Animal models

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Animal models Daniel L Small and Alastair M Buchan Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Animal models of cerebral ischaemia mimic at best less than 25% of all strokes. Compounds which prove efficacious in animal models should, therefore, only be expected to improve outcome in a quarter of all strokes. If trials for acute stroke are to succeed, stroke subgroups represented by the animal models should be targeted. For the other subgroups, e.g. lacunar stroke, appropriate animal models need to be developed. Moreover, thrombolysis should be included in animal models because it is likely to be used as a first line treatment for ischaemic stroke and any future therapeutics will need to be compatible with it.

The publication of the NINDS tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) Trial in December 1995 demonstrated unequivocally that stroke in humans is treatable. However, the need for an agent which affords neuroprotection and which stabilizes resuscitated brains during reperfusion is paramount, particularly given the very limited window of therapeutic opportunity (<3 h) which thrombolysis offers and the fact that most stroke victims do not seek immediate medical attention. The ability to model cerebral ischaemia and to provide a testing ground for novel compounds has made the utilization of animal models essential prior to launching any clinical trials. Although many models have been developed, the resulting ischaemia can be broadly classified as either global or focal. Much criticism is levied at the use of the global model, which mimics the human condition of cardiac arrest rather than focal stroke, but the precision with which a global ischaemic insult can induce damage to neurons gives investigators a precise and quantifiable modality in which to assess the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, before advancing to focal ischaemia where there are many more variables that need to be controlled. There are many compounds which appear to work in focal ischaemia, but a critical review of the last 10 years reveals very few, if any, compounds which consistently achieve neuroprotection in models of severe global ischaemia1. Correspondence to. Dr Daniel L Small, Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Building M-54, Montreal Road, Ottawa K1A 0R6, Canada

Global models The global model of cerebral ischaemia consists of a brief (5-15 min) near complete cessation of cerebral blood flow, followed by reperfusion.

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Table 1 Models of global ischaemia Two-vessel occlusion model in gerbil Transient bilateral occlusion of common carotids Two-vessel occlusion model in rat Transient bilateral occlusion of common carotids plus hypotension (-50 mmHg) Four-vessel occlusion model in rat Transient bilateral occlusion of common carotids plus permanent bilateral occlusion of vertebral arteries Miscellaneous Cardiac arrest Decapitation Neck Tourniquet Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure

