CSC 345 Operating System

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CSC 345
 
 Operating System
 Box Leangsuksun 
 www.latech.edu/~box
 !

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

2.1!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures!

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures! ■  Operating System Services! ■  User Operating System Interface! ■  System Calls! ■  Types of System Calls! ■  System Programs! ■  Operating System Design and Implementation! ■  Operating System Structure! ■  Virtual Machines! ■  Operating System Generation! ■  System Boot! ■  System Protections!

Operating System Concepts!

2.3!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Objectives! ■  To describe the services an operating system provides to users,

processes, and other systems! ■  To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system! ■  To explain how operating systems are installed and customized

and how they boot ■  Hareware Protections!

Operating System Concepts!

2.4!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Services! ■  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user

interface (UI)! ● 

Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Voice UI (e.g. SIRI), Batch!

■  API – system & utility function calls! ■  Program execution - The system must be able to load a

program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)! ■  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which

may involve a file or an I/O device. ! ■  File-system - read and write files and directories, create and

delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management.! Operating System Concepts!

2.5!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Services (Cont.)! ■  Communications – Processes may exchange information, on

the same computer or between computers over a network! ● 

Communications may be via shared memory or through message passing (packets moved by the OS)!

■  Error detection – OS needs to be constantly aware of possible

errors! ● 

May occur in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, in user program!

● 

For each type of error, OS should take the appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing!

● 

Debugging facilities can greatly enhance the user’s and programmer’s abilities to efficiently use the system!

Operating System Concepts!

2.6!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Services (Cont.)! ■  Resource allocation - When multiple users or multiple jobs

running concurrently, resources must be allocated to each of them! ●  Many types of resources - Some (such as CPU cycles,mainmemory, and file storage) may have special allocation code, others (such as I/O devices) may have general request and release code. ! ■  Accounting - To keep track of which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources!

Operating System Concepts!

2.7!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Services (Cont.)! ■  Protection and security - The owners of information stored in

a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes should not interfere with each other! ● 

Protection involves ensuring that all access to system resources is controlled!

● 

Security of the system from outsiders requires user authentication, extends to defending external I/O devices from invalid access attempts!

● 

If a system is to be protected and secure, precautions must be instituted throughout it. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.!

Operating System Concepts!

2.8!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Two main ways to access system & system resources! ■  User interface – direct user

interaction – system programs! ■  System calls via user applications!

Operating System Concepts!

2.9!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

User Operating System Interface - CLI! CLI allows direct command entry! ● 

Sometimes implemented in kernel, sometimes by systems program!

● 

multiple flavors implemented – shells!

● 

Primarily fetches a command from user and executes it! ! Sometimes

commands built-in, sometimes just names of programs! – 

Operating System Concepts!

If the latter, adding new features doesn’t require shell modification!

2.10!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

User Operating System Interface - GUI! ■  User-friendly desktop metaphor interface! ● 

Usually mouse, keyboard, and monitor!

● 

Icons represent files, programs, actions, etc!

● 

Various mouse buttons over objects in the interface cause various actions (provide information, options, execute function, open directory (known as a folder)!

● 

Invented at Xerox PARC!

■  Many systems now include both CLI and GUI interfaces! ● 

Microsoft Windows is GUI with CLI “command” shell!

● 

Apple Mac OS X as “Aqua” GUI interface with UNIX kernel underneath and shells available!

● 

Solaris is CLI with optional GUI interfaces (Java Desktop, KDE)!

Operating System Concepts!

2.11!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Calls! ■  Programming interface to the services provided by the OS! ■  Typically written and used in a high-level language (C or C++)! ■  Mostly accessed by programs via a high-level Application

Program Interface (API) rather than direct system call use! ■  Three most common APIs are Win32 API for Windows, POSIX API

for POSIX-based systems (including virtually all versions of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X), and Java API for the Java virtual machine (JVM)! ■  


! !(Note that the system-call names used throughout this text are generic)!

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2.12!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Linux/Unix System Calls! ■  Linux/UNIX has about 60 system calls ! ■  The most calls are written in C. ! ■  can be accessed from C programs. ! ■  There are similar system programs that provide similar system call

features/services ! ■  Basic I/0! ■  Process control (creation, termination, execution)! ■  File operations and permission ! ■  System status !

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Example of System Calls! ■  System call sequence to copy the contents of one file to another

file!

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2.14!

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System Call Implementation! ■  Typically, a number associated with each system call! ● 

System-call interface maintains a table indexed according to these numbers!

■  The system call interface invokes intended system call in OS kernel

and returns status of the system call and any return values! ■  The caller need know nothing about how the system call is

implemented! ● 

Just needs to obey API and understand what OS will do as a result call!

● 

Most details of OS interface hidden from programmer by API ! !  Managed

by run-time support library (set of functions built into libraries included with compiler)!

Operating System Concepts!

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API – System Call – OS Relationship!

Operating System Concepts!

2.16!

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Standard C Library Example! ■  C program invoking printf() library call, which calls write() system call!

Operating System Concepts!

2.17!

