmosphere (AFC) and religious beliefs. The simple correlation coefficient at =0/05 showed that there is a significant negative relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to abuse female students. The regression analysis showed that the variables of the emotional atmosphere of the family and religious beliefs as predictors of female students have a tendency to addiction. Keywords: emotional atmosphere, family responsibility, religious beliefs, tendency to addiction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/41504

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Preliminary Analysis of Inherited Knowledge from the Composer: The Paradigm of Beethoven's Sonatas as Cultural Heritage

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis Abstract: Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score. Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/93065

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Emotional Intelligence and General Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Career Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria

Authors: Moyosola Jude Akomolafe Abstract: Career commitment among employees is crucial to the success of any organization. However, career commitment has been reported to be very low among teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examined the contributions of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy to career commitment of among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted for the study. It made use of stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting two hundred and fifty (250) secondary schools teachers for the study. Three standardized instruments namely: The Big Five Inventory (BFI), Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Career Commitment Scale (CCS) were adopted for the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed through Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the predicting capacity of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy on career commitment of secondary school teachers. The results showed that the variables when taken as a whole significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers. The relative contribution of each variable revealed that emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. The researcher recommended that secondary school teachers should be exposed to emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training to enhance their career commitment. Keywords: career commitment, emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy, secondary school teachers Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/47310

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A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Non-Task Behavior

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim Abstract: This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. In addition, in existing studies, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to a positive outcome variable and a negative outcome variable, respectively. It was confirmed that for employees performing emotional labor, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to OCB and CWB, respectively. While positive emotion that employees come to experience during job performance process can easily trigger a positive non-task behavior such as OCB, negative emotion that employees experience through excessive workload or unfair treatment can easily induce a negative behavior like CWB. The two management behaviors of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting, can have either a positive or negative effect on non-task behavior of employees, depending on which one they would choose. Thus, the purpose of this review paper is to clarify the relationship between emotional labor and non-task behavior more specifically. Keywords: emotion labor, non-task behavior, OCB, CWB Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31083

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Emotional Intelligence and Sports Coaches

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Krogs Sozein Abstract: There has been a shift in the role of sports from being a form of entertainment and relaxation to becoming a huge business concern and high money spinning venture. This shift has placed a greater demand on sport coaches as regards expectations for high performance from investors as well as other stake holders. The responsibility of sports coaches in ensuring high performance of sports men and women has become increasingly more demanding from both spectators and sports organisers. Coaches are leaders who should possess soft skills such as emotional intelligence aside from employing skills and drills to ensure high performance of athletes. This study is, therefore, designed to determine the emotional intelligence of sports coaches in South Africa. An assessment of the emotional intelligence of sports coaches would enable the researchers to identify those who have low emotional intelligence and to design an intervention program that could improve their emotional intelligence. This study will adopt the pragmatic world view of research using the mixed methods research design of the quantitative and qualitative approach. The non-probability sampling technique will be used to select fifty sports coaches for the quantitative study while fifteen sports coaches will be purposively selected for the qualitative study. One research question which seeks to ascertain the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches will be raised to guide this study. In addition, two research hypotheses stating that there will be no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches on the basis of gender and type of sports will be formulated and statistically analysed at 0.05 level of significance. For the quantitative study, an emotional intelligence test will be used to measure the emotional intelligence of sport coaches. Focus group interviews and open ended questions will be used to obtain the qualitative data. Quantitative data obtained will be statistically analysed using the SPSS version 22.0 while the qualitative data will be analysed using atlas ti. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations will be made. Keywords: emotional intelligence, high performance, sports coaches, South Africa Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/25477

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Emotional Labour and Employee Performance Appraisal: The Missing Link in Some Hotels in South East Nigeria

Authors: Polycarp Igbojekwe Abstract: The main objective of this study was to determine if emotional labour has become a criterion in performance appraisal, job description, selection, and training schemes in the hotel industry in Nigeria. Our main assumption was that majority of hotel organizations have not built emotional labour into their human resources management schemes. Data were gathered by the use of structured questionnaires designed in Likert format, and interviews. The focus group was managers of the selected hotels. Analyses revealed that majority of the hotels have not built emotional labour into their human resources schemes particularly in the 1, 2, and 3-star hotels. It was observed that service employees of 1, 2, and 3-star hotels have not been adequately trained to perform emotional labour; a critical factor in quality service delivery. Managers of 1, 2, and 3-star hotels have not given serious thought to emotional labour as a critical factor in quality service delivery. The study revealed that suitability of an individual’s characteristics is not being considered as a criterion for selection and performance appraisal for service employees. The implication of this is that, person-job-fit is not seriously considered. It was observed that there has been a disconnect between required emotional competency, its recognition, evaluation, and training. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that selection, training, job description and performance appraisal instruments in use in hotels in Nigeria are inadequate. Human resource implications of the findings in this study are presented. It is recommended that hotel organizations should re-design and plan the emotional content and context of their human resources practices to reflect the emotional demands of front line jobs in the hotel industry and the crucial role emotional labour plays during service encounters. Keywords: emotional labour, employee selection, job description, performance appraisal, person-job-fit, employee compensation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/42123

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Investigating the Impact of Job-Related and Organisational Factors on Employee Engagement: An Emotionally Relevant Approach Based on Psychological Climate and Organisational Emotional Intelligence (OEI)

Authors: Nuno Da Camara, Victor Dulewicz, Malcolm Higgs Abstract: Factors on employee engagement: In particular, although theorists have described the critical role of emotional cognition of the workplace environment as antecedents to employee engagement, empirical research on the impact of emotional cognition on employee engagement is limited. However, previous researchers have typically provided evidence of the link between emotional cognition of the workplace environment and workplace attitudes such as job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This study therefore aims to investigate the impact of emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains of the work environment – as represented by measures of psychological climate and organizational emotional intelligence (OEI) - on employee engagement. The research is based on a quantitative cross-sectional survey of employees in a UK charity organization (n=174). The research instruments applied include the psychological climate scale, the organisational emotional intelligence questionnaire (OEIQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The data were analysed using hierarchical regression and partial least squares (PLS) analytical techniques. The results of the study show that both psychological climate and OEI, which represent emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains in the workplace are significant drivers of employee engagement. In particular, the study found that a sense of contribution and challenge at work are the strongest drivers of vigour, dedication and absorption and highlights the importance of emotionally relevant approaches in furthering our understanding of workplace engagement. Keywords: employee engagement, organisational emotional intelligence, psychological climate, workplace attitudes Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/23879

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Emotional Awareness and Working Memory as Predictive Factors for the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal among Adolescents

Authors: Yuri Kitahara Abstract: Background: Cognitive reappraisal refers to an emotion regulation strategy in which one changes the interpretation of emotion-eliciting events. Numerous studies show that cognitive reappraisal is associated with mental health and better social functioning. However the examination of the predictive factors of adaptive emotion regulation remains as an issue. The present study examined the factors contributing to the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal, with a focus on emotional awareness and working memory. Methods: Data was collected from 30 junior high school students, using a Japanese version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C), and N-back task. Results: A positive correlation between emotional awareness and cognitive reappraisal was observed in the high-working-memory group (r = .54, p < .05), whereas no significant relationship was found in the low-working-memory group. In addition, the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between emotional awareness and working memory capacity (F(1, 26) = 7.74, p < .05). Subsequent analysis of simple main effects confirmed that high working memory capacity significantly increases the use of cognitive reappraisal for high-emotional-awareness subjects, and significantly decreases the use of cognitive reappraisal for lowemotional-awareness subjects. Discussion: These results indicate that under the condition when one has an adequate ability for simultaneous processing of information, explicit understanding of emotion would contribute to adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. The findings are discussed along with neuroscientific claims. Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, emotional awareness, emotion regulation, working memory Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/76079

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The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: I. Ketut Yoga Adityawira, Putu Ayu Novia Viorica, Komang Rahayu Indrawati Abstract: In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasiexperimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05). Keywords: Balinese women, emotional support, quality of work life, working women Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/85368

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Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee Abstract: Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colours. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photomosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of four steps: Partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and colour adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Keywords: photomosaic, Euclidean distance, block matching, intensity adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/7022

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Subjective Well-Being, Emotional Regulation and Motivational Orientation of Competition Athletes

Authors: Cristina Costa-Lobo, Priscila Martins, Silvia Amado Cordeiro, Ana Campina Abstract: Behavior directed toward high levels of sports performance and excellence implies task-focused processes, processes of cognitive and emotional regulation. This research aims to understand if subjective well-being, emotional regulation, and motivational orientation influence the performance of competitive athletes. The sample of this study is a non-probabilistic convenience sample, consisting of 50 male athletes, aged 14 to 15 years, who belong to training teams integrated in the pedagogical department of a sports club in the North of Portugal. In terms of performance, the distinction between team A and team B is due to the championships in which the respective athletes participate. Team A participates in national championships where the levels of demand and challenge are more pronounced and the team B only participates in championships at the district level. Was verified the internal consistency of the subjective happiness scale, the emotional regulation scale, and the motivational orientation questionnaire. SPSS, version 22.0, was used in the data treatment. When comparing the dimensions of emotional regulation with performance, it can be seen that athletes with lower sports scores have higher levels of emotional control and emotional self-awareness. As far as situational responsiveness is concerned, only the emotional self-control dimension and the emotional self-awareness dimension show an influence on the income, although, contrary to what would be expected, they appear to be associated with lower incomes. When comparing the motivational orientation with the athletic performance, it is verified that the athletes with the highest performance present an ego-oriented motivation, evidencing the athletes with a lower performance athletic tendency towards the task orientation. Only the ego-oriented dimension seems to be associated with high sport performance. The motivational orientation for the ego and the dimensions emotional control and emotional self-awareness are presented in this study as having influence on sports performance. Following these studies that have shown concern with the characterization of the best athletes and the promotion of higher sports performances, this work contributes to the signaling of psychological variables associated with high sports income. Keywords: subjective well-being, emotional regulation, motivational orientation, sports performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/70634

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Analysis of Nonlinear Bertrand Duopoly Game with Heterogeneous Players

Authors: Jixiang Zhang Abstract: A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation. Keywords: Bertrand duopoly model, discrete dynamical system, heterogeneous expectations, nash equilibrium Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/16405

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123

Dynamic of Nonlinear Duopoly Game with Heterogeneous Players

Authors: Jixiang Zhang, Yanhua Wang Abstract: A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation. Keywords: Bertrand duopoly model, discrete dynamical system, heterogeneous expectations, nash equilibrium Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/37350

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Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes

Authors: Marlene Weber, Joseph Giacomin, Alessio Malizia, Lee Skrypchuk, Voula Gkatzidou Abstract: Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified. Keywords: affective computing, case study, emotion recognition, human computer interaction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/90955

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Using the Nerlovian Adjustment Model to Assess the Response of Farmers to Price and Other Related Factors: Evidence from Sierra Leone Rice Cultivation

Authors: Alhaji M. H. Conteh, Xiangbin Yan, Alfred V. Gborie Abstract: The goal of this study was to increase the awareness of the description and assessments of rice acreage response and to offer mechanisms for agricultural policy scrutiny. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique was utilized to determine the coefficients of acreage response models for the rice varieties. The magnitudes of the coefficients () of both the ROK lagged and NERICA lagged acreages were found positive and highly significant, which indicates that farmers’ adjustment rate was very low. Regarding lagged actual price for both the ROK and NERICE rice varieties, the short-run price elasticities were lower than long-run, which is suggesting a long-term adjustment of the acreage, is under the crop. However, the apparent recommendations for policy transformation are to open farm gate prices and to decrease government’s involvement in agricultural sector especially in the acquisition of agricultural inputs. Impending research have to be centred on how this might be better realized. Necessary conditions should be made available to the private sector by means of minimizing price volatility. In accordance with structural reforms, it is necessary to convey output prices to farmers with minimum distortion. There is a need to eradicate price subsidies and control, which generate distortion in the market in addition to huge financial costs. Keywords: acreage response, rate of adjustment, rice varieties, Sierra Leone Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/1930

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A Study on Measuring Emotional Labor and Burnout Levels of Shopping Mall Employess: The Case of the Province of Konya

Authors: Ilknur Çevik Tekin, Serdar Öge Abstract: As a result of globalization and changing consumer preferences, the number of shopping malls has increased significantly in recent years. Consumers prefer shopping malls to both do comfortable shopping in a short time and benefit from the social facilities there. Employees, who are obliged to behave to the consumers in the way the company wants them to do, often spend intensive emotional effort because companies buy the emotions the employees must display to customers in order to ensure customer satisfaction. The emotions the employees constantly try to contain may lead to the phenomenon of burn-out in time. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between the emotional labor and burn-out levels of shopping mall employees, who work in shopping malls and are supposed to reflect the corporate culture. Keywords: emotional labor, burnout, shopping mall employees Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/18703

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Role of Emotional Support and Work Motivation for Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: Komang Rahayu Indrawati, Ni Wayan Sinthia Widiastuti, Ratna Dewi Santosa Abstract: Today the career of Balinese working women has been highly developed where able to work with loyalty and high professionalism. Career for a woman is one conscious choice and a call of conscience, which provides financial support for her family. Career for women can develop their own potencies, intellectually, and socially, so women feel that their role is meaningful and beneficial for herself and others. Emotional support becomes important to understand certainly for women who have multirole like Balinese working women to meet the demands of their role and also enhancing their work motivation and the quality of work life. This research used quantitative research method with questionnaires dissemination to 120 respondents and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The purpose of this study was to see the role of emotional support for work motivation and quality of work life in working Balinese women. The results of this study showed that emotional support and work motivation give a significant role in the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Keywords: Balinese working women, emotional support, quality of work life, work motivation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/85381

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Characteristics of the Labor Intensity of Secondary School Teachers

Authors: Meruyert Burumbayeva, Aiman Mussina, Gulshat Yerdenova, Bakyt Ilyassova, Aiymtory Abildaeva, Gulnoza Aldabekova Abstract: In this paper, there were analyzed the intensity of teachers of secondary schools of Astana. The analysis is based on the account of the whole complex of factors of production, creating the preconditions for the emergence of adverse neuroemotional states (surge). All the factors of the labor process in the qualitative or quantitative terms were grouped into types of loads: intellectual, sensory, emotional, monotone, regime. The results showed that teachers' work activity is more intense in terms of sensory, intellectual, emotional work schedule loads and characterized class working conditions for tensions as '1st degree of harmful stressful work' and by a combined indicator refers to the category of high labor intensity. Keywords: intensity of teachers, neuro-emotional states, labor process, occupational stress Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/67366

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Modernization of the Economic Price Adjustment Software

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin Abstract: The US Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) measures hundreds of items in the US economy. Many social programs and government benefits index to the CPIs. In mid to late 1990, much research went into changes to the CPI by a Congressional Advisory Committee. One thing can be said from the research is that, aside from there are alternative estimators for the CPI; any fundamental change to the CPI will affect many government programs. The purpose of this project is to modernize an existing process. This paper will show the development of a small, visual, software product that documents the Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) for long-term contracts. The existing workbook does not provide the flexibility to calculate EPAs where the base-month and the option-month are different. Nor does the workbook provide automated error checking. The small, visual, software product provides the additional flexibility and error checking. This paper presents the feedback to project. Keywords: Consumer Price Index, Economic Price Adjustment, contracts, visualization tools, database, reports, forms, event procedures Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/9851

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Optimized Weight Selection of Control Data Based on Quotient Space of Multi-Geometric Features

Authors: Bo Wang Abstract: The geometric processing of multi-source remote sensing data using control data of different scale and different accuracy is an important research direction of multi-platform system for earth observation. In the existing block bundle adjustment methods, as the controlling information in the adjustment system, the approach using single observation scale and precision is unable to screen out the control information and to give reasonable and effective corresponding weights, which reduces the convergence and adjustment reliability of the results. Referring to the relevant theory and technology of quotient space, in this project, several subjects are researched. Multi-layer quotient space of multi-geometric features is constructed to describe and filter control data. Normalized granularity merging mechanism of multi-layer control information is studied and based on the normalized scale factor, the strategy to optimize the weight selection of control data which is less relevant to the adjustment system can be realized. At the same time, geometric positioning experiment is conducted using multi-source remote sensing data, aerial images, and multiclass control data to verify the theoretical research results. This research is expected to break through the cliché of the single scale and single accuracy control data in the adjustment process and expand the theory and technology of photogrammetry. Thus the problem to process multi-source remote sensing data will be solved both theoretically and practically. Keywords: multi-source image geometric process, high precision geometric positioning, quotient space of multi-geometric features, optimized weight selection Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/76115

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The Predictive Role of Attachment and Adjustment in the Decision-Making Process in Infertility

Authors: A. Luli, A. Santona Abstract: It is rare for individuals that are involved in a relationship to think about the possibility of having procreation problems in the near present or in the future. However, infertility is a condition that affects millions of people all around the world. Often, infertile individuals have to deal with experiences of psychological, relational and social problems. In these cases, they have to review their choices and take into consideration, if it is necessary, new ones. Different studies have examined the different decisions that infertile individuals have to go through dealing with infertility and its treatment, but none of them is focused on the decision-making style used by infertile individuals to solve their problem and on the factors that influences it. The aim of this paper is to define the style of decision-making used by infertile persons to give a solution to the ‘problem’ and the potential predictive role of the attachment and of the dyadic adjustment. The total sample is composed by 251 participants, divided in two groups: the experimental group composed by 114 participants, 62 males and 52 females, age between 25 and 59 years, and the control group composed by 137 participants, 65 males and 72 females, age between 22 and 49 years. The battery of instruments used is composed by: the General Decision Making Style (GDMS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire Revised (ECR-R), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The results from the analysis of the samples showed a prevalence of the rational decision-making style for both males and females. No significant statistical difference was found between the experimental and control group. Also the analyses showed a significant statistical relationship between the decision making styles and the adult attachment styles for both males and females. In this case, only for males, there was a significant statistical difference between the experimental and the control group. Another significant statistical relationship was founded between the decision making styles and the adjustment scales for both males and females. Also in this case, the difference between the two groups was founded to be significant only of males. These results contribute to enrich the literature on the subject of decision-making styles in infertile individuals, showing also the predictive role of the attachment styles and the adjustment, confirming in this was the few results in the literature. Keywords: adjustment, attachment, decision-making style, infertility Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/40618