Decapitation models do not allow for reperfusion and result in a very different pathology2. Cardiac arrest models of global ischaemia most closely mimic cardiac arrest in man, but complicating systemic effects (e.g. renal, hepatic and myocardial injury) and the difficulty of resuscitating an animal following brainstem ischaemia, increase the morbidity of these models. These problems have led to the utilization of models where global ischaemia is, in fact, severe forebrain ischaemia. Flow continues to the brainstem allowing animals the ability to spontaneously ventilate and consequently there is an increase in the number of survivors. Although there are many ways of inducing the interruption of flow in severe forebrain ischaemia, most models utilize occlusion of the common carotids (Table 1). There are 3 predominant models. The simplest, and therefore most popular, global model for screening novel neuroprotectants is the 2 vessel occlusion in gerbils. Bilateral occlusion of the common carotids in this model is sufficient to produce severe forebrain ischaemia, because gerbils lack posterior communicating arteries (PComA) necessary to complete the circle of Willis which, in humans and rats, permits collateral blood flow. The disadvantages of this model are that, although there is delayed and selective neuronal death produced, the results are variable because of variability in the collateral flow and development of the PComA3. The small size of gerbils also lends to difficulties in monitoring physiological variables and the behavioural testing following the insult are restricted to simple tests, e.g. hyperlocomotor activity4. The two-vessel occlusion rat model with hypotension is also surgically simple and, therefore, permits rapid screening. It produces delayed and selective neuronal death and a reliable measure of damage by way of histology and behaviour testing. Monitoring of physiological variables is 308 Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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carried out with relative ease. The only real disadvantages of this model are that, because of the need to induce hypotension, many physiological variables will be altered beyond the control of the experimenter. Modest deviations from the generally accepted 50 mmHg of hypotension required for this model and the variability in the collateral circulation between animals, strains and suppliers can potentially produce profound changes in the severity of the insult5. The 4-vessel occlusion rat model is a more difficult surgical procedure. A day before the carotids are occluded, the anterior vertebrals are permanently occluded by electrocauterization. This is often a source of error. Either the vertebrals are insufficiently occluded or the Cl vertebrate is excessively heated, resulting in damage to the medulla and an increase in the mortality resulting from surgery because the animals experience respiratory difficulties. Similarly, problems with gaining access to the vertebrals can result in excess muscle trauma and myoglobinurea postoperatively. There is a marked mortality after the first stage operation but, in laboratories with skilled surgeons, this becomes minimal with experience5. The advantage of this model is that there is opportunity to measure physiological variables in the absence of anaesthesia or hypotension. In addition, delayed and selective neuronal death can be combined with reliable measurements of damage which include behavioural testing. This model is associated with less variability than most models, when the surgery is carried out successfully. As with any model there is still some variability which can exist between species of rat and even between batches of animals from the same strain and supplier6"8. Differences in vulnerability to ischaemia between strains will be discussed below with reference to transgenic mice. The delayed and selective death following global ischaemia has been well characterized and is similar among all global models. The histopathology varies with the duration of ischaemia. With a relatively brief insult of 10 min, there is selective damage to the CA1 region of the hippocampus which occurs from about 3-7 days9. The rate of death in this region can be accelerated or slowed somewhat by increasing or decreasing the severity of the insult (Fig. I) 10 . After a critical threshold in duration, death processes, rather than protective preconditioning processes are initiated. The rate of death subsequent to crossing this threshold is accelerated, but there is still a delay of 2-3 days before any death occurs, providing that the threshold in duration is not exceeded beyond a point at which death occurs immediately by necrosis. Within the range sufficient to cause delayed death in the hippocampus, an increase in severity will produce death of small and medium sized striatal neurons as well as pyramidal neurons in layers 3 and 5 of the cortex9. The time course of the death in these more resistant regions is, counterintuitively, more rapid (6-12 h in striatum) than that in the more British Medical Bulletin 2000,56 (No 2) Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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1. Duration of insult 2. Glucose concentration 3. Temperature

Therapeutic Intervention

Severity of Insult Fig. 1 Schematic illustration depicting the relationship between the severity of the ischaemic insult and the temporal profile of cell death. Factors such as the duration of the insult, glucose concentration and temperature all increase the severity of the insult, whereas therapeutic intervention decreases the severity and consequently buys time and prolongs the delay to death or even prevents the death process. With a very extreme insult, death can occur without a delay and is referred to as necrosis.

sensitive hippocampal CAl region. Interestingly, there is a temporalspatial vulnerability within the CAl region. Pyramidal neurons die in an orderly fashion from mesial to lateral and from septal to temporal9 like a spreading grass fire10. The underlying mechanisms of this vulnerability are as yet unknown, but does not seem to correlate with the vasculature of the hippocampus11.

Focal models There are several varieties of focal models in rat, many of which are variants of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) based on various methods of occlusion, including coated or bare thread, clip, photothrombosis, clot or endothelin (Table 2). The focal model is a closer approximation to human stroke and produces a heterogeneous pathology which includes a necrotic core and salvageable penumbra, as well as normal, undamaged tissue in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. In the necrotic core, the area at the centre of the ischaemic territory, there is pan-necrosis in which both neurones and glia die. In 310 Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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Table 2 Models of focal ischaemia Pimumnt or transient Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) - methods of occlusion clip, ligature, intraluminar thread (coated/uncoated), cauterization (not transient) Use of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) - produces more consistent infarct with MCAO Permanent - embolism and thrombosis models Photochemical thrombosis using Rose Bengal (produces a core and no penumbra, not transient) Carbon microsphere Injection into internal carotid artery Injection of platelet aggregates into common carotid Injection of small blood clots into common carotid (transient if followed by tPA)