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Stop Mar 25! ■  Important Announcement: !

! Midterm Exam April 10, 2014.!

Operating System Concepts!

2.18!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Call Parameter Passing! ■  Often, more information is required than simply identity of desired

system call! ●  Exact type and amount of information vary according to OS and call! ■  Three general methods used to pass parameters to the OS! 1. 

2. 

3. 

● 

Simplest: pass the parameters in registers! !  In some cases, may be more parameters than registers! Parameters stored in a block, or table, in memory, and address of block passed as a parameter in a register ! !  This approach taken by Linux and Solaris! Parameters placed, or pushed, onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system! Block and stack methods do not limit the number or length of parameters being passed!

Operating System Concepts!

2.19!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Parameter Passing via Table!

Operating System Concepts!

2.20!

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Types of System Calls! ■  Process control! ■  File management! ■  Device management! ■  Information maintenance! ■  Communications!

!

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2.21!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Programs! ■  System programs provide a convenient environment for program

development and execution. The can be divided into:! ● 

File manipulation !

● 

Status information!

● 

File modification!

● 

Programming language support!

● 

Program loading and execution!

● 

Communications!

● 

Application programs!

■  Most users’ view of the operation system is defined by system

programs, not the actual system calls!

Operating System Concepts!

2.22!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Programs! ■  Provide a convenient environment for program development and execution! ● 

Some of them are simply user interfaces to system calls; others are considerably more complex!

■  File management - Create, delete, copy, rename, print, dump, list, and

generally manipulate files and directories! ■  Status information! ● 

Some ask the system for info - date, time, amount of available memory, disk space, number of users!

● 

Others provide detailed performance, logging, and debugging information!

● 

Typically, these programs format and print the output to the terminal or other output devices!

● 

Some systems implement a registry - used to store and retrieve configuration information!

!

Operating System Concepts!

2.23!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Programs (cont’d)! ■  File modification!

Text editors to create and modify files! ●  Special commands to search contents of files or perform transformations of the text! ■  Programming-language support - Compilers, assemblers, debuggers and interpreters sometimes provided! ● 

■  Program loading and execution- Absolute loaders, relocatable

loaders, linkage editors, and overlay-loaders, debugging systems for higher-level and machine language! ■  Communications - Provide the mechanism for creating virtual

connections among processes, users, and computer systems! ●  Allow users to send messages to one another’s screens, browse web pages, send electronic-mail messages, log in remotely, transfer files from one machine to another!

Operating System Concepts!

2.24!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Design and Implementation! ■  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some

approaches have proven successful! ■  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely! ■  Start by defining goals and specifications ! ■  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system! ■  User goals and System goals! ● 

User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast!

● 

System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient!

Operating System Concepts!

2.25!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Operating System Design and Implementation (Cont.)! ■  Important principle to separate!

!Policy: What will be done? 
 Mechanism: How to do it?! ■  Mechanisms determine how to do something, policies decide what

will be done! ● 

The separation of policy from mechanism is a very important principle, it allows maximum flexibility if policy decisions are to be changed later!

! !

Operating System Concepts!

2.26!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

A Quick Tour on various OS Implementations!

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

UNIX System Structure!

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2.28!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Unix/Linux Kernel interface!

Note:Concepts! This picture Operating System Operating System Concepts!

is excerpted from Write a Linux Hardware Device Driver, Andrew O’Shauqhnessy, Unix world Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005! 2.29!

Mac OS!

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

2.30!

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Android!

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

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IOS!

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

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Window!

Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts!

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Simple Structure ! ■  MS-DOS – written to provide the most functionality in the least

space! ● 

Not divided into modules!

● 

Although MS-DOS has some structure, its interfaces and levels of functionality are not well separated!

Operating System Concepts!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

MS-DOS Layer Structure!

Operating System Concepts!

2.35!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Layered Approach! ■  The operating system is divided into a number of layers (levels),

each built on top of lower layers. The bottom layer (layer 0), is the hardware; the highest (layer N) is the user interface.! ■  With modularity, layers are selected such that each uses functions

(operations) and services of only lower-level layers!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Layered Operating System!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

UNIX! ■  UNIX – limited by hardware functionality, the original UNIX operating

system had limited structuring. The UNIX OS consists of two separable parts! ● 

Systems programs!

● 

The kernel! !  Consists

of everything below the system-call interface and above the physical hardware!

!  Provides

the file system, CPU scheduling, memory management, and other operating-system functions; a large number of functions for one level!

Operating System Concepts!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

UNIX System Structure!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Microkernel System Structure ! ■  Moves as much from the kernel into “user” space! ■  Communication takes place between user modules using message

passing! ■  Benefits:! ● 

Easier to extend a microkernel!

● 

Easier to port the operating system to new architectures!

● 

More reliable (less code is running in kernel mode)!

● 

More secure!

■  Detriments:! ● 

Performance overhead of user space to kernel space communication!

Operating System Concepts!

2.40!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Mac OS X Structure!

Operating System Concepts!

2.41!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Modules! ■  Most modern operating systems implement kernel modules! ● 

Uses object-oriented approach!