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Investigation of Emotional Indicators of Schizophrenia Patients on Draw a Person Test in Pakistan

Authors: Shakir Iqbal, Muhammad Aqeel, Asghar Ali Shah, Aftab Hussain Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the emotional indicators of patients with schizophrenia on Draw a Person test in Pakistan. Draw a Person test was administered on a sample of 400 (Schizophrenia patients=200, Normal=200) age ranged from 20 to 50 years. The data was collected from two provinces of Pakistan (Punjab and Khyber Pakhtun Khwa). The sample was selected by the age levels. According to the Koppitz method of scoring a list of 40 Emotional indicators was selected that were derived from the literature review. It was found that 26 out of 40 emotional indicators (EIs) on Draw a Person test significantly differentiated between patients with schizophrenia and normal (healthy) population. Chi square analysis of the study indicated that 23 EIs were found significant at (p=.001) level, while three EIs were found significant at (P=.05) levels. It was also found that 9 exclusive and 4 frequent EIs on Human Figure Drawings may be significant diagnostic emotional indicators for schizophrenia. It was found that DAP test can be used as a diagnostic tool with the battery of psychological tests such as MCMI-III, MMPI, MSE, HTP for schizophrenia in Pakistan. Keywords: draw a person test, normal population, Schizophrenia patients, psychological sciences Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/5746

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Perceived Power and Conflict Management in Spousal Relationships

Authors: Dana Weimann-Saks, Inbal Peleg-Koriat Abstract: The perception of relative power within a couple relies on the resources (emotional-social, materialistic) each partner perceives to have. The present study examines a model in which the perceived power of the couple predicts the spouses’ conflict management. In addition, we examined whether this relationship is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. It was found that the perception of social-emotional power predicts cooperative conflict management styles of the couple. It was also found that this correlation is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. Contrary to the hypothesis, perception of social-emotional power did not predict the use of non-cooperative conflict management styles. Keywords: spouses’ conflict management, conflict management, perceived quality of the relationship, social-emotional power Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/54576

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The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence Levels and Attitudes towards Teamwork among Future Health Professionals

Authors: Merve Tarhan, Pinar Dogan Abstract: It is thought that emotional intelligence is important in ensuring harmony within the team, and it may be possible for future health professionals to guide the instructors in acquiring team work skills. At the point of this view, the study was conducted to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence levels and attitudes toward teamwork among future health professionals. The descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 1214 students studying at a foundation university in Istanbul. A questionnaire form consisted of Personal Information Form, Emotional Intelligence Assessment Scale (EIAS) and Teamwork Attitude Scale (TAS) was used as data collection tool. Descriptive tests, Mann WhitneyU test, Kruskall Wallis analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. More than half of students were studying at Health Sciences Faculty (50,2%). The mean rank received from EIAS of students who have studied at Health Services Vocational School were significant higher (p< 0,001). The mean rank received from TAS of students who have studied at Medical Faculty were significant higher (p< 0,05). A moderate positive correlation was found between EIAS and TAS (r=0,57, p< 0,001). The results of the study show that the emotional intelligence levels and attitudes towards teamwork of the students were moderately high and there was a positive relationship between the two. It is suggested that use of teaching methods such as simulation, which provides students with understanding of all differences and improves emotional intelligence levels and to perform descriptive and experimental studies which show the effects of the methods used on students' emotional intelligence levels and attitudes towards team work. Keywords: emotional intelligence, health professionals, teamwork, university students Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/85698

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The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran Abstract: Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app. Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/43918

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Investigating the relationship between Emotional Intelligence of principals in high schools(secondary school principals) and Teachers Conflict Management: A Case Study on secondary schools, Tehran, Iran

Authors: Amir Ahmadi, Hossein Ahmadi, Alireza Ahmadi Abstract: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to empathize, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others in a way that earns friends and success. These abilities allow an individual to recognize and regulate emotion, develop self-control, set goals, develop empathy, resolve conflicts, and develop skills needed for leadership and effective group participation. Due to the increasing complexity of organizations and different ways of thinking, attitudes and beliefs of individuals, conflict as an important part of organizational life has been examined frequently. The main point is that the conflict is not necessarily in organization, unnecessary; but it can be more creative (increase creativity), to promote innovation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between principals emotional intelligence as one of the factors affecting conflict management among teachers. This relation was analyzed through cluster sampling with a sample size consisting of 120 individuals. The results of the study showed that at the 95% level of confidence, the two secondary hypotheses (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals and use of competition and cooperation strategies of conflict management among teachers) were confirmed, but the other three secondary hypotheses (i.e. the relation between emotional intelligence of managers and use of avoidance, adaptation and adaptability strategies of conflict management among teachers) were rejected. The primary hypothesis (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals with conflict management among teachers) is supported. Keywords: emotional intelligence, conflict, conflict management, strategies of conflict management Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/40729

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The Effects of Online Video Gaming on Creativity

Authors: Chloe Shu-Hua Yeh Abstract: Effects of videogame play on players cognitive abilities is a growing research field in the recent decades, however, little is known about how ‘out-of-school’ use of videogame influences creativity. This interdisciplinary research explores the cognitive and emotional effects of two different types of online videogames (an action videogame and a non-action videogame) on subsequent creativity performances using a within-participant design study with 36 participants. Results showed that after playing the action game participants performed higher originality, elaboration and flexibility than after playing the causal game. The results explored effects of emotional states elicited during playing the games suggesting that arousal may be a significant emotional factor which influence subsequent creativity performance. The cognitive and emotional effects of videogame were discussed followed with implications for emotion-creativity-videogame play research, game designers, educational practitioners and parents. Keywords: attentional breadth, creativity, emotion, videogame play Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/17950

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108

An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Daehyoung Kim, Pervez Khan, Hoon Kim Abstract: Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity. To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect, but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW) adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC. Keywords: spectrum sharing, adaptive opportunistic transmission, unlicensed bands, heterogeneous networks Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/51830

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107

Impact of Emotional Intelligence of Principals in High Schools on Teachers Conflict Management: A Case Study on Secondary Schools, Tehran, Iran

Authors: Amir Ahmadi, Hossein Ahmadi, Alireza Ahmadi Abstract: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to empathize, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others in a way that earns friends and success. These abilities allow an individual to recognize and regulate emotion, develop self-control, set goals, develop empathy, resolve conflicts, and develop skills needed for leadership and effective group participation. Due to the increasing complexity of organizations and different ways of thinking, attitudes and beliefs of individuals, Conflict as an important part of organizational life has been examined frequently. The main point is that the conflict is not necessarily in organization, unnecessary; But it can be more creative (increase creativity), to promote innovation, or may avoid wasting energy and resources of the organization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between principals emotional intelligence as one of the factors affecting conflict management among teachers. This relation was analyzed through cluster sampling with a sample size consisting of 120 individuals. The results of the study showed that, at the 95% level of confidence, the two secondary hypotheses (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals and use of competition and cooperation strategies of conflict management among teachers)were confirmed, but the other three secondary hypotheses (i.e. the relation between emotional intelligence of managers and use of avoidance, adaptation and adaptability strategies of conflict management among teachers) were rejected. The primary hypothesis (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals with conflict management among teachers) is supported. Keywords: emotional intelligence, conflict, conflict management, strategies of conflict management Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/44190

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Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances and Perceived Coping Strategies of Earthquake Survived Children

Authors: Mahwish Rabia, Najma Najam Abstract: The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among earthquake survived children and the perceived coping strategies of affected children. In the present study, a sample of 50 children (6-16 years) belonging to badly affected areas (earthquake) was selected from different camps in Islamabad. Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns, and Child Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC) was used to assess the perceived coping strategies of affected children. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by children like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression and attention seeking behavior. Whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that female children showed more internalizing behavioral patterns (withdrawn, somatic complaints) as compared to male children who exhibited more externalizing emotions (aggression, delinquent behavior).Coping strategies in which male children tried to adopt Positive Cognitive Restructuring and for distracting attention they used distraction strategies of coping. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the earthquake affected children. Male children adopt coping strategies more as compared to female children. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying the problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these children. Keywords: behavioural disturbances, emotional disturbances, coping strategies, earthquake, children Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/33082

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105

The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit

Authors: Yllka Hysaj, Ylberina Hysaj Arifi Abstract: Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security. Keywords: migration, self-initiated expatriates, Brexit, job security Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/92279

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104

The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit

Authors: Yllka Hysaj, Ylberina Hysaj Arifi Abstract: Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security. Keywords: migration, self-initiated expatriates, Brexit, job security Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/93905

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Socio-Emotional Skills of Children with Learning Disability, Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement

Authors: P. Maheshwari, M. Brindavan Abstract: The present research aimed to study the level of socio-emotional skills and perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability. The study further investigated the relationship between the levels of socio-emotional skills, perceived selfefficacy and academic achievement of children with learning disability. The sample comprised of 40 children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai. Purposive or Judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability. A self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale and Child’s Social and Emotional Skills Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy and their level of social and emotional skill respectively. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into a percentage. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. Spearman rho or Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the multiple relationships between child’s perceived self-efficacy, child’s social and emotional skills and child’s academic achievement. The findings revealed majority (27) of the children with learning disability perceived themselves having above average level of social and emotional skills while 13 out of 40 perceived their level of social and emotional skills at an average level. Domain wise analyses revealed that, in the domain of self- management (26) and relationship skills (22) more number of the children perceived themselves as having average or below average level of social and emotional skills indicating that they perceived themselves as having average or below average skills in regulating their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations, establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse groups and individuals. With regard to perceived selfefficacy, the majority of the children with learning disability perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Looking at the data domain wise it was found that, in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional selfefficacy, 50% of the children perceived themselves at average or below average level, indicating that they perceived themselves as average on competencies like organizing academic activities, structuring environment to make it conducive for learning, expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner. Further, the correlations were computed, and significant positive correlations were found between children’s social and emotional skills and academic achievement (r=.378, p < .01), and between children’s social and emotional skills and child’s perceived self-efficacy (r = .724, p < .01) and a positive significant correlation was also found between children’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Results of the study emphasize on planning intervention for children with learning disability focusing on improving self-management and relationship skills, self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy. Keywords: learning disability, social and emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy, academic achievement Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/74548

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102

Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among preschool children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children. Keywords: social emotional, children, play activities, stimulating Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31150

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Resilience among Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study in Pakistan

Authors: Bushra Akram, Amina Tariq Abstract: Objective: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to compare the level of resilience among children with and without hearing loss. Methodology: In this descriptive cross sectional study total 500 children (with hearing loss = 250 and without hearing loss = 250) were recruited conveniently. Children with hearing loss were recruited from the special schools whereas children without hearing loss were selected from regular schools located in cities of Gujrat and Jhelum of Pakistan. Respondents’ age ranged from 9-14 years. Resiliency scale named RSCA (Resiliency Scales for children and adolescents) developed by Sandra Prince Embury (2006) was used. RSCA consist of three core theoretical areas: MAS (Sense of Mastery Scale), REL (Sense of Relatedness Scale) and REA (Emotional Reactivity Scale). Results: Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in the resilience level of participants with and without hearing loss. The mean comparison showed that the children with hearing loss showed lower scores on MAS (X = 43.32, SD = 7.55) as well as on REL (X = 49.96, SD = 7.65) as compared to their counterparts on MAS (X = 53.96, SD = 9.90, t= -7.31***) and on REL (X = 68.43, SD = 14.57,t= -10.18***). However children with hearing loss showed higher scores on REA (X = 42.12, SD = 5.84) as compared to hearing participants (X = 28.84, SD = 13.97, t = -8.20***). The findings revealed no significance difference in the resilience level of hearing and deaf children on the basis of their gender and age. Research Outcomes and Future Scope: Children with hearing loss showed a lower level of resilience, therefore, needs a program to develop resilience for better social-emotional adjustment and enhancement of their psychological well-being. In the end, the researcher gave recommendations for future research. Keywords: children with hearing loss, psychological Wellbeing, resiliency scales for children and adolescents, resilience Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/94985

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100

Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Decision-Making Styles: A Study of Iranian Managers at Different Organizational Levels

Authors: Seyyedeh Mahdis Mousavi, Masoud Maghsoudi, Zahra Vahed Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence as conceptualized in Goleman’s competency model, and decision making styles in levels of management. To conduct this study, different level managers in Iran Broadcasting Organization completed a questionnaire on emotional intelligence and decision making styles. Researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics to describe data and analyze the two variables relationship in managers of three levels. Results revealed significant relationships for rational, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous styles. No significant relationship was found for intuitive style. Yet the results indicate that avoidant style has negative relation to EI. Furthermore, EI has direct and strong relation to rational style. Keywords: emotional intelligence (EI), decision making styles, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), Iranian manager Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/32034

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99

Effective Work Roll Cooling toward Stand Reduction in Hot Strip Process

Authors: Temsiri Sapsaman, Anocha Bhocarattanahkul Abstract: The maintenance of work rolls in hot strip processing has been lengthy and difficult tasks for hot strip manufacturer because heavy work rolls have to be taken out of the production line, which could take hours. One way to increase the time between maintenance is to improve the effectiveness of the work roll cooling system such that the wear and tear more slowly occurs, while the operation cost is kept low. Therefore, this study aims to improve the work roll cooling system by providing the manufacturer the relationship between the work-roll temperature reduced by cooling and the water flow that can help manufacturer determining the more effective water flow of the cooling system. The relationship is found using simulation with a systematic process adjustment so that the satisfying quality of product is achieved. Results suggest that the manufacturer could reduce the water flow by 9% with roughly the same performance. With the same process adjustment, the feasibility of finishing-mill-stand reduction is also investigated. Results suggest its possibility. Keywords: work-roll cooling system, hot strip process adjustment, feasibility study, stand reduction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/10836

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98

Drought Stress and the Importance of Osmotic Adjustment

Authors: Hooman Rowshanaie Abstract: The majority of green plants have 70%-90% water, this amount depend on age of plants, species, tissues of plants and also the environmental conditions that plants growth and development on it. Because of intense plant demanding to achieve the available water for growing and developing, always plants need a water sources and also mechanisms to retention the water and reduction water loss under critical situation and water deficit conditions otherwise the yield of plants would be decreased. Decreasing the yield depend on genotypes, intense of water deficit and also growth stage. Recently the mechanisms and also compound that have major role to water stress adaption of plants would be consideration. Osmotic adjustment is one of the most important mechanisms in terms of this field that many valuable researches focused on it because the majority of organic and inorganic solutes directly or even indirectly have pivotal role in this phenomenon. The contribution of OA to prevent water loss in response to water deficit and resistance to water stress taken to consideration recently and also the organic and inorganic compounds to OA tended has a high rate of significant. Keywords: water deficit, drought stress, osmotic adjustment, organic compound, inorganic compound, solute Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/4408

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97

Attachment and Decision-Making in Infertility

Authors: Anisa Luli, Alessandra Santona Abstract: Wanting a child and experiencing the impossibility to conceive is a painful condition that often is linked to infertility and often leads infertile individuals to experience psychological, relational and social problems. In this situation, infertile couples have to review their choices and take into consideration new ones. Few studies have focused on the decision-making style used by infertile individuals to solve their problem and on the factors that influences it. The aim of this paper is to define the style of decision-making used by infertile persons to give a solution to the “problem” and the predictive role of the attachment, of the representations of the relationship with parents in childhood and of the dyadic adjustment. The total sample is composed by 251 participants, divided in two groups: the experimental group composed by 114 participants, 62 males and 52 females, age between 25 and 59 years, and the control group composed by 137 participants, 65 males and 72 females, age between 22 and 49 years. The battery of instruments comprises: General Decision Making Style (GDMS), Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire Revised (ECR-R), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The results from the analysis of the samples showed a prevalence of the rational decision-making style for both males and females, experimental and control group. There have been founded significant statistical relationships between the attachment scales, the representations of the parenting style, the dyadic adjustment and the decision-making styles. These results contribute to enrich the literature on the subject of decision-making in infertile people and show the relationship between the attachment and decision-making styles, confirming the few results in literature. Keywords: attachment, decision-making style, infertility, dyadic adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/34673

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An Analysis of Socio-Demographics, Living Conditions, and Physical and Emotional Child Abuse Patterns in the Context of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

Authors: Sony Subedi, Colleen Davison, Susan Bartels Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to i) investigate the socio-demographics and living conditions of households in Haiti pre- and post 2010 earthquake, ii) determine the household prevalence of emotional and physical abuse in children (aged 2-14) after the earthquake, and iii) explore the association between earthquake-related loss and experience of emotional and physical child abuse in the household while considering potential confounding variables and the interactive effects of a number of social, economic, and demographic factors. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Haitian households from the 2005/6 and 2012 phases of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was used. Descriptive analysis was summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendency. Chi-squared and independent t-tests were used to compare data that was available pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. The association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse was assessed using log-binomial regression models. Results: Comparing pre-post-earthquake, noteworthy improvements were observed in the educational attainment of the household head (9.1% decrease in “no education” category) and in possession of the following household items: electricity, television, mobile-phone, and radio post-earthquake. Approximately 77.0% of children aged 2-14 experienced at least one form of physical abuse and 78.5% of children experienced at least one form of emotional abuse one month prior to the 2012 survey period. Analysis regarding the third objective (association between experiences of earthquakerelated loss and emotional and physical child abuse) is in progress. Conclusions: The extremely high prevalence of emotional and physical child abuse in Haiti indicates an immediate need for improvements in the enforcement of existing policies and interventions aimed at decreasing child abuse in the household. Keywords: Haiti earthquake, physical abuse, emotional abuse, natural disasters, children Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/92462

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Six Failure Points Innovators and Entrepreneurs Risk Falling into: An Exploratory Study of Underlying Emotions and Behaviors of Self- Perceived Failure