the salvageable penumbra, at the edge of the core, neurones are at risk of dying and can be saved if appropriate interventions are attempted. The penumbra is the area said to be 'at risk' and, although this area represents the smallest volume of tissue, it generates the most attention because it may hold the key to the development of effective stroke therapies. The analogy of a fire can be used, where the core represents the forest already burnt, and the penumbra represents the front of the fire where the fire fighters wage their battle to extinguish the blaze. As with the penumbra, although the front of a fire represents a small fringe of the burnt territory, if the front is left unchecked it will consume more forest leaving a core of burnt territory in its wake. Focal models are broadly grouped into two categories - permanent and transient occlusion - although even with permanent occlusion there will be some recovery of flow through collaterals, producing, in effect, a transiently ischaemic territory. The transient occlusion models have all the features of the permanent models, as well as the additional complication of reperfusion injury. Reperfused ischaemic tissue is tissue at risk and best represents stroke in man, particularly after spontaneous or therapeutic thrombolysis. The clip models are transcranial and require removal of part of the skull and dura to expose the middle cerebral artery. This affects the intracranial pressure and may reduce the oedema that an intact skull would otherwise cause. There are also extended periods of anaesthesia required in this model. The intraluminal models are less invasive, but experimenters need to visualize the position of the filament either in situ postmortem or by staining of endothelium after transient occlusions. Recently, MRI has been used to visualize occlusion during the insult12, but modifications to the surgery are required because of the restrictions associated with working in a powerful magnet. Clots have been gaining in popularity in focal models because it is thought that they even more closely mimic stroke in man. Photothrombosis, British Medical Bulletin 2000,56 (No 2) Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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Fig. 2 Photomicrographs of circle of Willis in SV-129 (A) and C57black/6 (B) mice, showing marked difference in posterior communicating arteries after carbon black ink perfusion. Larger posterior communicating arteries were detected in SV-129 mice than in C57black/6 mice [n = 10 in each group). There were no significant differences in anterior and middle segments of the circle of Willis between the t w o strains. ACA indicates anterior cerebral artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery, PCA, posterior cerebral artery, BA, basilar artery; SCA, superior cerebellar artery; PCOM, posterior communicating artery. Scale bar, 1 mm Reproduced with permission14

autoheterologous clots and in vivo thrombotic clots are used, but the problem of standardizing clots to minimize the variability of the insult is paramount and needs to be solved before meaningful data can be obtained13.

Issues for the next millennium Transgenic mice models

Much attention to models in rats has been recently shifting to mice, despite all of the work which has been carried out in standardizing the rat models and their outcome measures. This is mainly because of the facility with which mouse transgenics can be carried out relative to rats. The standardization and development of ischaemia models has taken a step back and has begun again for mice. Not only are there differences in the patency of the PComA in mice of different strains (Fig. 2)14 as there are in gerbils3, but there are very different vascular territories in the different species of mice used to generate the transgenic mice (Fig. 3)17. The patency of PComA and cortical microperfusion in three strains of mice commonly used for genetic mampulations were measured and compared to that of gerbils and Wistar rats18. The patency of PComA, as 312 Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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Fig. 3 Dorsal view of the cerebral hemisphere of C57black/6 mice (left) and SV-129 mice (right) after microvascular injection with carbon black stained latex. The points of anastomoses between the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) are marked with circles and connected by the line of anastomoses. Note the marked shift of the line of anastomoses to the midline in C57black/6 mice. Reproduced with permission".

measured by diameter relative to the basilar artery, was less than 2 3 % and the baseline cortical microperfusion following bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, was less than 12% m four out of five of the C57BL/6 mice compared to one of five CBA and none of the DBA/2 mice. None of the five gerbils measured had patent PComA in contrast to all five of the Wistar rats used for comparison18. In another study, infarct volume measured in three mouse strains, BDF, CFW and BALB/C, varied significantly from 15 mm 3 in the BDF mice to 70 mm 3 in the BALB/C mice19. This has necessitated valiant efforts by experimenters to demonstrate similar vascular territories and vessel patencies in both parental strains used to generate the transgenic mutant. In addition to looking at angioarchitecture and blood flow, another modality of the insult is hypoxia. One way to address this aspect of experimental ischaemia was to use immunohistochemistry to detect macromolecular adducts of a pentafluorinated derivative of 2-nitroimidazole, EF5, which is reduced by hypoxia and, therefore, directly delineates the hypoxic territory20. If only one wild-type strain differs from the mutant, then it becomes essential to develop and test wild-type litter-mates. Alternatively, mutant mice can be backcrossed with a single parent strain for at least 12 generations to ensure homogeneity of the genetic background21. Other problems have begun to arise as further differences are uncovered between British Medical Bulletin 2000,56 (No 2)

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murine species, such as differences in thermoregulation and vascular responsiveness14 as well as vulnerability to KA excitotoxicity15 (for review see Steward et at16).