● 

Each core component is separate!

● 

Each talks to the others over known interfaces!

● 

Each is loadable as needed within the kernel!

■  Overall, similar to layers but with more flexible!

Operating System Concepts!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Solaris Modular Approach!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Virtual Machines! ■  A virtual machine takes the layered approach to its logical

conclusion. It treats hardware and the operating system kernel as though they were all hardware! ■  A virtual machine provides an interface identical to the

underlying bare hardware! ■  Virtualization gives an illusion of multiple machines (complete

hardware & OS). ! ■  The operating system creates the illusion of multiple

processes, each executing on its own processor with its own (virtual) memory!

Operating System Concepts!

2.44!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Virtual Machines (Cont.)! ■  The resources of the physical computer are shared to create the

virtual machines! ● 

CPU scheduling can create the appearance that users have their own processor!

● 

Spooling and a file system can provide virtual card readers and virtual line printers!

● 

A normal user time-sharing terminal serves as the virtual machine operator’s console!

● 

A key enabler is VMM (Virtural Machine Monitor)!

Operating System Concepts!

2.45!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Virtual Machines (Cont.)! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Non-virtual Machine!

Virtual Machine!

! ! (a) Nonvirtual machine (b) virtual machine!

Operating System Concepts!

2.46!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Virtual Machines (Cont.)! ■  The virtual-machine concept provides complete protection of system

resources since each virtual machine is isolated from all other virtual machines. This isolation, however, permits no direct sharing of resources.! ■  A virtual-machine system is a perfect vehicle for operating-systems

research and development. System development is done on the virtual machine, instead of on a physical machine and so does not disrupt normal system operation.! ■  The virtual machine concept is difficult to implement due to the effort

required to provide an exact duplicate to the underlying machine!

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VMware Architecture!

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The Java Virtual Machine!

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2.49!

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Operating System Generation! ■  Operating systems are designed to run on any of a class of

machines; the system must be configured for each specific computer site! ■  SYSGEN program obtains information concerning the specific

configuration of the hardware system! ■  Booting – starting a computer by loading the kernel! ■  Bootstrap program – code stored in ROM that is able to locate the

kernel, load it into memory, and start its execution! !

Operating System Concepts!

2.50!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

System Boot! ■  Operating system must be made available to hardware so

hardware can start it! ● 

Small piece of code – bootstrap loader, locates the kernel, loads it into memory, and starts it!

● 

Sometimes two-step process where boot block at fixed location loads bootstrap loader!

● 

When power initialized on system, execution starts at a fixed memory location! !  Firmware

Operating System Concepts!

used to hold initial boot code!

2.51!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Hardware Protection! ■  Dual-Mode Operation! ■  I/O Protection! ■  Memory Protection! ■  CPU Protection!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.52!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Dual-Mode Operation! ■  Sharing system resources requires

operating system to ensure that an incorrect program cannot cause other programs to execute incorrectly.! ■  Provide hardware support to differentiate

between at least two modes of operations.! 1.!User mode – execution done on behalf of a user.! 2.!Monitor mode (also kernel mode or system mode) – execution done on behalf of operating system. ! Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.53!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Dual-Mode Operation (Cont.)! ■  Mode bit added to computer hardware to

indicate the current mode: monitor (0) or user (1).! ■  When an interrupt or fault occurs

hardware switches to monitor mode.! Privileged instructions can be issued only in monitor mode. !

Interrupt/fault! monitor!

user! set user mode!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.54!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

I/O Protection! ■  All I/O instructions are privileged

instructions.! ■  Must ensure that a user program

could never gain control of the computer in monitor mode (I.e., a user program that, as part of its execution, stores a new address in the interrupt vector). !

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Use of A System Call to Perform I/O!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.56!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Memory Protection! ■  Must provide memory protection at least for the

interrupt vector and the interrupt service routines.! ■  In order to have memory protection, add two

registers that determine the range of legal addresses a program may access:! ● 

Base register – holds the smallest legal physical memory address.!

● 

Limit register – contains the size of the range !

■  Memory outside the defined range is protected.!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.57!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

Use of A Base and Limit Register!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

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Hardware Address Protection!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.59!

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Hardware Protection! ■  When executing in monitor mode, the

operating system has unrestricted access to both monitor and user’s memory.! ■  The load instructions for the base and

limit registers are privileged instructions.!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.60!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

CPU Protection!

■  Timer – interrupts computer after specified period

to ensure operating system maintains control.! ● 

Timer is decremented every clock tick.!

● 

When timer reaches the value 0, an interrupt occurs.!

■  Timer commonly used to implement time sharing.! ■  Time also used to compute the current time.! ■  Load-timer is a privileged instruction.!

Operating System Concepts!

Operating System Concepts!

2.61!

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005!

The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.

End of Chapter 2!

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CSC 345 Operating System

CSC 345
 
 Operating System
 Box Leangsuksun 
 www.latech.edu/~box
 ! Operating System Concepts! Operating System Concepts! 2.1! Silberschatz, Galv...

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