Authors: Katarzyna Niewiadomska Abstract: Many technology startups fail to achieve a worthwhile return on investment for their funders, founders, and employees. Failures in product development, to-market strategy, sales, and delivery are commonly recognized. Founder failures are not as obvious and harder to identify. This paper explores six critical failure points that entrepreneurs and innovators are susceptible to and aims to link their emotional intelligence and behavioral profile to the points at which they experienced self-perceived failure. A model of six failure points from the perspective of the technology entrepreneur ranging from pre-startup to maturity is provided. By analyzing emotional and behavioral profile data from entrepreneurs and recording in-person accounts, certain key emotional and behavioral clusters contributing to each failure point are determined, and several underlying factors are defined and discussed. Recommendations that support entrepreneurs and innovators stalling at each failure point are given. This work can enable stakeholders to evaluate founder emotional and behavioral profiles and to take risk-mitigating action, either through coaching or through more robust team creation, to avoid founder-related company failure. The paper will be of interest to investors funding startups, executives leading them and mentors supporting them. Keywords: behavior, emotional intelligence, entrepreneur, failure Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/80255

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94

Emotional Intelligence: A Panacea in the Management and Marketing of Hospitality and Tourism Good and Services

Authors: M. Azugama, P. Okoro Ugo Chigozie, A. O. Nnamocha Abstract: Emotional Intelligence constitutes powerful psychological forces that can strongly influence performance in behaviour, interaction and relationship management. Surprisingly how emotions are interpreted and employed in marketing of hospitality experience have had limited comprehension. Marketing of hospitality experiences have important emotional dimensions which the traditional marketing techniques tend to underplay. Guest and host relationship are challenged by mutual hospitableness obligations; suggesting that the commercial practice of delivering satisfactory guest experience has much to gain from traditional understanding of hospitality. By understanding the emotion-based hospitality transaction between guests and hosts, customers’ experiences can be delivered over and against competitor pressure. In this paper, marketing strategies and tactics in hospitality and tourism are principally concerned with adjusting each of the 6P & T elements (i.e. product, place, price and promotion; and adding people, processes and Time in service contexts), to provide a competitive offer (experience) to customers. Keywords: Emotional intelligence, hospitality and tourism, relationship management, marketing Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/21084

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93

Inspiring Woman: The Emotional Intelligence Leadership of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid

Authors: Eman S. Soliman, Sana Hawamdeh, Najmus S. Mahfooz Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine various components of applied emotional intelligence as demonstrated in the leadership style of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid in pre and post-Islamic society. Methodology: The research used a qualitative research method, specifically historical and ethnographic techniques. Data collection included both primary and secondary sources. Data from sources were analyzed to document the use of emotional intelligent leadership behaviors throughout Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid leadership experience from 596 A.D. to 621 A.D. Findings: Demonstration of four cornerstones of emotional intelligence which are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. Apply them on khadejah Bint Khuwaylid leadership style reveal that she possess main behavioral competences in the form of emotionally self-aware, self-.confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence. Conclusions: Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid serves as a historical model of effective leadership that included the use of emotional intelligence in her leadership behavior. The inclusion of the effective portion of the brain created a successful leadership style that can be learned by present day and future leadership. The recommendations for future leaders are to include the use of emotionally self-aware and self-confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence as components of leadership. This will then demonstrate in a leadership a basic knowledge and understanding of feelings, the keenness to be emotionally open with others, the ability to prototype beliefs and values, and the use of emotions in future communications, vision and progress. Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid, women Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/43566

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Occupational Challenges and Adjustment Strategies of Internally Displaced Persons in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: David Obafemi Adebayo Abstract: An occupational challenge has been identified as one of the factors that could cripple set goals and life ambitions of an Internally Displaced Person (IDP). The main thrust of this study is therefore, explore the use of life support/adjustment strategy with a view to repositioning these internally displaced persons in Nigeria in revamping their goals and achieving their life-long ambitions. The study intends to investigate whether there exist, on the basis of gender, religion, years of working experience and educational qualification any significant difference in the occupational challenges and adjustment strategies of IDPs. The study being descriptive of survey type adopted a multi-stage sampling technique to select the minimum of 400 internally displaced persons from IDP camps in Yimitu Village, Waru District in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The research instrument used for the study was a researcher-designed questionnaire entitled “Questionnaire on Occupational Challenges and Adjustment Strategy of Internally Displaced Persons (QOCASIDPs)”. Eight null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. Frequency counts and percentages, means and rank order, t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (where applicable) were employed to analyze the data. The Study determined whether occupational challenges of internally displaced persons included loss of employment, vocational discrimination, marginalization by employers of labour, isolation due to joblessness, lack of occupational freedom, which were found to be true. The results were discussed in line with the findings. The study established the place of notable adjustment strategies adopted by internally displaced person like engaging in petty trading, sourcing soft loans from NGOs, setting up small-scale businesses in groups, acquiring new skills, engaging in further education, among others. The study established that there was no significant difference in the occupational challenges of IDPs on the basis of years of working experience and highest educational qualifications, though there was significant difference on the basis of gender as well as religion. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made. Keywords: internally displaced persons, occupational challenges, adjustment strategies, Abuja-Nigeria Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/38271

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91

Gratitude, Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction in Dating College Students: A Parallel Multiple Mediator Model

Authors: Qinglu Wu, Anna Wai-Man Choi, Peilian Chi Abstract: Gratitude is one individual strength that not only facilitates the mental health, but also fosters the relationship satisfaction in the romantic relationship. In terms of moral effect theory and stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, present study not only investigated the association between grateful disposition and relationship satisfaction, but also explored the mechanism by comprehensively examining the potential mediating roles of three profiles of forgiveness (trait forgivingness, decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness), another character strength that highly related to the gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct the multiple mediator model with a sample of 103 Chinese college students in dating relationship (39 male students and 64 female students, Mage = 19.41, SD = 1.34). Findings displayed that both gratitude and relationship satisfaction positively correlated with decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Emotional forgiveness was the only mediator, and it completely mediated the relationship between gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Gratitude was helpful in enhancing individuals’ perception of satisfaction in romantic relationship through replacing negative emotions toward partners with positive ones after transgression in daily life. It highlighted the function of emotional forgiveness in personal healing and peaceful state, which is important to the perception of satisfaction in relationship. Findings not only suggested gratitude could provide a stability for forgiveness, but also the mechanism of prosocial responses or positive psychological processes on relationship satisfaction. The significant roles of gratitude and emotional forgiveness could be emphasized in the intervention working on the romantic relationship development or reconciliation. Keywords: decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness, gratitude, relationship satisfaction, trait forgivingness Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/75384

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The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being among Tour Guides

Authors: Jennifer Chen-Hua Min Abstract: The concept of self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs in their ability to perform certain behaviors and cope with environmental demands. As such, self-efficacy plays a key role in linking ability to performance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), and well-being among tour guides, who act as intermediaries between tourists and an unfamiliar environment and significantly influence tourists’ impressions of a destination. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to identify the relationships between these factors. The results found that self-efficacy is positively associated with EI and well-being, and a positive link was seen between EI and well-being. This study has practical implications, as the results can facilitate the development of interventions for enhancing tour guides’ EI and self-efficacy competencies, which will benefit them in terms of both enhanced achievements and improved psychological happiness and well-being. Keywords: self-efficacy, tour guides, tourism, emotional intelligence (EI) Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/63002

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The Emotional Implication of the Phraseological Fund Applied in Cognitive Business Negotiation

Authors: Kristine Dzagnidze Abstract: The paper equally centers on both the structural and cognitive linguistics in light of phraseologism and its emotional implication. Accordingly, the methods elaborated within the framework of both the systematic-structural and linguocognitive theories are identically relevant to the research of mine. In other words, through studying the negotiation process, our attention is drawn upon defining negotiations’ peculiarities, emotion, style and specifics of cognition, motives, aims, contextual characterizations and the quality of cultural context and integration. Besides, the totality of the concepts and methods is also referred to, which is connected with the stage of the development of the emotional linguistic thinking. The latter contextually correlates with the dominance of anthropocentric–communicative paradigm. The synthesis of structuralistic and cognitive perspectives has turned out to be relevant to our research, carried out in the form of intellectual action, that is, on the one hand, the adequacy of the research purpose to the expected results. On the other hand, the validity of methodology for formulating the objective conclusions needed for emotional connotation beyond phraseologism. The mechanism mentioned does not make a claim about a discovery of a new truth. Though, it gives the possibility of a novel interpretation of the content in existence. Keywords: cognitivism, communication, implication, negotiation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/56615

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Applying Biculturalism in Studying Tourism Host Community Cultural Integrity and Individual Member Stress

Authors: Shawn P. Daly Abstract: Communities heavily engaged in the tourism industry discover their values intersect, meld, and conflict with those of visitors. Maintaining cultural integrity in the face of powerful external pressures causes stress among society members. This effect represents a less studied aspect of sustainable tourism. The present paper brings a perspective unique to the tourism literature: biculturalism. The grounded theories, coherent hypotheses, and validated constructs and indicators of biculturalism represent a sound base from which to consider sociocultural issues in sustainable tourism. Five models describe the psychological state of individuals operating at cultural crossroads: assimilation (joining the new culture), acculturation (grasping the new culture but remaining of the original culture), alternation (varying behavior to cultural context), multicultural (maintaining distinct cultures), and fusion (blending cultures). These five processes divide into two units of analysis (individual and society), permitting research questions at levels important for considering sociocultural sustainability. Acculturation modelling has morphed into dual processes of acculturation (new culture adaptation) and enculturation (original culture adaptation). This dichotomy divides sustainability research questions into human impacts from assimilation (acquiring new culture, throwing away original), separation (rejecting new culture, keeping original), integration (acquiring new culture, keeping original), and marginalization (rejecting new culture, throwing away original). Biculturalism is often cast in terms of its emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Required cultural adjustments and varying levels of cultural competence lead to physical, psychological, and emotional outcomes, including depression, lowered life satisfaction and self-esteem, headaches, and back pain—or enhanced career success, social skills, and life styles. Numerous studies provide empirical scales and research hypotheses for sustainability research into tourism’s causality and effect on local well-being. One key issue in applying biculturalism to sustainability scholarship concerns identification and specification of the alternative new culture contacting local culture. Evidence exists for tourism industry, universal tourist, and location/event-specific tourist culture. The biculturalism paradigm holds promise for researchers examining evolving cultural identity and integrity in response to mass tourism. In particular, confirmed constructs and scales simplify operationalization of tourism sustainability studies in terms of human impact and adjustment. Keywords: biculturalism, cultural integrity, psychological and sociocultural adjustment, tourist culture Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/24539

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Personal Factors and Career Adaptability in a Call Centre Work Environment: The Mediating Effects of Professional Efficacy

Authors: Nisha Harry Abstract: The study discussed in this article sought to assess whether a sense of professional efficacy mediates the relationship between personal factors and career adaptability. A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed. A non– probability sample of (N=409) of which predominantly early career and permanently employed black females in call centers in Africa participated in this study. In order to assess personal factors, the participants completed sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence measures. Measures of professional efficacy and career adaptability were also completed. The results of the mediational analyses revealed that professional efficacy significantly mediates the meaningfulness (sense of coherence) and career adaptability relationship, but not the emotional intelligence–career adaptability relationship. Call centre agents with professional efficacy are likely to be more work engaged as a result of their sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence. Keywords: call centre, professional efficacy, career adaptability, emotional intelligence Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/62810

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Emotional Intelligence and Age in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Naila Naseer Abstract: Emotional Intelligence (EI) concept is not new yet unique and interesting. EI is a person’s ability to be aware of his/her own emotions and to manage, handle and communicate emotions with others effectively. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and age of graduate level students at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Population consisted of Allama Iqbal Open University students (B.Ed 3rd Semester, Autumn 2007) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions. Total number of sample consisted of 469 participants was randomly drawn out by using table of random numbers. Bar-On EQ-i was administered on the participants through personal contact. The instrument was also validated through pilot study on a random sample of 50 participants (B.Ed students Spring 2006), who had completed their B.Ed degree successfully. Data was analyzed and tabulated in percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and scatter gram in SPSS (version 16.0 for windows). The results revealed that students with higher age group had scored low on the scale (Bar-On EQ-i). Moreover, the students in low age groups exhibited higher levels of EI as compared with old age students. Keywords: emotional intelligence, age level, learning, emotion-related feelings Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/22452

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An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Elyas Akbari, Jafar Hasani, Newsha Dehestani, Mohammad Khaleghi, Alireza Moradi Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neurons systems (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of MNS was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person’s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated. Keywords: emotional experiences, mirror neurons, depressive symptoms, negative and positive emotion Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/65035

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Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Profiles among Students’ Representative Council of Malaysian Public Universities

Authors: R. A. Harun, N. M. Ishak, N. Yusoff, S. Amat Abstract: This quantitative research is aimed to identify the level of leadership quality and emotional intelligence for members of Students' Representatives Council (SRC) of Malaysian Public Universities (MPU). The variables include the leadership quality and emotional quotient (EQ). 238 SRC members in MPU were selected as subjects of the study. Data were collected using two instruments i.e. Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (MEQI) and Ayu-Noriah Leadership Audit Trail Inventory (Ayu-Noriah, LATI). Data were analyzed using descriptive (mean and percentage). Research findings showed that the subjects scored highly in four out of five EQ domains (Self-Regulations, SelfMotivation, Empathy and Social Skills). However, the subjects scored medium to low in Self-Awareness. Analysis on the sub domains (a total of 28 sub domains) showed that the subjects scored high in 17 sub domains for EQ, whilst another 11 were at medium level. The overall analysis indicates that the subjects have high level of EQ. Findings on their leadership qualities showed that they obtained high scores in all seven factors that were measured i.e. Strategy and Leadership Model, Recruit, Review Performance and Honor, Deploy Strategically, Developing, Engage and Retain and Built HR Capabilities/Line Ownership. The overall score for leadership qualities was found to be high. Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, students representative council, Malaysian public universities Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/72213

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An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Gehan Azam Abstract: The current study presents an electronic test to measure teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared to evaluate university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem solving; moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1,100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children. Keywords: electronic test, performance, early childhood, skills, teacher student Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/75221

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A Study of Customer Aggression towards Frontline Employees in Some Hotels in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Polycarp A. Igbojekwe, Chizoba Amajuoyi, Peterson Nwokorie Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of customer’s aggression towards hotel workers and make contributions on the prevalence and rationale behind customer’s aggression. Data for the study were gathered with a fourpoint Likert type rating scale. Samples were drawn from frontline hotel employees, managers and customers of twelve (12) hotels selected from three zones of Imo State. Data analyses were conducted using simple percentage, descriptive statistics; and Z-test statistical technique was used to test hypotheses. Among other factors, service failure and verbal abuse by service providers and poor quality product compared to price were identified by customers as the three major factors that can lead to customer aggression. Frontline employees indentified verbal abuse as the most common mode of aggression and that customer aggression causes emotional disturbance in them. The study also revealed that customer aggression is more prevalent in the 1&2 star hotels than it is in 3-5 star hotels. Most of the hotels have not institutionalized systematic approaches needed to effectively face the challenges of customer aggression, thus, customer aggression has become a common feature in the industry. Frontline jobs demand high emotional input. Therefore, we recommend that frontline employees should be given emotional support by their managers and also trained on how to cope with emotional disturbance. Keywords: customer aggression, emotional disturbance, employee well-being, service failure, verbal abuse Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/42455

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Challenges in Employment and Adjustment of Academic Expatriates Based in Higher Education Institutions in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Authors: Thulile Ndou Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges encountered in the mediation of attracting and recruiting academic expatriates who in turn encounter their own obstacles in adjusting into and settling in their host country, host academic institutions and host communities. The none-existence of literature on attraction, placement and management of academic expatriates in the South African context has been acknowledged. Moreover, Higher Education Institutions in South Africa have voiced concerns relating to delayed and prolonged recruitment and selection processes experienced in the employment process of academic expatriates. Once employed, academic expatriates should be supported and acquainted with the surroundings, the local communities as well as be assisted to establish working relations with colleagues in order to facilitate their adjustment and integration process. Hence, an employer should play a critical role in facilitating the adjustment of academic expatriates. This mixed methods study was located in four Higher Education Institutions based in the KwaZulu-Natal province, in South Africa. The explanatory sequential design approach was deployed in the study. The merits of this approach were chiefly that it employed both the quantitative and qualitative techniques of inquiry. Therefore, the study examined and interrogated its subject from a multiplicity of quantitative and qualitative vantage points, yielding a much more enriched and enriching illumination. Mixing the strengths of both the quantitative and the qualitative techniques delivered much more durable articulation and understanding of the subject. A 5point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data relating to interaction adjustment, general adjustment and work adjustment from academic expatriates. One hundred and forty two (142) academic expatriates participated in the quantitative study. Qualitative data relating to employment process and support offered to academic expatriates was collected through a structured questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A total of 48 respondents; including, line managers, human resources practitioners, and academic expatriates participated in the qualitative study. The Independent T-test, ANOVA and Descriptive Statistics were performed to analyse, interpret and make meaning of quantitative data and thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The qualitative results revealed that academic talent is sourced from outside the borders of the country because of the academic skills shortage in almost all academic disciplines especially in the disciplines associated with Science, Engineering and Accounting. However, delays in work permit application process made it difficult to finalise the recruitment and selection process on time. Furthermore, the quantitative results revealed that academic expatriates experience general and interaction adjustment challenges associated with the use of local language and understanding of local culture. However, female academic expatriates were found to be better adjusted in the two areas as compared to male academic expatriates. Moreover, significant mean differences were found between institutions suggesting that academic expatriates based in rural areas experienced adjustment challenges differently from the academic expatriates based in urban areas. The study gestured to the need for policy revisions in the area of immigration, human resources and academic administration. Keywords: academic expatriates, recruitment and selection, interaction and general adjustment, work adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/53710

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The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son Abstract: Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed. Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/2092

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The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients

Authors: Sahra Setorg Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p< 0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences. Keywords: meta-cognitive therapy, meta-cognitive defects, emotional regulation, substance dependence disorder Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/17876

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Exploring RQ-EQ Relatons among Psychology Majors