Should changes be made to models based on trials? There has been much disappointment resulting from the failure of clinical trials of neuroprotection to replicate the apparent successes of animal models, which has led to questioning of the validity of these models. It should be pointed out, however, that changes in temperature, glucose concentration and blood flow all have striking effects on human stroke (i.e. severe stroke, hyperglycaemia, and hyperthermia all predict poor outcome with thrombolysis)22, and, similarly, all have critical effects on experimental stroke (Fig. 1). Even subtle changes in temperature, and glucose have profound effects on outcome following both human and experimental stroke adding to the validity of the experimental models. For as long as animal models have been in use, there has been debate as to which model was most representative of stroke in man and/or which model could most accurately forecast the success of a potential therapeutic agent in clmical trials23"26. Based on the failure of several recent clinical trials for acute stroke, should animal models be changed to better reflect stroke in man? For example, phase 3 trials for Cerestat were discontinued in December 1997, due to safety and efficacy concerns but a subgroup analysis of patients with a moderate stroke (a score of 17 or less on a modified Rankin stroke scale, 42% of all randomized patients), revealed that 40% achieved a good or better outcome in contrast to 30% of the placebo-treated patients27. Similarly, efficacy was not achieved m the phase 3 Clomethiazole Acute Stroke Study (CLASS), but analysis of a subgroup of patients with total anterior infarct circulatory syndrome (TACS; 17% of randomized patients) revealed that clomethiazole-treated patients demonstrated a 37% relative benefit over placebo-treated patients27. Although these subgroup analyses may simply reflect the effects of chance, the results argue in favour of designing chnical trials to target a specific subgroup of stroke, e.g. TACS, which is well represented by the model in which animal efficacy is observed. The best therapy for TACS may not be equally efficacious m lacunar stroke and a compound which demonstrates efficacy in the MCAO model should not necessarily be expected to work in lacunar stroke. Changes should also be made to the animal models to better reflect stroke in the clinic. In addition to developing animal models which mimic lacunar stroke or other serious types of stroke, changes should be made to the models to reflect the clinical situation. Consideration should be given to the interaction of potential neuroprotective agents with thrombolytic 314 Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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agents, not to mention the effects of thrombolysis alone on neuronal damage and infarct size in animal models of cerebral ischaemia. The effects of tPA alone have been studied in both global and focal models of ischaemia with varying results28"30. There is controversy as to whether tPA is neuroprotective31 or neurotoxic26'32'33 and further study is required before the debate can be resolved. With regard to combination therapy with thrombolytics, it is entirely possible that there will come a time when many of the patients being recruited m trials will be given thrombolytics as a primary course of treatment since about 8 5 % of all strokes are ischaemic rather than haemorrhagic. Thrombolytics should, therefore, be used in animal models together with test agents to test for efficacy in the presence of thrombolytic agents as well as testing for potential interactions with the test compound. The future of stroke treatment may well be some form of polytherapy. Given the multiplicity of mechanisms involved in ischaemic neuronal damage, a patient might require multiple pharmacological interventions to affect lasting protection and these agents may be given together or at various times following the event, e.g. thrombolytics early to restore blood flow, an excitatory amino acid antagonist together with a sodium channel antagonist, followed by a free radical scavenger and finally a trophic factor to promote regeneration. Animal models have already begun such testing (for review see Buchan et a/34). Although an AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX, together with an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, proved worse than with NBQX alone35, both NBQX with tPA36 and MK-801 with tPA37 resulted in better protection compared with treating animals with either NBQX, MK-801 or tPA alone. Further studies are required to identify and eliminate combinations which produce adverse effects {e.g. MK-801 and NBQX35 and dextromethorphan and tirilizad38) and confirm which combinations demonstrate synergistic neuroprotective effects {e.g. tirihzad and magnesium39, citocholine and MK-801 40 , and ehprodil and tPA41).

Conclusions Animal models of cerebral ischaemia mimic at best less than 25% of all strokes. Compounds which prove efficacious in annual models should, therefore, only be expected to improve outcome in a quarter of all strokes. If trials for acute stroke are to succeed, stroke subgroups represented by the animal models should be targeted. For the other subgroups, e.g. lacunar stroke, appropriate animal models need to be developed. Moreover, thrombolysis should be included in animal models because it is likely to be used as a first line treatment for ischaemic stroke and any future therapeutics will need to be compatible with it. With the growing interest in developing murine models of cerebral British Medical Bulletin 2000,56 (No 2) Downloaded from http://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-abstract/56/2/307/303271 by guest on 22 January 2018

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ischaemia, animal models should be refined to better represent clinical stroke. At the same time, those designing clinical trials should focus on targeting stroke of the types best represented by the models currently in use, rather than anticipating a panacea from every compound which has been found to reduce infarct volume by 20% in a rodent. References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Small DL, Buchan AM. NMDA antagonists: Their role in neuroprotection In Green AR, Cross AJ. (eds) Neuroprotectwe Agents and Cerebral Iscbaemia. San Diego, CA Academic Press, 1997; 137-71 MacManus JP, Hill EE, Preston E, Rasquinha I, Walker T, Buchan AM. Differences in DNA fragmentation following transient cerebral or decapitation ischemia in rats. / Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1995; 15: 728-37 Berry K, Wisniewski HM, Svarzbein L, Baez S. On the relationship of brain vasculature to production of neurological deficit and morphological changes following acute unilateral common carotid artery ligation in gerbils. / Neurol Set 1975; 25: 75-92 Nurse S, Corbett D. Direct measurement of brain temperature during and after intraischemic hypothermia correlation with behavioral, physiological, and histological endpoints. / Neurosct 1994; 14. 7726-34 Ginsberg MD, Busto R. Rodent models of cerebral ischemia Stroke 1989; 20 1627-42 Iwasaki H, Ohmachi Y, Kume E, Kneglstein J Strain differences in vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to transient cerebral ischaemia in the rat. Int J Exp Pathol 1995; 76: 171-8 Sauter A, Rudin M Strain-dependent drug effects in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. / Pharm Exp Ther 1995; 274: 1008-13 Oliff HS, Coyle P, Weber E. Rat strain and vendor differences in collateral anastomoses / Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1997, 17: 571-6 Pulsinelh WA, Brierley JB, Plum F. Temporal profile of neuronal damage in a model of transient forebrain ischemia Ann Neurol 1982; 11 491-8 Colbourne F, Li H, Buchan AM, Clemens JA. Continuing postischemic neuronal death in CA1: influence of ischemia duration and cytoprotective doses of NBQX and SNX-111 in rats. Stroke 1999; 30: 662-8 Mannkovic S, Mihsavl)evic M, Puskas L. Microvascular anatomy of the hippocampal formation. Surg Neurol 1992; 37: 339-49 Kohno K, Back T, Hoehn-Berlage M, Hossmann KA A modified rat model of middle cerebral artery thread occlusion under electrophysiological control for magnetic resonance investigations. Magn Reson Imaging 1995; 13: 65-71 Kilic E, Hermann DM, Hossmann KA. A reproducible model of thromboembohc stroke in mice Neuroreport 1998, 9. 2967-70 Fujii M, Hara H, Meng W, Vonsattel JP, Huang Z, Moskowitz MA. Strain-related differences in susceptibility to transient forebrain ischemia in SV-129 and G57black/6 mice. Stroke 1997; 28: 1805-10 Schauwecker PE, Steward O Genetic determinants of susceptibility to excitotoxic cell death implications for gene targeting approaches. Proc Natl Acad Sa USA 1997; 94: 4103-8 Steward O, Schauwecker PE, Guth L et al. Genetic approaches to neurotrauma research. Opportunities and potential pitfalls of munne models Exp Neurol 1999, 157. 19-42 Maeda K, Hata R, Hossmann KA. Differences in the cerebrovascular anatomy of C57black/6 and SV129 mice. Neuroreport 1998; 9: 1317-9 Kitagawa K, Matsumoto M, Yang G et al Cerebral ischemia after bilateral carotid artery occlusion and intraluminal suture occlusion in mice: evaluation of the patency of the posterior communicating artery / Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1998; 18 570-9