Authors: Maria T. Mamba, Febe Marl G. Paat Abstract: The illustrious estimation that psychology majors, psychologists and allied psychology practitioners as expert behavior analysts, if not, “life enthusiasts” spurred two essentially linked endeavors. First, the reconsideration of the time-honored ingenuity and expectations from psychologists such as the ability to perceive ways to undertake a range of difficulties, the ability to apply psychology in order to self-regulate and to display personal integrity, and among others. Second, is to ascertain solid support to uphold aforesaid expectations. This study achieved its goals by having explored how two burgeoning constructs- RQ and EQ play parts in the lives of psychology people. Having involved the total population of psychology majors in Cagayan State University along with the use of Emotional Quotient Test and Resilience Assessment Questionnaire, the study provides a précis of how perceived “champions” of psychological well-being respond emotionally to different situations and deal effectively with and even thrive on the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. Significant findings about how the major variables correlated with the population’s demographic profile (e.g. age, sex, and year level) were also accounted. To realize a more academic concept with the present study, significant connections between RQ (self-assurance, personal vision, flexible and adaptable, organized, problem solver, interpersonal competence, socially connected, and active) and EQ (e.g. emotional maturity, emotional sensitivity, and emotional competency) dimensions were uncovered. Keywords: emotional quotient, resilience quotient, psychology majors, exploring Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/30868

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Exploring Young Students' Perceptions of Emotional Eating with the Purpose of Informing the Design of an Online Awareness Program

Authors: Maali Aloudah Abstract: Emotional eating is a type of eating disorders which is characterised by the sufferer responding to emotional disorders by consuming food with a high content of energy. This can lead to gaining weight and more likely affect their health. Emotional eating constitutes a range of challenging behaviours towards eating and food that lead to serious disturbances in eating attitudes. Adolescents' challenges to control their emotions through food consumption can subsequently create a negative impact on them in several different ways. In general, supporting the emotional well-being of adolescent students has many benefits such as it helps in improving health in general and lowering the mental health problems. It also helps students to be more involved in learning, which in turn helps them to have positive results in educational attainment and achievement. In Saudi populations, there is an increasing concern about the mental health problems among adolescents. Nevertheless, emotional eating disorders among this target group have not yet been addressed in a significant or satisfactory way. It is important to understand why adolescents cope with their emotions by using eating. Adolescents’ perceptions and experiences can provide a clear clue about the relationship between emotions and eating attitudes which will, in turn, help to find out effective ways to raise awareness and propose solutions. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which may contribute to emotional eating in adolescent students in Saudi Arabia and to design a relevant online healthy eating awareness programme in order to address their needs. Methodology: This study will be based on a mixed method approach. It is expected that around 300 students representing different socio cultural levels, will be involved in the project. They will be selected from 5 intermediate (ages 12-15) girls’ schools in different regions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All of them will be invited to complete a questionnaire. Each questionnaire will be allocated a unique reference code to help the researcher select 15 students for follow up 1:1 interviews. The researcher will invite students who display higher tendencies towards emotional eating. The interviews will focus on exploring ways to develop an online healthy eating awareness program adequate for their age. Keywords: adolescent students, eating disorders, emotional eating, health awareness program Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/72810

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Efficient Model Selection in Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression by Cross-Validation

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung, Steven N. MacEachern Abstract: Check loss function is used to define quantile regression. In the prospect of cross validation, it is also employed as a validation function when underlying truth is unknown. However, our empirical study indicates that the validation with check loss often leads to choosing an over estimated fits. In this work, we suggest a modified or L2-adjusted check loss which rounds the sharp corner in the middle of check loss. It has a large effect of guarding against over fitted model in some extent. Through various simulation settings of linear and non-linear regressions, the improvement of check loss by L2 adjustment is empirically examined. This adjustment is devised to shrink to zero as sample size grows. Keywords: cross-validation, model selection, quantile regression, tuning parameter selection Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/44203

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Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Educational Supervision and Leadership Style in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jawaher Bakheet Almudarra Abstract: An Educational Supervisor assists teachers to develop their competence and skills in teaching, solving educational problems, and to improve the teaching methods to suit the educational process. They evaluate their teachers and write reports based on their assessments. In 1957, the Saudi Ministry of Education instituted Educational Supervision to facilitate effective management of schools, however, there have been concerns that the Educational Supervision has not been effective in executing its mandate. Studies depicted that Educational supervision has not been effective because it has been marred by poor and autocratic leadership practices such as stringent inspection, commanding and judging. Therefore, there is need to consider some of the ways in which school outcomes can be enhanced through the improvement of Educational supervision practices. Emotional intelligence is a relatively new concept that can be integrated into the Saudi education system that is yet to be examined in-depth and embraced particularly in the realm of educational leadership. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices among Educational supervisors. This study employed a qualitative interpretive approach that will focus on decoding, describing and interpreting the connection between emotional intelligence and leadership. The study also took into account the social constructions that include consciousness, language and shared meanings. The data collection took place in the Office of Educational Supervisors in Riyadh and involved 4 Educational supervisors and 20 teachers from both genders- male and female. The data collection process encompasses three methods namely; qualitative emotional intelligence self-assessment questionnaires, reflective semi-structured interviews, and open workshops. The questionnaires would explore whether the Educational supervisors understand the meaning of emotional intelligence and its significance in enhancing the quality of education system in Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, reflective semi-structured interviews were carried out with the Educational supervisors to explore the connection between their leadership styles and the way they conceptualise their emotionality. The open workshops will include discussions on emotional aspects of Educational supervisors’ practices and how Educational supervisors make use of the emotional intelligence discourse in their leadership and supervisory relationships. Keywords: directors of educational supervision, emotional intelligence, educational leadership, education management Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/68314

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Subjective Well-Being through Coaching Process

Authors: Pendar Fazel Abstract: Well-being is a good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterized by health, happiness, and prosperity. Well-being of people is correlated with, the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical aspect of their personality. Subjective well-being, people’s emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately in this period of time people are under the pressure of financial, social problems, and other stress factors which made them vulnerable, and their well-being is threatened. Personal Coaching as a holistic orientation and novel approach is ideal for the present century which help people, to find balance, enjoyment and meaning in their lives as well as improving performance, skills and effectiveness. The aim of the present article besides introducing the personal coaching is determining how personal coaching can positively effects on subjective wellbeing, under this aim we tend to describe how coaching impact on the cognitive and emotional reconstruction. Present qualitative research is descriptive analytic study, which data gathered by manual library research and search within authentic article through internet; analyzed personal coaching which integrated different views into an operational one helps people promote self-awareness as well as evaluate, emotional and cognitive aspect of their personality and provide appropriate subjective well-being. Keywords: subjective well-being, coaching, well-being, positive psychology, personal growth Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/34052

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The Impact of Teacher's Emotional Intelligence on Students' Motivation to Learn

Authors: Marla Wendy Spergel Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study is to showcase graduated high school students’ to voice on the impact past teachers had on their motivation to learn, and if this impact has affected their post-high-school lives. Through a focus group strategy, 21 graduated high school alumni participated in three separate focus groups. Participants discussed their former teacher’s emotional intelligence skills, which influenced their motivation to learn or not. A focused review of the literature revealed that teachers are a major factor in a student’s motivation to learn. This research was guided by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and constructs related to learning and motivation from Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Views of Personality, and from Brain-Based Learning perspectives with a major focus on the area of Emotional Intelligence. Findings revealed that the majority of participants identified teachers who most motivated them to learn and demonstrated skills associated with emotional intelligence. An important and disturbing finding relates to the saliency of negative experiences. Further work is recommended to expand this line of study in Higher Education, perform a long-term study to better gain insight into long-term benefits attributable to experiencing positive teachers, study the negative impact teachers have on students’ motivation to learn, specifically focusing on student anxiety and acquired helplessness. Keywords: emotional intelligence, learning, motivation, pedagogy Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/91644

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Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction

Authors: Nadezda Sergunicheva, Victoria Vasilenko Abstract: The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990. Keywords: emotional characteristics, family interaction, fears, parental styles, preschoolers Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/81811

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The Benefits of Full Day Kindergarten versus Half Day Kindergarten: Review of Literature

Authors: Majedah Fawzy Abu Alrub Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of full-day vs. half-day kindergarten. Research suggests that there is a common trend among full-day kindergarten programs. Academic, social, and emotional benefits are evident, as well as preferential trends among the parents and teachers. The review began by identifying 20 references of literature on full-day kindergarten published in the last two decades (1997-2017). Of these, 20 passed an initial screening designed to identify research reports that examined academic, social, and emotional outcomes of full-day kindergarten programs as compared with half-day programs. Studies indicated that children who attend full-day kindergarten are positively related to high performance through their schools. There is much evidence to support a full-day program for children. Results indicated that full-day programs have obvious benefits for children; however, they may not be the best program for all children. Keywords: preschool, full-day kindergarten, academic benefits, social and emotional benefits Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/83420

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Medical Student's Responses to Emotional Content in Doctor-Patient Communication: To Explore Differences in Communication Training of Medical Students and Its Impact on Doctor-Patient Communication

Authors: Stephanie Yun Yu Law Abstract: Background: This study aims to investigate into communication between trainee doctors and patients, especially how doctor’s reaction to patient’s emotional issues expressed in the consultation affect patient’s satisfaction. Objectives: Thus, there are three aims in this study, 1.) how do trainee doctors react to patients emotional cues in OSCE station? 2.) Any differences in the respond type to emotional cues between first year students and third year students? 3.) Is response type (reducing space) related to OSCE outcome (patient satisfaction and expert rating)? Methods: Fifteen OSCE stations was videotaped, in which 9 were stations with first-year students and 6 were with third-year students. OSCE outcomes were measured by Communication Assessment Tool and Examiners Checklist. Analyses: All patient’s cues/concerns and student’s reaction were coded by Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Descriptive data was gathered from Observer XT and logistic regression (two-level) was carried out to see if occurrence of reducing space response can be predicted by OSCE outcomes. Results: Reducing space responses from all students were slightly less than a half in total responses to patient’s cues. The mean percentage of reducing space behaviours was lower among first year students when compared to third year students. Patient’s satisfaction significantly (p< 0.05) and negatively predicted reducing space behaviours. Conclusions: Most of the medical students, to some extent, did not provide adequate responses for patient’s emotional cues. But first year students did provide more space for patients to talk about their emotional issues when compared to third year students. Lastly, patients would feel less satisfied if trainee doctors use more reducing space responses in reaction to patient’s expressed emotional cues/concerns. Practical implications: Firstly, medical training programme can be tailored on teaching students how to detect and respond appropriately to emotional cues in order to improve underperformed student’s communication skills in healthcare setting. Furthermore, trainee doctor’s relationship with patients in clinical practice can also be improved by reacting appropriately to patient’s emotive cues in consultations (such as limit the use of reducing space behaviours). Keywords: doctors-patients communication, applied clinical psychology, health psychology, healthcare professionals Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/60620

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The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving

Authors: Ewa Siedlecka Abstract: Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents. Keywords: emotions, nervous system, physiology, time perception Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/91883

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The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Motivation of Staff: A Case Study of East Azerbaijan Red Crescent

Authors: Bahram Asghari Aghdam, Ali Mahjoub Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of emotional intelligence on the motivation and performance of East Azarbaijan the Red Crescent staff. In this study, EI is determined as the independent variable component of self awareness, self management, social awareness, and relations management, motivation and performance as dependent variables. The research method is descriptive-survey. In this study, simple random sampling method is used and research sample consists of 130 East Azarbaijan the Red Crescent staff that uses Cochran's formula 100 of them were selected and questionnaires were filled by them. Three types of questionnaires were used in this study for emotional intelligence, consisting of the Bradbury Travis and Jane Greaves standard questionnaire; and for motivation and performance a questionnaire is regulated by the researcher with help of professionals and experts in this field that consists of 33 questions about the motivation and 15 questions about performance and content validity were used to obtain the necessary credit. Reliability by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient /948 was approved. Also, in this study to test the hypothesis of the Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regressions and determine fitness of variables' of structural equation modeling is used. The results show that emotional intelligence with coefficient /865, motivation and performance of in East Azerbaijan the Red Crescent employees has a positive effect. Based on Friedman Test ranking the most influence in motivation and performance of staff in respondents' opinion is in order of self-awareness, relations management, social awareness and self-management. Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relations management, motivation, performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/9312

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Validation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) among Adolescents in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Nguyen, Jane Fisher, Thach Tran, Anh T. T. Tran Abstract: Trait Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes an individual has about their own and other people’s emotions. It is believed that trait emotional intelligence is a component of personality. Petrides’ Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is well regarded and well-established, with validation data about its functioning among adults from many countries. However, there is little data yet about its use among Asian populations, including adolescents. The aims were to translate and culturally verify the Trait Emotional Intelligence Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) and investigate content validity, construct validity, and reliability among adolescents attending high schools in Vietnam. Content of the TEIQue-ASF was translated (English to Vietnamese) and back-translated (Vietnamese to English) in consultation with bilingual and bicultural health researchers and pilot tested among 51 potential respondents. Phraseology and wording were then adjusted and the final version is named the VN-TEIQue-ASF. The VN-TEIQue-ASF’s properties were investigated in a cross-sectional elf-report survey among high school students in Central Vietnam. In total 1,546 / 1,573 (98.3%) eligible students from nine high schools in rural, urban, and coastline areas completed the survey. Explanatory Factor Analysis yielded a four-factor solution, including some with facets that loaded differently compared to the original version: Well-being, Emotion in Relationships, Emotion Self-management, and Emotion Sensitivity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the global score for the VN-TEIQue-ASF was .77. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is comprehensible and has good content and construct validity and reliability among adolescents in Vietnam. The factor structure is only partly replicated the original version. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is recommended for use in school or community surveys and professional study in education, psychology, and public health to investigate the trait emotional intelligence of adolescents in Vietnam. Keywords: adolescents, construct validity, content validity, factor analysis, questionnaire validity, trait emotional intelligence, Vietnam Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/76050

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Chat-Based Online Counseling for Enhancing Wellness of Undergraduates with Emotional Crisis Tendency

Authors: Arunya Tuicomepee Abstract: During the past two decades, there have been the increasing numbers of studies on online counseling, especially among adolescents who are familiar with the online world. This can be explained by the fact that via this channel enables easier access to the young, who may not be ready for face-to-face service, possibly due to uneasiness to reveal their personal problems with a stranger, the feeling that their problems are to be shamed, or the need to protect their images. Especially, the group of teenagers prone to suicide or despair, who tend to keep things to or isolate from the society to themselves, usually prefer types of services that require no face-to-face encounter and allow their anonymity, such as online services. This study aimed to examine effectiveness of chat-based online counseling for enhancing wellness of undergraduates with emotional crisis tendency. Experimental with pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Participants were 47 undergraduates (10 males and 37 females) with high emotional crisis tendency. They were randomly assigned to experimental group (24 students) and control group (23 students). Participants in the experimental group received a 60minute, 4-sessions of individual chat-based online counseling led by counselor. Those in control group received no counseling session. Instruments were the Emotional Crisis Scale and Wellness Scales. Two-way mixed-design multivariate analysis of variance was used for data analysis. Finding revealed that the posttest scores on wellness of those in the experimental group were higher than the scores of those in the control group. The posttest scores on emotional crisis tendency of those in the experimental group were lower than the scores of those in the control group. Hence, this study suggests chat-based online counseling services can become a helping source that increasing more adolescents would recognize and turn to in the future and that will receive more attention. Keywords: chat-based online counseling, emotional crisis, undergraduate student, wellness Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/71230

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Constrained RGBD SLAM with a Prior Knowledge of the Environment

Authors: Kathia Melbouci, Sylvie Naudet Collette, Vincent Gay-Bellile, Omar Ait-Aider, Michel Dhome Abstract: In this paper, we handle the problem of real time localization and mapping in indoor environment assisted by a partial prior 3D model, using an RGBD sensor. The proposed solution relies on a feature-based RGBD SLAM algorithm to localize the camera and update the 3D map of the scene. To improve the accuracy and the robustness of the localization, we propose to combine in a local bundle adjustment process, geometric information provided by a prior coarse 3D model of the scene (e.g. generated from the 2D floor plan of the building) along with RGBD data from a Kinect camera. The proposed approach is evaluated on a public benchmark dataset as well as on real scene acquired by a Kinect sensor. Keywords: SLAM, global localization, 3D sensor, bundle adjustment, 3D model Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/44987

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An Animation-Based Resource for Screening Emotional and Behavioural Distress in Children Aged 6 to 12

Authors: Zoe Lynch, Kirsty Zieschank Abstract: There are several factors that compromise the utility and wide-spread use of existing emotional and behavioural distress screening instruments. Some of these factors include lengthy administration times, high costs, feasibility issues, and a lack of self-report options for children under 12 years of age. This animation-based resource was developed to overcome as many of these factors as possible. Developed for educators and medical and mental health professionals, this resource offers children a self-guided mechanism for reporting any current emotional and behavioural distress. An avatar assistant, selected by the child, accompanies them through each stage of the screening process, offering further instruction if prompted. Children enter their age and gender before viewing comparative animations conveying common childhood emotional and behavioural difficulties. The child then selects the most relatable animations, along with the frequency with which they experience the depicted emotions. From a perspective of intellectual development, an engaging, animated format means that outcomes will not be constrained by children’s reading, writing, cognitive, or verbal expression abilities. Having been user-tested with children aged 6 to 12, this resource shows promising results as a self-guided screening instrument. Keywords: animation-based screening instrument, mental health, primary-aged children, self-guided Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/86653

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Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor

Authors: Jae Soo Do, Kyoung-Seok Kim Abstract: Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective. Keywords: emotion labor, surface acting, deep acting, liquid emotion Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/68091

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Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes

Authors: Svetlana S. Saveysheva, Victoria E. Vasilenko Abstract: The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990. Keywords: characteristics of personality, child-parent interaction, children, deviant parental attitudes Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/81810

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Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity

Authors: Małgorzata Osowiecka Abstract: Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Keywords: creativity, divergent thinking, emotions, expressive writing Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/62317

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Relationship between Relational Energy, Emotional Labour and Cognitive Flexibility of Cabin Crew

Authors: Rithi Baruah Abstract: The aviation industry is one such sectors whose primary aim is to work for the safety and comfort of their clients and customers. The crew members in the aviation industry include pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers, baggage personnel and maintenance personnel. This study will concentrate on the frontline employees of the aviation industry, the flight attendants. Flight attendants belong to the niche group of population who are paid to smile. Although the profession seems to be very glamorous, it is physically and psychologically very taxing. Energy at workplace is a fairly new concept and is an organizational resource which helps employee attain their goals. Therefore, the researcher will aim to establish the relationship between relational energy and the major issue of emotional labor and cognitive flexibility among flight attendants. The researcher will hypothesize that there will be a negative relationship between relational energy and emotional labour, and a positive relationship between relational energy and cognitive flexibility. Also, a positive relationship will be expected between cognitive flexibility and emotional labour of cabin crew. A quantitative research design will be used to study the relationship among 50 flight attendants in India. The findings of the research will not only help the aviation sector but will be a major contribution to the existing literature of aviation psychology in India which is scanty. The relationships can also provide scope to develop a model using the same. From crew resource management and aviation psychology perspectives, relationships among the study variables will not only provide scope for helping the aviation employees in particular but also develop the performance and safety of aviation sector at large. Keywords: cabin crew, cognitive flexibility, emotional labour, relational energy Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/63140

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The Effect of the Andalus Knowledge Phases and Times Model of Learning on the Development of Students’ Academic Performance and Emotional Quotient

Authors: Sobhy Fathy A. Hashesh Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the effect of Andalus Knowledge Phases and Times (ANPT) model of learning and the effect of 'Intel Education Contribution in ANPT' on the development of students’ academic performance and emotional quotient. The society of the study composed of Andalus Private Schools, elementary school students (N=700), while the sample of the study composed of four randomly assigned groups (N=80) with one experimental group and one control group to study "ANPT" effect and the "Intel Contribution in ANPT" effect respectively. The study followed the quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting and analyzing data to answer the study questions. Results of the study revealed that there were significant statistical differences between students’ academic performances and emotional quotients for the favor of the experimental groups. The study recommended applying this model on different educational variables and on other age groups to generate more data leading to more educational results for the favor of students’ learning outcomes. Keywords: Al Andalus, emotional quotient, students, academic performance development Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/52264

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Investor’s Psychology in Investment Decision Making in Context of Behavioural Finance

Authors: Jhansi Rani Boda, G. Sunitha Abstract: Worldwide, the financial markets are influenced by several factors such as the changes in economic and political processes that occur in the country and the globe, information diffusion and approachability and so on. Yet, the foremost important factor is the investor’s reaction and perception. For an individual investor, decision-making process can be perceived as a continuous process that has significant impact of their psychology while making investment decisions. Behavioral finance relies on research of human and social recognition and emotional tolerance studies to identify and understand the investment decisions. This article aims to report the research of individual investor’s financial behavior in a historical perspective. This article uncovers the investor’s psychology in investment decision making focusing on the investor’s rationality with an explanation of psychological and emotional factors that affect investing. The results of the study are revealed by means of Graphical visualization. Keywords: behavioral finance, psychology, investor’s behavior, psychological and emotional factors Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/77142

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Effects of Major and Minor Modes to Emotional Perceptions of 'Happy' and 'Sad' in Piano Music among Students Aged 9-17

Authors: Nurezlin Mohd Azib, Pan Kok Chang Abstract: This quantitative study investigates the effects of major and minor modes, and contributing musical parameter of tempo, to the emotional perceptions of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ in piano music among subjects aged 9-17 years old. The study was conducted in two phases; survey-questionnaire, and listening activity. Subjects (N=31) were sampled from piano music students’ population in Bangi, Selangor. In the survey-questionnaire, subjects answered 20 questions on demographic characteristics, music listening and preference, and understanding of emotional perception in music. In the listening activity, subjects listened to 20 untitled piano music excerpts and rated the emotion perceived for each excerpt, whether ‘happy’ or ‘sad’. Results from survey-questionnaire show that most percentage of subjects are 11 years old, in Grade 1, of 3 years of learning piano, prefer classical music, always listen to music, prefer both major and minor modes’ music, and find it easy to understand emotion in music, as well as major and minor modes. Results from listening activity show that 60 % of major mode music are perceived as ‘major-happy’, while 60 % too, of minor mode music are perceived as ‘minor-sad’. However, Chi-square test of independence statistical analysis indicates that there are no association and significant relationship between modes (major and minor) and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 0.80, p = 0.371), at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Contrastingly, there are association and significant relationship between tempo (fast and slow), and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 9.899, p = 0.005). Therefore, it is concluded that tempo plays an important role in effects of major and minor mode to ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ emotional perceptions in piano music among subjects aged 9 to 17 in this study. Keywords: effects, emotional perceptions, major and minor modes, piano music Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/55914

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Analysis of Behavior and Determinants of Cost Stickiness in Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Farizy Yunaz, Catur Sasongko Abstract: This research aims to provide the empirical evidence regarding cost stickiness behavior and its determinants on listed manufacturing companies. Hypothesis testing is performed using pooled least square method. The result concludes that there is cost stickiness behavior in selling, general and administrative costs. In term of determinants, firm-specific adjustment costs measured by asset intensity and employee intensity have significant positive impact on the level of cost stickiness. Meanwhile, earnings target and leverage have significant negative impact on the level of cost stickiness. However, the management empire building incentives measured by free cash flow has no significant positive impact. Keywords: adjustment cost, cost behavior, cost stickiness, earnings target, leverage, management empire building incentive Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/62172

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The Effects of Key Factors in Traffic-Oriented Road Alignment Adjustment for Low Emissions Profile: A Case Study in Norway

Authors: Gaylord K. Booto, Marinelli Giuseppe, Helge Brattebø, Rolf A. Bohne Abstract: Emissions reduction has emerged among the principal targets in the process of planning and designing road alignments today. Intelligent road design methods that can result in optimized alignment constitute concrete and innovative responses towards better alternatives and more sustainable road infrastructures. As the largest amount of emissions of road infrastructures occur in the operation stage, it becomes very important to consider traffic weight and distribution in alignment design process. This study analyzes the effects of four traffic factors (i.e. operating speed, vehicle category, technology and fuel type) on adjusting the vertical alignment of a given road, using optimization techniques. Further, factors’ effects are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the emission profiles of resulting alignment alternatives are compared. Keywords: alignment adjustment, emissions reduction, optimization, traffic-oriented Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/83051

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Applying Personel Resilence and Emotional Agitation in Occupational, Health and Safety Education and Training

Authors: M. Jayandran Abstract: Continual professional development is an important concept for safety professionals to strengthen the knowledge base and to achieve the required qualifications or international memberships in a given time. But the main problems which have observed among most of the safety aspirants are as follows: lack of focus, inferiority complex, superiority complex, lack of interest and lethargy, family and off job stress, health issues, usage of drugs and alcohol, and absenteeism. A HSE trainer should be an expert in soft skills and other stress, emotional handling techniques, so as to manage the above aspirants during training. To do this practice, a trainer has to brainstorm himself of few of the soft skills like personnel resilience, mnemonic techniques, mind healing, and subconscious suggestion techniques by integrating with an emotional intelligence quotient of the aspirants. By adopting these techniques, a trainer can successfully deliver the course and influence the different types of audience to achieve success in training. Keywords: personnel resilience, mnemonic techniques, mind healing, sub conscious suggestion techniques Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/82627

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Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Ogunremi Beatrice, Oluwole David Adebayo Abstract: Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability. Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, goal orientation, school engagement, self-regulation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/26504

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The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Creativity, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Behdoukht Mall Amiri, Zohreh Gheydar Abstract: The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' creativity (CR), emotional intelligence (EI), and self-efficacy (SE). To this end, a group of 120 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 35 studying BA in English Translation and MA in Teaching English at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were selected using convenient sampling and were given three questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-I questionnaire by Bar-On (1997), the General Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire (SGSES) by Sherer et al. (1982), and a questionnaire of creativity (CR) by O'Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). Analysis of the results through Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient showed that there was not a significant relationship between students’ CR and EI, and EI and SE. In addition, CR and SE were correlated significantly but negatively. Multiple regressions revealed that CR could significantly predict SE. Regarding the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, materials developers, and educational policy makers to possess a broader perspective and heightened degree knowledge toward the TEFL practice and to take practical steps toward the attainments of the desired objectives of the profession. Keywords: creativity, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, learning Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/7647

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Aggression Related Trauma and Coping among University Students, Exploring Emotional Intelligence Applications on Coping with Aggression Related Trauma

Authors: Asanka Bulathwatta Abstract: This Study tries to figure out the role of emotional Intelligence for developing coping strategies among adolescents who face traumatic events. Late adolescence students who have enrolled into the University education (Bachelor students/first-year students) would be selected as the sample. University education is an important stage of students’ academic life. Therefore, all students need to develop their competencies to attain the goal of passing examinations and also to developing their wisdom related to the scientific knowledge they gathered through their academic life. Study to be conducted in a cross-cultural manner and it will be taking place in Germany and Sri Lanka. The sample will be consisting of 200 students from each country. Late adolescence is a critical period of the human being as it is foot step in their life which acquiring the emotional and social qualities in their social life. There are many adolescents who have affected by aggression related traumatic events during their lifespan but have not been identified or treated. More specifically, there are numerous burning issues within the first year of the university students namely, ragging done by seniors to juniors, bulling, invalidation and issues raise based on attitudes changes and orientation issues. Those factors can be traumatic for both their academic and day to day lifestyle. Identifying the students who are with emotional damages and their resiliency afterward the aggression related traumas and effective rehabilitation from the traumatic events is immensely needed in order to facilitate university students for their academic achievements and social life within the University education. Research findings in Germany show that students shows more interpersonal traumas, life-threatening illnesses and death of someone related are common in German sample. Keywords: emotional intelligence, agression, trauma, coping Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/23555

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Prevalence of Emotional Problems among Adolescent Students of Corporation Schools in Chennai

Authors: Vithya Veeramani, Karunanidhi Subbaiah Abstract: Emotional problems were found to be the predominant cause of suicide and second leading cause of death among adolescents in India. Emotional problems seem to be the underlying cause for various other severe psycho-social problems experienced in adolescence and also in later years of life. The Corporation schools in Chennai city are named as Chennai High School or Chennai Higher Secondary School run by the Corporation of Chennai. These schools fulfill the educational needs of students who hail from lower socio-economic status living in slums of the Chennai city. Adolescent students of Chennai schools tend to lack basic needs like food, clothes, shelter, etc. Some of the other significant problems faced by them are broken family, lack of parental support, frequent quarrel between parents, alcoholic parents, drug abuse and substance abuse among parents and neighbors, extended family, illiterate parents, deprivation of love and care, and lack of sense of belongingness. This prevailing condition may affect them emotionally and could lead to maladaptive behaviour, aggressiveness, poor interpersonal relationship with others, school refusal behaviour, school drop-out, suicide, etc. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the emotional problems faced by the adolescent students studying in Chennai schools, Chennai. A cross-sectional survey design was used to find the prevalence of emotional problems among adolescent students. Cluster sampling technique was used to select the schools for the present study considering the school as a cluster. In total, there are 15 zones, under the control of Chennai Corporation, of which only 7 zones have Corporation Schools in Chennai city, comprising of 32 Chennai Higher Secondary Schools and 38 Chennai High Schools. Out of these 70 schools, 29 schools comprising of 17 high schools and 12 higher secondary schools were selected randomly using lottery method. A sample of 2594 adolescent students from 9th standard and 11th standard was chosen for the study. Percentage analysis was done to find out the prevalence rate of emotional problems among adolescents students studying in Chennai Schools. Results of the study revealed that, out of 2594 students surveyed, 21.04% adolescent students were found to have academic problems (n = 546), 15.99% adolescent students had social problems (n = 415), behaviour problems was found to be prevalent among 12.87% adolescent students (n = 334), depression was prevalent among 15.88% adolescent students (n = 412) and anxiety was prevalent among 14.42% adolescent students (n = 374). Prevalence of emotional problems among male and female revealed that academic problems were more prevalent compared to other problems. Behaviour problems were least prevalent among boys and anxiety was least prevalent among girls than other problems. The overall prevalence rate of emotional problems was found to be on an increasing trend among adolescent students of low socio-economic status in Chennai city. The findings indicated the need for intervention to prevent and rehabilitate these adolescent students. Keywords: adolescents, corporation schools, emotional problems, prevalence Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/88334

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Neuro-Fuzzy Based Model for Phrase Level Emotion Understanding

Authors: Vadivel Ayyasamy Abstract: The present approach deals with the identification of Emotions and classification of Emotional patterns at Phrase-level with respect to Positive and Negative Orientation. The proposed approach considers emotion triggered terms, its cooccurrence terms and also associated sentences for recognizing emotions. The proposed approach uses Part of Speech Tagging and Emotion Actifiers for classification. Here sentence patterns are broken into phrases and Neuro-Fuzzy model is used to classify which results in 16 patterns of emotional phrases. Suitable intensities are assigned for capturing the degree of emotion contents that exist in semantics of patterns. These emotional phrases are assigned weights which supports in deciding the Positive and Negative Orientation of emotions. The approach uses web documents for experimental purpose and the proposed classification approach performs well and achieves good F-Scores. Keywords: emotions, sentences, phrases, classification, patterns, fuzzy, positive orientation, negative orientation Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/62118

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Multimodal Database of Emotional Speech, Video and Gestures

Authors: Tomasz Sapinski, Dorota Kaminska, Adam Pelikant, Egils Avotsis, Avotsis Ozcinaris, Gholamreza Anbarjafari Abstract: People express emotions through different modalities. Integration of verbal and non-verbal communication channels creates a system in which the message is easier to understand. Expanding the focus to several expression forms can facilitate research on emotion recognition as well as human-machine interaction. In this article, the authors present a Polish emotional database composed of three modalities: facial expressions, body movement and gestures, and speech. The corpora contain recordings registered in studio conditions, acted out by 16 professional actors (8 male and 8 female). The data is labeled with six basic emotions categories, according to Ekman’s emotion categories. To check the quality of performance, all recordings are evaluated by experts and volunteers. The database is available to academic community and might be useful in the study on audio-visual emotion recognition. Keywords: body movement, emotion recognition, emotional corpus, facial expressions, gestures, multimodal database, speech Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/91209

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Hospital Workers’ Psychological Resilience after 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak

Authors: Myoungsoon You, Heejung Son Abstract: During a pandemic, hospital workers should protect not only their vulnerable patients but also themselves from the consequences of rapidly spreading infection. However, the evidence on the psychological impact of an outbreak on hospital workers is limited. In this study, we aim to assess hospital workers’ psychological well-being and function at the workplace after an outbreak, by focusing on ‘psychological resilience’. Specifically, the effects of risk appraisal, emotional experience, and coping ability on resilience indicated by the likelihood of post-traumatic syndrome disorder and willingness to work were investigated. Such role and position of each factor were analyzed using a path model, and the result was compared between the healthcare worker and non-healthcare worker groups. In the investigation, 280 hospital workers who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in South Korea have participated. The result presented, in both groups, the role of the appraisal of risk and coping ability appeared consistent with a previous research, that was, the former interrupted resilience while the latter facilitated it. In addition, the role of emotional experience was highlighted as, in both groups, emotional disruption not only directly associated with low resilience but mediated the effect of perceived risk on resilience. The differences between the groups were also identified, which were, the role of emotional experience and coping ability was more prominent in the non-HCW group in explaining resilience. From the results, implications on how to support hospital personnel during an outbreak in a way to facilitate their resilience after the outbreak were drawn. Keywords: hospital workers, emotions, infectious disease outbreak, psychological resilience Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/92704

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Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia

Authors: Pedro Mauricio Acosta, Carlos Andrés Caro Abstract: This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last. Keywords: intensity duration, frequency curves, regionalization, hydrology Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/33615

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The Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control: Empirical Study on Lithuanian Youth

Authors: Dalia Antiniene, Rosita Lekaviciene Abstract: The qualitative methodology based study is designed to reveal a connection between emotional intelligence (EI) and locus of control (LC) within the population of Lithuanian youth. In the context of emotional problems, the locus of control reflects how one estimates the causes of his/her emotions: internals (internal locus of control) associate their emotions with their manner of thinking, whereas externals (external locus of control) consider emotions to be evoked by external circumstances. On the other hand, there is little empirical data about this connection, and the results in disposition are often contradictory. In the conducted study 1430 young people, aged 17 to 27, from various regions of Lithuania were surveyed. The subjects were selected by quota sampling, maintaining natural proportions of the general Lithuanian youth population. To assess emotional intelligence the EI-DARL test (i.e. self-report questionnaire consisting of 75 items) was implemented. The emotional intelligence test, created applying exploratory factor analysis, reveals four main dimensions of EI: understanding of one’s own emotions, regulation of one’s own emotions, understanding other’s emotions, and regulation of other’s emotions (subscale reliability coefficients fluctuate between 0,84 and 0,91). An original 16-item internality/externality scale was used to examine the locus of control (internal consistency of the Externality subscale 0,75; Internality subscale - 0,65). The study has determined that the youth understands and regulates other people’s emotions better than their own. Using the K-mean cluster analysis method, it was established that there are three groups of subjects according to their EI level – people with low, medium and high EI. After comparing means of subjects’ favorability of statements on the Internality/Externality scale, a predominance of internal locus of control in the young population was established. The multiple regression models has shown that a rather strong statistically significant correlation exists between total EI, EI subscales and LC. People who tend to attribute responsibility for the outcome of their actions to their own abilities and efforts have higher EI and, conversely, the tendency to attribute responsibility to external forces is related more with lower EI. While pursuing their goals, young people with high internality have a predisposition to analyze perceived emotions and, therefore, gain emotional experience: they learn to control their natural reactions and to act adequately in a situation at hand. Thus the study unfolds, that a person’s locus of control and emotional intelligence are related phenomena and allows us to draw a conclusion, that a person’s internality/externality is a reliable predictor of total EI and its components. Keywords: emotional intelligence, externality, internality, locus of control Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/72486

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Supporting Regulation and Shared Attention to Facilitate the Foundations for Development of Children and Adolescents with Complex Individual Profiles