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19 Barone FC, Knudsen DJ, Nelson AH, Feuerstein GZ, Willette RN. Mouse strain differences in susceptibility to cerebral ischemia are related to cerebral vascular anatomy. / Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993; 13 683-92 20 MacManus JP, Koch CJ, Jian M, Walker T, Zurakowski B. Decreased brain infarct following focal ischemia in mice lacking the transcription factor E2F1. Neuroreport 1999, 10 1-A 21 Gerlai R. Gene-targeting studies of mammalian behavior: is it the mutation or the background genotype? Trends Neurosa 1996; 19: 177-81 22 Demchuk AM, Morgenstern LB, Krieger DW et al Serum glucose level and diabetes predict tissue plasminogen activator-related intracerebral hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1999, 30: 34-9 23 Hunter AJ, Mackay KB, Rogers DC. To what extent have functional studies of lschaenua in animals been useful in the assessment of potential neuroprotective agents' Trends Pharmacol Set 1998; 19: 59-66 24 Hunter AJ, Green AR, Cross AJ Animal models of acute ischaemic stroke: can they predict clinically successful neuroprotective drugs? Trends Pharmacol Set 1995, 16: 123-8 25 Grotta J. Why do all drugs work in animals but none in stroke patients? 2 Neuroprotective therapy. / Int Med 1996, 237; 89-94 26 del Zoppo GJ. Clinical trials in acute stroke: why have they not been successful? Neurology 1998, 51: S59-61 27 Goldin SM. Recent failures m stroke drug development: Redefining industry strategies. Drug Market Dev 1999; 10 96-102 28 Wang YF, Tsrrka SE, Strickland S, Stieg PE, Soriano SG, Lipton SA. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia in wild-type and tPAdeficient mice. Nat Med 1998, 4 228-31 29 Kihc E, Hermann DM, Hossmann KA. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator reduces infarct size after reversible thread occlusion of middle cerebral artery in mice. Neuroreport 1999; 10: 107-11 30 Klein GM, Li H, Sun P, Buchan AM Tissue plasminogen activator does not increase neuronal damage in rat models of global and focal ischemia. Neurology 1999; 52 1381-4 31 Kim YH, Park JH, Hong SH, Koh JY. Nonproteolytic neuroprotecoon by human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Science 1999, 284: 647-50 32 Tsirka SE. Clinical implications of the involvement of tPA in neuronal cell death. / Mol Med 1997; 75: 341-7 33 Tsirka SE, Gualandns A, Amaral DG, Strickland S. Excitotoxm-induced neuronal degeneration and seizure are mediated by tissue plasminogen activator. Nature 1995, 377. 340-4 34 Sterner T, Hacke W. Combination therapy with neuroprotectants and thrombolytics in acute ischaemic stroke. Eur Neurol 1998; 40: 1-8 35 Buchan AM, Lesiuk H, Barnes KA et al. AMPA antagonists: do they hold more promise for clinical stroke trials than NMDA antagonists? Stroke 1993; 24: 1148-52 36 Overgaard K, Sereghy T, Pedersen H, Boysen G. Neuroprotection with NBQX and thrombolysis with rt-PA in rat embohc stroke. Neurol Res 1993; 15: 344-9 37 Sereghy T, Overgaard K, Boysen G. Neuroprotection by excitatory ammo acid antagonist augments the benefit of thrombolysis in embohc stroke in rats Stroke 1993; 24: 1702—8 38 Schmid-Elsaesser R, Zausinger S, Hungerhuber E, Baethmann A, Reulen HJ Monotherapy with dextromethorphan or tinlizad — but not a combmation of both — improves outcome after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats Exp Brain Res 1998, 122 121-7 39 Schmid-Elsaesser R, Zausinger S, Hungerhuber E, Baethmann A, Reulen HJ. Neuroprotective effects of combination therapy with tirihzad and magnesium in rats subjected to reversible focal cerebral ischemia. Neurosurgery 1999; 44:163-71 40 Onal MZ, Li F, Tathsumak T, Locke KW, Sandage BW, Fisher M Synergistic effects of citicholme and MK-801 in temporary experimental focal ischemia in rats. Stroke 1997, 28 1060-5 41 Lekieffre D, Benavides J, Scatton B, Nowicki JP. Neuroprotection afforded by a combination of ehprodil and a thrombolync agent, rt-PA, in a rat thrombolytic stroke model. Brain Res 1997, 776. 88-95

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Animal models

Animal models Daniel L Small and Alastair M Buchan Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada Animal mode...

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