Authors: Patsy Tan, Dana Baltutis Abstract: This presentation demonstrates the effectiveness of music therapy in co-treatment with speech pathology and occupational therapy as an innovative way when working with children and adolescents with complex individual differences to facilitate communication, emotional, motor and social skills development. Each child with special needs and their carer has an individual profile which encompasses their visual-spatial, auditory, language, learning, mental health, family dynamic, sensory-motor, motor planning and sequencing profiles. The most common issues among children with special needs, especially those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, are in the areas of regulation, communication, and social-emotional development. The ability of children living with challenges to communicate and use language and understand verbal and non-verbal information, as well as move their bodies to explore and interact with their environments in social situations, depends on the children being regulated both internally and externally and trusting their communication partners and understanding what is happening in the moment. For carers, it is about understanding the tempo, rhythm, pacing, and timing of their own individual profile, as well as the profile of the child they are interacting with, and how these can sync together. In this study, music therapy is used in co-treatment sessions with a speech pathologist and/or an occupational therapist using the DIRFloortime approach to facilitate the regulation, attention, engagement, reciprocity and social-emotional capacities of children presenting with complex individual differences. Documented changes in 10 domains of children’s development over a 12-month period using the Individual Music Therapy Assessment Profile (IMTAP) were observed. Children were assessed biannually, and results show significant improvements in the socialemotional, musicality and receptive language domains indicating that co-treatment with a music therapist using the DIRFloortime framework is highly effective. This presentation will highlight strategies that facilitate regulation, socialemotional and communication development for children and adolescents with complex individual profiles. Keywords: communication, shared attention, regulation, social emotional Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/86043

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Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin Abstract: Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use. Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/33925

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Relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jawaher Bakheet Almudarra Abstract: The Saudi Arabian educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill are needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts: the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities, and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if emotional intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership. The third section looks at emotions and emotional intelligence, gender roles, and contributions by emotional intelligence in the education system. The education system of Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformation. To fully understand the current climate of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to review this process of transformation in terms of the historical, cultural, political and social positions and transformations. Over the years, the education system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant metamorphosis. The Saudi government has instituted a wide range of reforms in an attempt to improve education standards and outcomes, facilitate improvements and ensure that high standards of education standards are upheld to keep pace with the global environment and knowledge economy. Leadership itself has become an increasingly prominent aspect of educational reform worldwide. Emotional intelligence is often considered a significant aspect of leadership, but it is in its early stages in Saudi Arabia. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices, particularly among educational supervisors and contribute to national and international understandings of leadership in Saudi Arabia. Studying leadership in the Saudi Arabian context is imperative as the new generation of leaders need to cultivate pertinent skills that will allow them to become fundamentally and positively involved in the regions’ decision making processes in order to impact the progression of the Saudi Arabian education system. Understanding leadership in the education context will allow for suitable inculcation of leadership skills. These skills include goal-setting, sound decision-making as well as problem-solving within the education system of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: educational supervision, educational administration, emotional intelligence, educational leadership Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/82209

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Holistic Development of Children through Performing Classical Art Forms: A Study in Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: Meera Rajeev Kumar Abstract: An overall social, emotional, and cultural development in a child is what a parent expects. There is no point in comparing the generations of 70’s or 80’s with that of the children of today as the trends are changing drastically. Technology has enabled them to become smart as well as over smart in one way or the other. Children today are quite ignorant of today’s values or ethics and are imbibing different cultures around them and ultimately confused on what to follow. The researcher has gained experience in transmitting or imparting the traditional culture through performing arts. It is understood that the children undergo a transformation from what they knew to what the truth is, through learning and experience. Through performing arts, the child develops an emotional, quick learning, abundant creativity, and ultimately self-realisation on what is right and wrong. The child also gains good organising skills, good decision making skills, therefore summing up to a holistic development. The sample study is 50, and a random sampling technique is adopted to differentiate between a normal child and a child learning an art. The study is conducted in Tamil Nadu, in India. Keywords: creativity, cultural, emotional, empower Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/74251

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Development and Evaluation of a Psychological Adjustment and Adaptation Status Scale for Breast Cancer Survivors

Authors: Jing Chen, Jun-E Liu, Peng Yue Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a psychological adjustment and adaptation status scale for breast cancer survivors, and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Method: 37 breast cancer survivors were recruited in qualitative research; a five-subject theoretical framework and an item pool of 150 items of the scale were derived from the interview data. In order to evaluate and select items and reach a preliminary validity and reliability for the original scale, the suggestions of study group members, experts and breast cancer survivors were taken, and statistical methods were used step by step in a sample of 457 breast cancer survivors. Results: An original 24-item scale was developed. The five dimensions “domestic affections”, “interpersonal relationship”, “attitude of life”, “health awareness”, “self-control/self-efficacy” explained 58.053% of the total variance. The content validity was assessed by experts, the CVI was 0.92. The construct validity was examined in a sample of 264 breast cancer survivors. The fitting indexes of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fitting of the five dimensions model. The criterion-related validity of the total scale with PTGI was satisfactory (r=0.564, p< 0.001). The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were tested. Cronbach’s alpha value (0.911) showed a good internal consistency reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC=0.925, p< 0.001) showed a satisfactory test-retest reliability. Conclusions: The scale was brief and easy to understand, was suitable for breast cancer patients whose physical strength and energy were limited. Keywords: breast cancer survivors, rehabilitation, psychological adaption and adjustment, development of scale Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/12132

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Awareness, Attitude and Perception of the Farmers towards Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case Study in Kedah Malaysia

Authors: Rafia Afroz Abstract: This article examines the perceptions, consciousness and attitudes of farmers on climate change in Kedah Malaysia. To reach the objectives of this study, a survey was conducted on 350 farmers and the collected data were used to perform multiple regression analysis. The results show that factors such as age, farm income, farm experience, limited agricultural prevalence, inadequacies in credit availability and farm size are factors influencing adjustment practices. Moreover, farmers have a positive attitude through adaptation strategies that are appropriate for climate change issues. However, the study found that various adaptation barriers prevented farmers from implementing climate change adjustment policies. At present, Malaysia does not seem to have a specific policy aimed at counteracting the impacts and productivity of climate change on individual sectors. For this reason, the findings of this study will help policymakers to comply with an appropriate policy framework that takes into account the best fit alignment strategies that can come across all relevant obstacles. Keywords: climate change, adaptation, awareness, perception, attitude Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/91785

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Understanding the Communication Practices of Special Educators with Parents of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Authors: Carolyn B. Mires, David L. Lee, David B. McNaughton Abstract: High school students’ with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools. Using a multiple case study methodology, interviews were conducted to examine current practices and perceptions of the communication practices of teachers working with high school students with EBD. These interviews involved questions about general communication instances which occurred each week, communication strategies used each week, and how progress was being made on forming relationships with parents. Results confirm previous researchers’ hypotheses regarding methods, purposes, and regularity of positive communication incidences. Communication that met the positive goals of nurturing and maintaining relationships was open and frequent, reciprocal, and informal. Limitations are discussed as well as issues of trustworthiness. The case study concludes with a discussion and suggestions for high school special educators of students with EBD. Keywords: emotional behavioral disorders, high school adolescence, home-school communication, relationships between parents and schools Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/81143

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Color-Based Emotion Regulation Model: An Affective E-Learning Environment

Authors: Sabahat Nadeem, Farman Ali Khan Abstract: Emotions are considered as a vital factor affecting the process of information handling, level of attention, memory capacity and decision making. Latest e-Learning systems are therefore taking into consideration the effective state of learners to make the learning process more effective and enjoyable. One such use of user’s affective information is in the systems that tend to regulate users’ emotions to a state optimally desirable for learning. So for, this objective has been tried to be achieved with the help of teaching strategies, background music, guided imagery, video clips and odors. Nevertheless, we know that colors can affect human emotions. Relationship between color and emotions has a strong influence on how we perceive our environment. Similarly, the colors of the interface can also affect the user positively as well as negatively. This affective behavior of color and its use as emotion regulation agent is not yet exploited. Therefore, this research proposes a Color-based Emotion Regulation Model (CERM), a new framework that can automatically adapt its colors according to user’s emotional state and her personality type and can help in producing a desirable emotional effect, aiming at providing an unobtrusive emotional support to the users of e-learning environment. The evaluation of CERM is carried out by comparing it with classical non-adaptive, static colored learning management system. Results indicate that colors of the interface, when carefully selected has significant positive impact on learner’s emotions. Keywords: effective learning, e-learning, emotion regulation, emotional design Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/67651

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Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt Abstract: The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation. Keywords: postcolonial feminism, islamic feminism, memory, histoirographic metafiction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/19905

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A Comparative Study of Burnout and Coping Strategies between HIV Counselors: Face to Face and Online Counseling Services in Addis Ababa

Authors: Yemisrach Mihertu Amsale Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare burnout and coping strategies between HIV counselors in face to face and online counseling settings in Addis Ababa. The study was mixed approach design that was quantitative and qualitative. For the quantitative data the participants involved in this study included 64 face to face and 47 online HIV counselors in both counseling settings. In addition, 23 participants were involved to offer qualitative data from both counseling settings. For the purpose of gathering the quantitative data, the instruments, namely, demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the COPE questionnaire, were used to gather quantitative data. Qualitative data was also gathered in the FGD Guide and Interview Guide. Thus, this study revealed that HIV counselors in online counseling settings scored high on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low in personal accomplishment dimensions of burnout as compared to HIV counselors in face to face setting and the difference was statistically significant in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, but there was no a significant difference on depersonalization dimension of burnout between the two groups. In addition, the present study revealed a statistically significant difference on problem focused coping strategy between the two groups and yet for on the emotion focused coping strategy the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically negative correlation was observed between some demographic variables such as age with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions of burnout; years of experiences and personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. A statistically positive correlation was also observed between average number of clients served per day and emotional exhaustion. Sex was having a statistically positive correlation with coping strategy. Lastly, a significant positive correlation was also observed in the emotional exhaustion dimension of the burnout and the emotional focused coping strategy. Generally, this study has shown that HIV counselors suffer from moderate to high level of burnout. Based on the findings, conclusions were made and recommendations were forwarded. Keywords: counseling, burnout management, psychological, behavioral sciences Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/7820

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The Impact of Stress and Coping Style on Educational Involvement among Fathers to Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Aviva Lvan, Lipaz Shamoa-Nir Abstract: Recently, has increased the research interest in modern fatherhood especially, the increasing involvement of fathers in the family. However, there is a little research evidence on fathers to children with special needs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stress and coping style on involvement in school among fathers to children with special needs in inclusive education. We compared the fathers to children with special needs (N=72) with fathers to non-special needs children (N = 75), and found that higher stress levels, greater educational involvement and greater use of social support coping style, were found among fathers of children with special needs. In addition, mission coping style and emotional coping style predict involvement in the school and emotional coping style predicts high levels of stress. The above findings contribute to the investigation of changes in the perception of the role of fathers and their involvement in their children's lives especially, among fathers to children with special needs. From the applied aspect, the findings may increase the understanding of the role of fathers and their unique contribution to the social, emotional, and academic development of their children. Keywords: coping style, educational involvement, special needs, stress Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/40391

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Context-Aware Recommender Systems Using User's Emotional State

Authors: Hoyeon Park, Kyoung-jae Kim Abstract: The product recommendation is a field of research that has received much attention in the recent information overload phenomenon. The proliferation of the mobile environment and social media cannot help but affect the results of the recommendation depending on how the factors of the user's situation are reflected in the recommendation process. Recently, research has been spreading attention to the context-aware recommender system which is to reflect user's contextual information in the recommendation process. However, until now, most of the context-aware recommender system researches have been limited in that they reflect the passive context of users. It is expected that the user will be able to express his/her contextual information through his/her active behavior and the importance of the context-aware recommender system reflecting this information can be increased. The purpose of this study is to propose a context-aware recommender system that can reflect the user's emotional state as an active context information to recommendation process. The context-aware recommender system is a recommender system that can make more sophisticated recommendations by utilizing the user's contextual information and has an advantage that the user's emotional factor can be considered as compared with the existing recommender systems. In this study, we propose a method to infer the user's emotional state, which is one of the user's context information, by using the user's facial expression data and to reflect it on the recommendation process. This study collects the facial expression data of a user who is looking at a specific product and the user's product preference score. Then, we classify the facial expression data into several categories according to the previous research and construct a model that can predict them. Next, the predicted results are applied to existing collaborative filtering with contextual information. As a result of the study, it was shown that the recommended results of the context-aware recommender system including facial expression information show improved results in terms of recommendation performance. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that future research will be conducted on recommender system reflecting various contextual information. Keywords: context-aware, emotional state, recommender systems, business analytics Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/88567

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The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Manager's Psychophysiological Activity during a Performance-Review Discussion

Authors: Mikko Salminen, Niklas Ravaja Abstract: Emotional intelligence (EI) consists of skills for monitoring own emotions and emotions of others, skills for discriminating different emotions, and skills for using this information in thinking and actions. EI enhances, for example, work outcomes and organizational climate. We suggest that the role and manifestations of EI should also be studied in real leadership situations, especially during the emotional, social interaction. Leadership is essentially a process to influence others for reaching a certain goal. This influencing happens by managerial processes and computer-mediated communication (e.g. e-mail) but also by face-to-face, where facial expressions have a significant role in conveying emotional information. Persons with high EI are typically perceived more positively, and they have better social skills. We hypothesize, that during social interaction high EI enhances the ability to detect other’s emotional state and controlling own emotional expressions. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leader’s experience less stress during social leadership situations, since they have better skills in dealing with the related emotional work. Thus the high-EI leaders would be more able to enjoy these situations, but also be more efficient in choosing appropriate expressions for building constructive dialogue. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leaders show more positive emotional expressions than low-EI leaders. To study these hypotheses we observed performance review discussions of 40 leaders (24 female) with 78 (45 female) of their followers. Each leader held a discussion with two followers. Psychophysiological methods were chosen because they provide objective and continuous data from the whole duration of the discussions. We recorded sweating of the hands (electrodermal activation) by electrodes placed to the fingers of the non-dominant hand to assess the stressrelated physiological arousal of the leaders. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded from cheek (zygomaticus major, activated during e.g. smiling) and periocular (orbicularis oculi, activated during smiling) muscles using electrode pairs placed on the left side of the face. Leader’s trait EI was measured with a 360 questionnaire, filled by each leader’s followers, peers, managers and by themselves. High-EI leaders had less sweating of the hands (p = .007) than the lowEI leaders. It is thus suggested that the high-EI leaders experienced less physiological stress during the discussions. Also, high scores in the factor “Using of emotions” were related to more facial muscle activation indicating positive emotional expressions (cheek muscle: p = .048; periocular muscle: p = .076, almost statistically significant). The results imply that emotionally intelligent managers are positively relaxed during s social leadership situations such as a performance review discussion. The current study also highlights the importance of EI in face-to-face social interaction, given the central role facial expressions have in interaction situations. The study also offers new insight to the biological basis of trait EI. It is suggested that the identification, forming, and intelligently using of facial expressions are skills that could be trained during leadership development courses. Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, performance review discussion, psychophysiology, social interaction Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/60156

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A Study on the Effect of the Work-Family Conflict on Work Engagement: A Mediated Moderation Model of Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Psychology Capital

Authors: Sungeun Hyun, Sooin Lee, Gyewan Moon Abstract: Work-Family Conflict has been an active research area for the past decades. Work-Family Conflict harms individuals and organizations, it is ultimately expected to bring the cost of losses to the company in the long run. WFC has mainly focused on effects of organizational effectiveness and job attitude such as Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention variables. This study is different from consequence variable with previous research. For this purpose, we selected the positive job attitude 'Work Engagement' as a consequence of WFC. This research has its primary research purpose in identifying the negative effects of the Work-Family Conflict, and started out from the recognition of the problem that the research on the direct relationship on the influence of the WFC on Work Engagement is lacking. Based on the COR(Conservation of resource theory) and JD-R(Job Demand- Resource model), the empirical study model to examine the negative effects of WFC with Emotional Exhaustion as the link between WFC and Work Engagement was suggested and validated. Also, it was analyzed how much Positive Psychological Capital may buffer the negative effects arising from WFC within this relationship, and the Mediated Moderation model controlling the indirect effect influencing the Work Engagement by the Positive Psychological Capital mediated by the WFC and Emotional Exhaustion was verified. Data was collected by using questionnaires distributed to 500 employees engaged manufacturing, services, finance, IT industry, education services, and other sectors, of which 389 were used in the statistical analysis. The data are analyzed by statistical package, SPSS 21.0, SPSS macro and AMOS 21.0. The hierarchical regression analysis, SPSS PROCESS macro and Bootstrapping method for hypothesis testing were conducted. Results showed that all hypotheses are supported. First, WFC showed a negative effect on Work Engagement. Specifically, WIF appeared to be on more negative effects than FIW. Second, Emotional exhaustion found to mediate the relationship between WFC and Work Engagement. Third, Positive Psychological Capital showed to moderate the relationship between WFC and Emotional Exhaustion. Fourth, the effect of mediated moderation through the integration verification, Positive Psychological Capital demonstrated to buffer the relationship among WFC, Emotional Exhastion, and Work Engagement. Also, WIF showed a more negative effects than FIW through verification of all hypotheses. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications on research and management of the WFC, and proposed limitations and future research directions of research. Keywords: emotional exhaustion, positive psychological capital, work engagement, work-family conflict Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/44889

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Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Conditionalities and Structural Adjustments on the Poor and Developing Countries

Authors: Kazi Rafikoddin Abstract: Conditionality refers to a precondition for getting external funds from IMF or WB by giving consent for implementation of the program of economic or political reforms especially relating to open economies. These are put forth under the label of structural adjustment. It is a kind of challenge on the part of borrowing government to exercise balance between the domestic obligations and the expectations of external funding agencies. Countries have to take loans under certain criteria and regulations because better loans are often not readily available. Therefore taking loans and renewing them to pay the same with new interest rates and conditions makes the governments entangled in the circle of debt. They are forced to compete with well-established multinational companies. If their access to industrialized countries' markets is impaired through protectionism, the developed world will be condemning the indebted nations to perpetual financial crisis. On the other hand, the ability to sell their goods free in the world market is reduced through the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes. Although there are examples of positive effects on certain economies like India, some Third World, and poor countries have experienced the ire of these remedies. This paper tries to find out the effects of SAPs on some borrowing countries. Keywords: IMF, world bank, conditionalities, SAPs, Third World Countries Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/75928

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Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Dongyeob Han, Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Choonghyun Kang Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility. Keywords: building, image matching, temperature, unmanned aerial vehicle Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/85064

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The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López Abstract: This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard. Keywords: emotions, decision making, consumer behaviour, emotional behaviour Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/50052

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27

Self-Care and Risk Behaviors in Primary Caregiver of Cancer Patients

Authors: Ivonne N. Pérez-Sánchez. María L. Rascón- Gasca, Angélica Riveros-Rosas, Rebeca Robles García Abstract: Introduction: Primary caregivers of cancer patients have health problems related to their lack of time, stress, and fiscal strain. Their health problems could affect their patients’ health and also increase the expenses in public health. Aim: To describe self-care and risk behaviors in a sample of Mexican primary caregiver and the relation of these behaviors with emotional distress (caregiver burden, anxiety and depression symptoms), coping and sociodemographic variables. Method: Participated in this study 173 caregivers of a third level reference medical facility (age: M=49.4, SD=13.5) females 78%, males 22%, 57.5% were caregivers of patients with terminal cancer (CPTC), and 40.5% were caregivers of patients on oncology treatment (CPOT). Results: The 75.7% of caregivers reported to have had health problem in last six months as well as several symptoms which were related to emotional distress, these symptoms were more frequently between CPTC and female caregivers. A half (47.3%) of sample reported have had difficulties in caring their health; these difficulties were related to emotional distress and lower coping, more affected caregivers were who attend male patients and CPTC. The 76.8% of caregivers had health problems in last six months, but 26.5% of them waited to search medical care until they were very sick, and 11% didn't do it. Also, more than a half of sample (56.1%) admitted to have risk behaviors as drink alcohol, smoke or overeating for feeling well, these caregivers showed high emotional distress and lower coping. About caregivers healthy behaviors, 80% of them had a hobby; 27.2% do exercise usually and between 12% to 60% did medical checkups (glucose tests, blood pressure and cholesterol tests, eye exams and watched their weight), these caregivers had lower emotional distress and high coping, some variables related health behaviors were: care only one patient or a female patient and be a CPOT, social support, high educational level and experience as a caregiver in past. The half of caregivers were worrying to develop cancer in the future; this idea was 2.5 times more frequent in caregiver with problems to care their health. Conclusions: The results showed a big proportion of caregivers with medical problems. High emotional distress and low coping were related to physical symptoms, risk behaviors, and low self-care; poor self-care was frequently even in caregiver who have chronic illness. Keywords: cancer, primary caregiver, risk behaviors, self-care Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/44841

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Willingness to Pay for Environmental Conservation and Management of Nogas Island and Its Surrounding Waters Among the Residents of Anini-Y, Antique

Authors: Nichole Patricia Pedrina, Karl Jasper Sumande, Alice Joan Ferrer Abstract: Nogas Island situated in the municipality of Anini-y in the province of Antique is endowed with natural resources especially a thriving marine ecosystem that attracts tourists all year round. But despite its beauty and emerging popularity, the island and its surrounding waters remain vulnerable to degradation brought about by anthropocentric activities. An emphasis on the protection and conservation is paramount in order to ensure environmental sustainability over time. This study was conducted in order to determine the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of the local residents of Anini-y, Antique for the conservation of Nogas Island and its surrounding waters. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to determine the WTP of the study participants. In addition, the study also described the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude towards the conservation and the reasons for the willingness to pay off the residents for the conservation of the island and its surrounding waters. A pilot-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from 320 randomly selected study participants in 8 barangays in the municipality of Anini-y from January to December 2017. Binary logit regression was conducted in order to identify factors affecting the study participants’ WTP. The results revealed that 54.69 percent of the study participants were willing to pay (with adjustment to the level of certainty) for the conservation program. The sex, monthly household income, randomly assigned bid price and the knowledge index were the variables that affected the willingness-to-pay of the study participants for both with and without adjustment to the level of certainty. The monthly mean WTP of the study participants with and without adjustment to the level of certainty were P115 and P104.5, respectively. This study can serve as a guide for the municipality of Anini-y in creating a policy or program that aims to conserve and protect Nogas Island and its surrounding waters. Keywords: economic valuation, environmental conservation, total economic value, willingness to pay Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/73689

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Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Professional Burnout, Emotional Intelligence and Health Level in Teachers University of Guayaquil

Authors: Viloria Marin Hermes, Paredes Santiago Maritza, Viloria Paredes Jonathan Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in a sample of 600 professors at the University of Guayaquil (Ecuador) using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.). In addition, assessment was made of the effects on health from professional burnout using the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q.-28), and the influence of Emotional Intelligence on prevention of its symptoms using the Spanish version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (T.M.M.S.-24). After confirmation of the underlying factor structure, the three measurement tools showed high levels of internal consistency, and specific cut-off points were proposed for the group of Latin American academics in the M.B.I. Statistical analysis showed the syndrome is present extensively, particularly on medium levels, with notably low scores given for Professional Self-Esteem. The application of Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that low levels of self-esteem are related to depression, with a lack of personal resources related to anxiety and insomnia, whereas the ability to perceive and control emotions and feelings improves perceptions of professional effectiveness and performance. Keywords: burnout, academics, emotional intelligence, general health, canonical correspondence analysis Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/50111

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Assessing Environmental Psychology and Health Awareness in Delhi: A Fundamental Query for Sustainable Urban Living

Authors: Swati Rajput Abstract: Environmental psychology explains that the person is a social agent that seeks to extract meaning from their built and natural environment to behave in a particular manner. It also shows the attachment or detachment of people to their environment. Assessing environmental psychology of people is imperative for planners and policy makers for urban planning. The paper investigates the environmental psychology of people living in nine districts of Delhi by calculating and assessing their Environmental Emotional Quotient (EEQ). Emotional Quotient deals with the ability to sense, understand, attach and respond according to the power of emotions. An Environmental Emotional Quotient has been formulated based upon the inventory administered to them. The respondents were asked questions related to their view and emotions about the green spaces, water resource conservation, air and environmental quality. An effort has been made to assess the feeling of belongingness among the residents. Their views were assessed on green spaces, reuse, and recycling of resources and their participation level. They were also been assessed upon health awareness level by considering both preventive and curative segments of health care. It was found that only 12 percent of the people is emotionally attached to their surroundings in the city. The emotional attachment reduces as we move away from the house to housing complex to neighbouring areas and rest of the city. In fact, the emotional quotient goes lower to lowest from house to other ends of the city. It falls abruptly after the radius of 1 km from the residence. The result also shows that nearly 54% respondents accept that there is environment pollution in their area. Around 47.8% respondents in the survey consider that diseases occur because of green cover depiction in their area. Major diseases are to airborne diseases like asthma and bronchitis. Seasonal disease prevalent, which specially occurred from last 3-4 years are malaria, dengue and chikengunya. Survey also shows that only 31 % of respondents visit government hospitals while 69% respondents visit private hospitals or small clinics for healthcare services. The paper suggests the need for environmental sensitive policies and need for green insurance in mega cities like Delhi. Keywords: environmental psychology, environmental emotional quotient, preventive health care and curative health care, sustainable living Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/65548

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5G Future Hyper-Dense Networks: An Empirical Study and Standardization Challenges

Authors: W. Hashim, H. Burok, N. Ghazaly, H. Ahmad Nasir, N. Mohamad Anas, A. F. Ismail, K. L. Yau Abstract: Future communication networks require devices that are able to work on a single platform but support heterogeneous operations which lead to service diversity and functional flexibility. This paper proposes two cognitive mechanisms termed cognitive hybrid function which is applied in multiple broadband user terminals in order to maintain reliable connectivity and preventing unnecessary interferences. By employing such mechanisms especially for future hyper-dense network, we can observe their performances in terms of optimized speed and power saving efficiency. Results were obtained from several empirical laboratory studies. It was found that selecting reliable network had shown a better optimized speed performance up to 37% improvement as compared without such function. In terms of power adjustment, our evaluation of this mechanism can reduce the power to 5dB while maintaining the same level of throughput at higher power performance. We also discuss the issues impacting future telecommunication standards whenever such devices get in place. Keywords: dense network, intelligent network selection, multiple networks, transmit power adjustment Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/14147

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22

Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal Abstract: In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising. Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/31493

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Innovative Food Related Modification of the Day-Night Task Demonstrates Impaired Inhibitory Control among Patients with Binge-Purge Eating Disorder

Authors: Sigal Gat-Lazer, Ronny Geva, Dan Ramon, Eitan Gur, Daniel Stein Abstract: Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are common psychopathologies which involve distorted body image and eating disturbances. Binge-purge eating disorders (B/P ED) are characterized by repetitive events of binge eating followed by purges. Patients with B/P ED behavior may be seen as impulsive especially when relate to food stimulation and affective conditions. The current study included innovative modification of the day-night task targeted to assess inhibitory control among patients with B/P ED. Methods: This prospective study included 50 patients with B/P ED during acute phase of illness (T1) upon their admission to specialized ED department in tertiary center. 34 patients repeated the study towards discharge to ambulatory care (T2). Treatment effect was evaluated by BMI and emotional questionnaires regarding depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Control group included 36 healthy controls with matched demographic parameters who performed both T1 and T2 assessments. The current modification is based on the emotional day-night task (EDNT) which involves five emotional stimulation added to the sun and moon pictures presented to participants. In the current study, we designed the food-emotional modification day night task (F-EDNT) food stimulations of egg and banana which resemble the sun and moon, respectively, in five emotional states (angry, sad, happy, scrambled and neutral). During this computerized task, participants were instructed to push on “day” bottom in response to moon and banana stimulations and on “night” bottom when sun and egg were presented. Accuracy (A) and reaction time (RT) were evaluated and compared between EDNT and F-EDNT as a reflection of participants’ inhibitory control. Results: Patients with B/P ED had significantly improved BMI, depression and anxiety scores on T2 compared to T1 (all p< 0.001). Task performance was similar among patients and controls in the EDNT without significant A or RT differences in both T1 and T2. On F-EDNT during T1, B/P ED patients had significantly reduced accuracy in 4/5 emotional stimulation compared to controls: angry (73±25% vs. 84±15%, respectively), sad (69±25% vs. 80±18%, respectively), happy (73±24% vs. 82±18%, respectively) and scrambled (74±24% vs. 84±13%, respectively, all p< 0.05). Additionally, patients’ RT to food stimuli was significantly faster compared to neutral ones, in both cry and neutral emotional stimulations (356±146 vs. 400±141 and 378±124 vs. 412±116 msec, respectively, p< 0.05). These significant differences between groups as a function of stimulus type were diminished on T2. Conclusion: Having to process food related content, in particular in emotional context seems to be impaired in patients with B/P ED during the acute phase of their illness and elicits greater impulsivity. Innovative modification using such procedures seem to be sensitive to patients’ illness phase and thus may be implemented during screening and follow up through the clinical management of these patients. Keywords: binge purge eating disorders, day night task modification, eating disorders, food related stimulations Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/42395

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The Effect of Realizing Emotional Synchrony with Teachers or Peers on Children's Linguistic Proficiency: Case Study of Uji Elementary School

Authors: Reiko Yamamoto Abstract: This paper reports on a joint research project in which a researcher in applied linguistics and elementary school teachers in Japan explored new ways to realize emotional synchrony in a classroom in childhood education. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a cross-curriculum of the first language (L1) and second language (L2) based on the concept of plurilingualism. This concept is common in Europe, and can-do statements are used in forming the standard of linguistic proficiency in any language; these are attributed to the action-oriented approach in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). CEFR has a basic tenet of language education: improving communicative competence. Can-do statements are classified into five categories based on the tenet: reading, writing, listening, speaking/interaction, and speaking/speech. The first approach of this research was to specify the linguistic proficiency of the children, who are still developing their L1. Elementary school teachers brainstormed and specified the linguistic proficiency of the children as the competency needed to synchronize with others – teachers or peers – physically and mentally. The teachers formed original can-do statements in language proficiency on the basis of the idea that emotional synchrony leads to understanding others in communication. The research objectives are to determine the effect of language education based on the newly developed curriculum and can-do statements. The participants of the experiment were 72 third-graders in Uji Elementary School, Japan. For the experiment, 17 items were developed from the can-do statements formed by the teachers and divided into the same five categories as those of CEFR. A can-do checklist consisting of the items was created. The experiment consisted of three steps: first, the students evaluated themselves using the can-do checklist at the beginning of the school year. Second, one year of instruction was given to the students in Japanese and English classes (six periods a week). Third, the students evaluated themselves using the same can-do checklist at the end of the school year. The results of statistical analysis showed an enhancement of linguistic proficiency of the students. The average results of the post-check exceeded that of the pre-check in 12 out of the 17 items. Moreover, significant differences were shown in four items, three of which belonged to the same category: speaking/interaction. It is concluded that children can get to understand others’ minds through physical and emotional synchrony. In particular, emotional synchrony is what teachers should aim at in childhood education. Keywords: elementary school education, emotional synchrony, language proficiency, sympathy with others Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/82385

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Decision Making, Reward Processing and Response Selection

Authors: Benmansour Nassima, Benmansour Souheyla Abstract: The appropriate integration of reward processing and decision making provided by the environment is vital for behavioural success and individuals’ well being in everyday life. Functional neurological investigation has already provided an inclusive image on affective and emotional (motivational) processing in the healthy human brain and has recently focused its interest also on the assessment of brain function in anxious and depressed individuals. This article offers an overview on the theoretical approaches that relate emotion and decision-making, and spotlights investigation with anxious or depressed individuals to reveal how emotions can interfere with decision-making. This research aims at incorporating the emotional structure based on response and stimulation with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. It seeks to show how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions bear out that alterations of decision-making can be considered in terms of altered probability and value subtraction. The utmost objective is to critically determine if the probabilistic representation of belief affords could be a critical approach to scrutinize alterations in probability and value representation in subjective with anxiety and depression, and draw round the general implications of this approach. Keywords: decision-making, motivation, alteration, reward processing, response selection Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/11339

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Differences in Parental Acceptance, Rejection, and Attachment and Associations with Adolescent Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Diana Coyl-Shepherd, Lisa Newland Abstract: Research and theory suggest that parenting and parent-child attachment influence emotional development and well-being. Studies indicate that adolescents often describe differences in relationships with each parent and may form different types of attachment to mothers and fathers. During adolescence and young adulthood, romantic partners may also become attachment figures, influencing well being, and providing a relational context for emotion skill development. Mothers, however, tend to be remain the primary attachment figure; fathers and romantic partners are more likely to be secondary attachment figures. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) participants would rate mothers as more accepting and less rejecting than fathers, 2) participants would rate secure attachment to mothers higher and insecure attachment lower compared to father and romantic partner, 3) parental rejection and insecure attachment would be negatively related to life satisfaction and emotional intelligence, and 4) secure attachment and parental acceptance would be positively related life satisfaction and emotional intelligence. After IRB and informed consent, one hundred fifty adolescents and young adults (ages 11-28, M = 19.64; 71% female) completed an online survey. Measures included parental acceptance, rejection, attachment (i.e., secure, dismissing, and preoccupied), emotional intelligence (i.e., seeking and providing comfort, use, and understanding of self emotions, expressing warmth, understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs), and well-being (i.e., self-confidence and life satisfaction). As hypothesized, compared to fathers’, mothers’ acceptance was significantly higher t (190) = 3.98, p = .000 and rejection significantly lower t (190) = - 4.40, p = .000. Group differences in secure attachment were significant, f (2, 389) = 40.24, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers and between mothers and romantic partners; mothers had the highest mean score. Group differences in preoccupied attachment were significant, f (2, 388) = 13.37, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and romantic partners, and between fathers and romantic partners; mothers have the lowest mean score. However, group differences in dismissing attachment were not significant, f (2, 389) = 1.21, p = .30; scores for mothers and romantic partners were similar; father means score was highest. For hypotheses 3 and 4 significant negative correlations were found between life satisfaction and dismissing parent, and romantic attachment, preoccupied father and romantic attachment, and mother and father rejection variables; secure attachment variables and parental acceptance were positively correlated with life satisfaction. Self-confidence was correlated only with mother acceptance. For emotional intelligence, seeking and providing comfort were negatively correlated with parent dismissing and mother rejection; secure mother and romantic attachment and mother acceptance were positively correlated with these variables. Use and understanding of self-emotions were negatively correlated with parent and partner dismissing attachment, and parent rejection; romantic secure attachment and parent acceptance were positively correlated. Expressing warmth was negatively correlated with dismissing attachment variables, romantic preoccupied attachment, and parent rejection; whereas attachment secure variables were positively associated. Understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs were correlated with parent dismissing and preoccupied attachment variables and mother rejection; only secure father attachment was positively correlated. Keywords: adolescent emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, parent and romantic attachment, parental rejection and acceptance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/77867

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The Pursuit of Marital Sustainability Inspiring by Successful Matrimony of Two Distinguishable Indonesian Ethnics as a Learning Process

Authors: Mutiara Amalina Khairisa, Purnama Arafah, Rahayu Listiana Ramli Abstract: In recent years, so many cases of divorce increasingly occur. Betrayal in form of infidelity, less communication one another, economically problems, selfishness of two sides, intervening parents from both sides which frequently occurs in Asia, especially in Indonesia, the differences of both principles and beliefs, “Sense of Romantism” depletion, role confict, a large difference in the purpose of marriage,and sex satisfaction are expected as the primary factors of the causes of divorce. Every couple of marriage wants to reach happy life in their family but severe problems brought about by either of those main factors come as a reasonable cause of failure marriage. The purpose of this study is to find out how marital adjustment and supporting factors in ensuring the success of that previous marital adjusment are inseparable two things assumed as a framework can affect the success in marriage becoming a resolution to reduce the desires to divorce. Those two inseparable things are able to become an aspect of learning from the success of the different ethnics marriage to keep holding on wholeness. Keywords: marital adjustment, marital sustainability, learning process, successful ethnicity differences marriage, basical cultural values Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/25123

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Designing Program for Developing Self-Esteem of Gifted Children

Authors: Mohammad Jamalallail Abstract: Self-esteem implies a person’s overall self-worth, self-respect, and self-value. It helps a person to maintain good mental health, personality, and achievement. Gifted students face some emotional problems, sometimes, which cause decreases in their self-esteem. Such emotional problems include loneliness, anxiety, and depression as examples. For this reason, designing a counseling program is necessary for gifted students who need a high level of self-esteem. The available counseling programs focused on developmental aspect only to the best of the writer’s knowledge. While the proposed program focuses on both clinical and developmental counseling by applying psychoanalytic play therapy. The proposed program consists of; Theoretical background such as; Behavior, and RET. It also consists of counseling procedures and therapeutic interventions. Keywords: self-esteem, gifted, program, design Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/45687

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Psychopathy Evaluation for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Institute Using Chinese Version of the Psychopathology Inventory

Authors: Lin Fu-Gong Abstract: Background: As WHO announced, people with intellectual disability (ID) were vulnerable to mental health problems. And there were few custom-made mental health scales for those people to monitor their mental health. Those people with mental problems often accompanied worse prognosis and usually became to be a heavier burden on the caregivers. Purpose: In this study, we intend to develop a psychopathy scale as a practical tool for monitoring the mental health for people with ID living in institute. Methods: In this study, we adopt the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults developed by professor Matson with certified reliability and validity in Western countries with Dr. Matson’s agreement in advance. We first translated the inventory into Chinese validated version considering the domestic culture background in the past year. And the validity and reliability evaluation of mental health status using this inventory among the people with intellectual living in the institute were done. Results: The inventory includes eight psychiatric disorder scales as schizophrenic, affective, psychosexual, adjustment, anxiety, somatoform, personality disorders and inappropriate mental adjustment. Around 83% of 40 invested people, who randomly selected from the institute, were found to have at least one disorder who were recommended with medical help by two evaluators. Among the residents examined, somatoform disorder and inappropriate mental adjustment were most popular with 60% and 78% people respectively. Conclusion: The result showed the prevalence psychiatric disorders were relatively high among people with ID in institute and the mental problems need to be further cared and followed for their mental health. The results showed that the psychopathology inventory was a useful tool for institute caregiver, manager and for long-term care policy to the government. In the coming stage, we plan to extend the use of the valid Chinese version inventory among more different type institutes for people with ID to establish their dynamic mental health status including medical need, relapse and rehabilitation to promote their mental health. Keywords: intellectual disability, psychiatric disorder, psychopathology inventory, mental health, the institute Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/90178

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Neural Network Based Control Algorithm for Inhabitable Spaces Applying Emotional Domotics

Authors: Sergio A. Navarro Tuch, Martin Rogelio Bustamante Bello, Leopoldo Julian Lechuga Lopez Abstract: In recent years, Mexico’s population has seen a rise of different physiological and mental negative states. Two main consequences of this problematic are deficient work performance and high levels of stress generating and important impact on a person’s physical, mental and emotional health. Several approaches, such as the use of audiovisual stimulus to induce emotions and modify a person’s emotional state, can be applied in an effort to decreases these negative effects. With the use of different non-invasive physiological sensors such as EEG, luminosity and face recognition we gather information of the subject’s current emotional state. In a controlled environment, a subject is shown a series of selected images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in order to induce a specific set of emotions and obtain information from the sensors. The raw data obtained is statistically analyzed in order to filter only the specific groups of information that relate to a subject’s emotions and current values of the physical variables in the controlled environment such as, luminosity, RGB light color, temperature, oxygen level and noise. Finally, a neural network based control algorithm is given the data obtained in order to feedback the system and automate the modification of the environment variables and audiovisual content shown in an effort that these changes can positively alter the subject’s emotional state. During the research, it was found that the light color was directly related to the type of impact generated by the audiovisual content on the subject’s emotional state. Red illumination increased the impact of violent images and green illumination along with relaxing images decreased the subject’s levels of anxiety. Specific differences between men and women were found as to which type of images generated a greater impact in either gender. The population sample was mainly constituted by college students whose data analysis showed a decreased sensibility to violence towards humans. Despite the early stage of the control algorithm, the results obtained from the population sample give us a better insight into the possibilities of emotional domotics and the applications that can be created towards the improvement of performance in people’s lives. The objective of this research is to create a positive impact with the application of technology to everyday activities; nonetheless, an ethical problem arises since this can also be applied to control a person’s emotions and shift their decision making. Keywords: data analysis, emotional domotics, performance improvement, neural network Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/91269

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An Evaluation of Self-Esteem in Physically Disabled Adults Who Particapated in Sports

Authors: Ummuhan Bas Aslan, Sehmus Aslan Abstract: Objective: Physical disability includes impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Individuals with physical disabilities have lower self-esteem compared non-disabled people. Self-esteem is widely accepted as a key indicator of emotional stability and adjustment to life demands. There is very limited study to investigate the effect of sports on self-esteem in physically disabled people. The aim of the present study was to evaluate of self-esteem in physically disabled adults who participated in sports. Methods: Fifty physically disabled adults who participated in sports aged between 18 to 35 years participated in the study. Self-esteem of the participants was assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The scale is a 10-item measure of global self-esteem. The higher score on the scale indicates greater self-esteem. Scores between 15 and 25 are the normal range of and scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem. Results: Average age of participants was 25.18±6.20 years. 58% of the participants were 23 (46.0%) of the participants were wheelchair users, 8 (16.0%) were mobile with a walking aid and 19 (38.0%) were mobile without a walking aid. The length of physically disabled adults had been participating in their sports (basketball: 54%, athleticism: 32%, volleyball: 6%, cycling: 6%) was 4.94±3.86 years. The average Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale score of the participants was 21.88 ±4.34. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physically disabled adults who participated in sports have the healthy level of self-esteem. Participating in sports could have positive effects on self-esteem in that physically, disabled people. There is needed future comparative studies on this topic. Keywords: adult, physical disability, self-esteem, sport Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/64305

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An Examination of Some Determinates of Work Performance in Kuwaiti Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad Abstract: The study investigates the effect of some determinates of work performance in Kuwaiti business organizations. The study postulates that employee attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction), behaviors (organizational citizenship behavior, job involvement), and emotional intelligence will have positive effects on work performance. Survey data were collected from 204 employees working in eight Kuwaiti work organizations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the study hypotheses; employee attitudes of organizational commitment and job satisfaction was found to have a significant positive effect on work performance. Organizational citizenship behavior and job involvement were also found to have positive effect on work performance. Findings also revealed that an in increase in emotional intelligent will cause performance to increase. Results of the current study were compared and contrasted to findings of previous studies. The theoretical and empirical application of the findings were explained. Limitation of the current study was discussed and topics for future research were proposed. Keywords: organizational commitment, Job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, job involvement, emotional intelligence , work performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10.1999/1307-6892/83828

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11

Genetic and Environmental Variation in Reproductive and Lactational Performance of Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf Ward Abstract: Effect of calving interval on 305 day milk yield for first three lactations was studied in order to increase efficiency of selection schemes and to more efficiently manage Holstein cows that have been raised on small farms in Libya. Results obtained by processing data of 1476 cows, managed in 935 small scale farms, pointed out that current calving interval significantly affects on milk production for first three lactations (p< 0.05). Preceding calving interval affected 305 day milk yield (p< 0.05) in second lactation only. Linear regression model accounted for 20-25 % of the total variance of 305 day milk yield Extension of calving interval over 420 430 450 days for first second and third lactations respectively did not increase milk production when converted to 305 day lactation Stochastic relations between calving interval and calving age and month are moderated Values of Pierson’s correlation coefficients ranged 0 38 to 0 69 Adjustment of milk production in order to reduce effect of calving interval on total phenotypic variance of milk yield is valid for first lactation only Adjustment of 305 day milk yield for second and third lactations in order to reduce effects of factors “calving age and month” brings about at the same time elimination of calving interval effect Keywords: milk yield Holstien non genetic calving Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/18095

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The Effectiveness of the Counselling Module in Counseling Interventions For Low Performance Employees

Authors: Hazaila Hassan Abstract: This research aims and discusses about the effectiveness of the Psynnova i-Behaviour Modification Technique (iBMT) module towards the change in behaviour of low-performing employees The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness of the Psynnova Module on changing behaviour through five factors among low-performing employees in the public sector The five main factors/constructs were cognitive enhancement and rationality emotional stability attitude alignment and adjustment social skills development and psycho-spirituality enhancement In this research 5 main constructs will be using to indicate behaviour changing performance of the employees after attending The Psynnova Program that using this Psynnova IBMT Module The respondents are among those who have low scores in terms of annual performance through annual performance value reports and have gone through various stages before being required to attend Psynnova Program Besides that the research plan was also to critically examine and understand the change in behaviour among the low-performing employees through the five dimensions in the Psynnova Module A total of 50 respondent will purposively sampled to be the respondents of this research This study will use the Experimental Method to One Group Purposively Pre and Post Test using the Time Series Design Experimental SPSS software version 22 0 will be used to analyse this data Hopefully this research can see the changing of their behaviour in five factors as an indicator to the respondent after attending the Psynnova Programme Findings from this study are also used to propose to assisting psychologist to see the changes that occurred to the respondents with the best framework of behaviour changing for them Keywords: five dimension of behaviour changing among adult low performance modul effectiveness Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/82875

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Emotional Intelligence in Educational Arena and Its Pragmatic Concerns

Authors: Mehar Fatima Abstract: This study intends to make analysis of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the process of pedagogy and look into its repercussions in different educational institutions including school college and university in the capital state of India Delhi in 2015 Field of education is a complex area with challenging issues in a modern society Education is the breeding ground for nurturing human souls and personalities Since antiquity man has been in search of truth wisdom contentment peace His efforts have brought him to acquire these through hardship evidently through the process of teaching and learning Computer aids and artificial intelligence have made life easy but complex Efficient pedagogy involves direct human intervention despite the flux of technological advancements Time and again pedagogical practices demand sincere human efforts to understand and improve upon life’s many pragmatic concerns Apart from the intense academic scientific approaches EI in academia plays a vital role in the growth of education positively achieving national progression; ‘pedagogy of pragmatic purpose ’ Use of literature is found to be one of the valuable pragmatic tools of Emotional Intelligence This research examines the way literature provides useful influence in building better practices in teaching-learning process The present project also scrutinizes various pieces of world literature and translation incorporating efforts of intellectuals in promoting comprehensive amity The importance of EI in educational arena with its pragmatic uses was established by the study of interviews and questionnaire collected from teachers and students In summary the analysis of obtained empirical data makes it possible to accomplish that the use Emotional Intelligence in academic scenario yields multisided positive pragmatic outcomes; positive attitude constructive aptitude value-added learning enthusiastic participation creative thinking lower apprehension diminished fear leading to individual as well as collective advancement progress and growth of pedagogical agents Keywords: emotional intelligence human efforts pedagogy pragmatic concerns Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/38588

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8

Perceived Self-Efficacy of Children with Characteristics of Giftedness

Authors: Cristina Costa-Lobo Ana Medeiros Ana Campina Abstract: This study refers to the appropriateness of the psychopedagogical intervention programs focused on the adjustment and psychological well-being of children with characteristics of giftedness and the interests of promoting specialized and permanent follow-up to these children It was intended to find out the impact on perceived self-efficacy in children with characteristics of giftedness after the frequency of a psychopedagogical intervention program For this was applied to Multidimensional Scale Perceived Self-Efficacy in two times (pre and post program frequency) in a quasi-experimental design Innovative data are presented in reports to the relationship of perceived self-efficacy with giftedness highlighting the evidence of this program focusing on the development of personal social and emotional skills applied to 20 children with characteristics of giftedness in Northern Portugal in the 2014-2015 school year have no influence on perceived self-efficacy of children with characteristics of giftedness The main implication of this research is congruent with the conclusions of studies that point that the greatest challenge in the education of children with characteristics of giftedness is to extend the traditional investment in intellectual production and creative capital to include an equal investment in social capital and the development of competencies of executive functions dimensions that development programs stimulate This study appeals to the need of children with characteristics of giftedness to be targets of psychopedagogical intervention programs with the constant specialization and constant updating of the knowledge of the professionals who work with them motivated by being individuals with such specific and ever-changing characteristics reflecting an inclusive school life Keywords: giftedness perceived self-efficacy EMAEP psychopedagogical intervention programs Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/70615

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Creativity and Expressive Interpretation of Musical Drama in Children with Special Needs (Down Syndrome) in Special Schools Yayasan Pendidikan Anak Cacat, Medan, North Sumatera

Authors: Junita Batubara Abstract: Children with special needs especially those with disability in mental physical or social/emotional interactions are marginalized Many people still view them as troublesome inconvenience having learning difficulties unproductive and burdensome to society This study intends to investigate; how musical drama can develop the ability to control the coordination of mental functions; how musical dramas can assist children to work together; how musical dramas can assist to maintain the child s emotional and physical health; how musical dramas can improve children creativity The objectives of the research are: To know whether musical drama can control the coordination of mental function of children; to know whether musical drama can improve communication ability and expression of children; to know whether musical drama can help children work with people around them; to find out if musical dramas can develop the child s emotional and physical health; to find out if musical drama can improve children s creativity The study employed a qualitative research approach Data was collecting by listening observing in depth through public hearings that select the key informants who were teachers and principals parents and children The data obtained from each public hearing was then processed (reduced) conclusion drawing/verification presentation of data (data display) Furthermore the model obtained was implementing for musical performance where the benefits of the show are: musical drama can improve language skills; musical dramas are capable of developing memory and storage of information; developing communication skills and express themselves; helping children work together; assisting emotional and physical health; enhancing creativity Keywords: children Down syndrome music drama script performance Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/75400

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Positive Behaviour Management Strategies: An Action Research Conducted in a Kindergarten Classroom in Remote Regional Queensland

Authors: Suxiang Yu Abstract: As an early childhood teacher in a socially and economically highly disadvantaged suburb in regional QLD the author endeavors to find out effective positive approaches to behavior management for a classroom that is overwhelmed with challenging behaviors After evaluating the first-hand data collected from the action research the author summarizes a few innovative positive behavior management strategies The research also implies that behavior management opportunities are actually great social and emotional teachable moments and by tapping into those teachable moments effectively the teacher and children will have a closer relationship Keywords: action research behavior management classroom strategies social and emotional teaching Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/89323

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Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Anucha Taiwong Nirobol Kanogsunthornrat Abstract: This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form unpleasant symptom form and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics factor analysis and multiple regression analysis Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions peripheral nerves abnormality fatigue gastro-intestinal tract pain and waste congestion Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = - 220; p < 05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=- 204; p Keywords: chronic kidney disease symptom clusters predictors of quality of life pre-dialysis Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/85629

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Role of Self-Concept in the Relationship between Emotional Abuse and Mental Health of Employees in the North West Province, South Africa

Authors: L Matlawe E S Idemudia Abstract: The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids The objectives of this paper are the modeling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation so they were designed and modeled in this paper The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters According to the achieved results the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid Keywords: emotional abuse employees mental health self-concept Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/46608

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Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal Tony Long Abstract: The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer Methodology: A descriptive correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015 Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided but their emotional needs were not met adequately Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach Keywords: parents children cancer Jordan Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/66753

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Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Support and Wellbeing in People with Vitiligo

Authors: Rafia Rafique Mutmina Zainab Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between fear of negative evaluation (FNE) social support and well-being in people with Vitiligo It was hypothesized that low level of FNE and greater social support is likely to predict wellbeing It was also hypothesized that social support is likely to moderate the relationship between FNE and well-being Correlational research design was used for the present study Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect a sample (N=122) of people with Vitiligo Hierarchical Moderated Regression analysis was used to test prediction and moderation Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mental Health Continuum-Short form (MHC-SF) were used to evaluate the study variables Fear of negative evaluation negatively predicted well-being (emotional and psychological) Social support from significant others and friends predicted social well-being Social Support from family predicted emotional and psychological well-being It was found that social support from significant others moderated the relationship between FNE and emotional wellbeing and social support from family moderated the relationship between FNE and social well-being Dermatologists treating people with Vitiligo need to educate them and their families about the buffering role of social support (family and significant others) Future studies need to focus on other important mediating factors that can possibly explain the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and wellbeing Keywords: fear of negative evaluation hierarchical moderated regression vitiligo well-being Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/70611

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The association of Work Stress with Job Satisfaction and Occupational Burnout in Nurse Anesthetists

Authors: I Ling Tsai Shu Fen Wu Chen-Fuh Lam Chia Yu Chen Shu Jiuan Chen Yen Lin Liu Abstract: Background: Following the conduction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan since 1995 the demand for anesthesia services continues to increase in the operating rooms and other medical units It has been well recognized that increased work stress not only affects the clinical performance of the medical staff long-term work load may also result in occupational burnout Our study aimed to determine the influence of working environment work stress and job satisfaction on the occupational burnout in nurse anesthetists The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a strategy in establishing a friendly less stressful workplace for the nurse anesthetists to enhance their job satisfaction thereby reducing occupational burnout and increasing the career life for nurse anesthetists Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study performed in a metropolitan teaching hospital in the southern Taiwan between May 2017 to July 2017 A structured self-administered questionnaire modified from the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) Occupational Stress Indicator 2 (OSI-2) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) manual was collected from the nurse anesthetists The relationships between two numeric datasets were analyzed by the Pearson correlation test (SPSS 20 0) Results: A total of 66 completed questionnaires were collected from 75 nurses (response rate 88%) The average scores for working environment job satisfaction and work stress were 69 6% 61 5% and 63 9% respectively The three perspectives used to assess the occupational burnout namely emotional exhaustion depersonalization and sense of personal accomplishment were 26 3 13 0 and 24 5 suggesting the presence of moderate to high degrees of burnout in our nurse anesthetists The presence of occupational burnout was closely correlated with unsatisfactory working environment (r=- 385 P=0 001) and reduced job satisfaction (r=- 430 P=0 000) Junior nurse anesthetists ( Keywords: nurse anesthetists working environment work stress job satisfaction occupational burnout Digital Article Identifier (DAI): urn:dai:10 1999/1307-6892/85606

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© 2018 World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology

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Emotional Adjustment

International Science Index Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International author, title, abstract, keywords, journal title 2...

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